In model trains
In 1906, the Lionel electric trains became the first model trains to use a third rail to power the locomotive. Lionel track uses a third rail in the center, while the two outer rails are electrically connected together. This solved the problem two-rail model trains have when the track is arranged to loop back on itself, as ordinarily this causes a short-circuit. (Even if the loop was gapped, the locomotive would create a short and stop as it crossed the gaps.) Lionel electric trains also operate on alternating current. The use of alternating current means that a Lionel locomotive cannot be reversed by changing polarity; instead, the locomotive sequences among several states (forward, neutral, backward, for example) each time it is started. Märklin three-rail trains use a short spike of DC voltage to reverse a relay within the locomotive while it is stopped. Märklin's track does not have an actual third rail; instead, a series of short pins provide the current, taken up by a long "shoe" under the engine. This shoe is long enough to always be in contact with several pins. This is known as the stud contact system and has certain advantages when used on outdoor model railwaysystems. The ski collector rubs over the studs and thus inherently self cleans. When both track rails are used for the return in parallel there is much less chance of current interruption due to dirt on the line.
Railway is a complex engineering system that works together with various typical engineering disciplines as stated in Chapter 1. Therefore, railway industry has considered or addressed the introduction of systemsengineering in the railway projects as an interdisciplinary means of the various engineering disciplines to develop the steadfast conceptual design criteria and take a role of a bridge between railwaysystemsengineering and the traditional engineering disciplines 15 . On the other hand, the objective of railway is to perform a defined railway traffic service safely within a scheduled time and limited budget. For the achievement of the railway service objective, railway industry has also addressed the integration of RAMS management into railwaysystemsengineering as a comprehensive engineering management discipline for the achievement of safety and time dependence performance. However, many railway organisations have not implemented the RAMS management successfully because of the lack of systematic approach for systemsengineering. Therefore, it becomes a great significant challenge to integrate RAMS management into railwaysystemsengineering (BS EN 50126-1, 1999).
The focus of this research paper is only a subset of the wider railway system, but it significantly influences, and is influenced by, the railway system. In fact, many of the interactions and relationships that exist within the railway system also exist in the operation and maintenance of railway vehicles. By modelling the relationships throughout the operations and maintenance extended enterprise, it should be possible to recommend changes to that enterprise with the aim of maximising value generation for all stakeholders (both within the extended enterprise and the railway system). These changes will affect the railway system (its structure and/or behaviour) and may drive change in that system towards greater levels of whole-life, whole-system approaches.
are required to design the railway to specific international and national technical and safety performance standards. These standards and codes of practice provide the basis for company ‘Codes of Practice’ which detail the design methodology, application and system installation. Atkins and the University of Birmingham have developed the Multi Train Simulator (MTS) to model both A.C./D.C. railwayelectrification infrastructures. This paper describes the development of A.C. railwayelectrification infrastructure based on multi-conductor model for MTS. The modelling of A.C. railway networks covers all types of A.C. feeding arrangements, including rail return system, classic booster transformer system and autotransformer system. The modelling of multi-conductors in A.C. power network separately instead of lumping together enables more accurate calculations of induced voltage, EMC analysis, and positive & negative energy consumptions and losses calculation, etc.
RailwaySystemsRailwaysystems are a critical component in developing or improving transportation infrastructure. GPO’s area specialized in railwaysystems is active in facilities engineering and technical consulting associated with transportation infrastructure and rolling stock, covering the life cycle of a railway project. Our services cover from the initial feasibility studies, schematic and detailed design, technical consulting, technical assistance, construction management to operations and maintenance of railway equipments and facilities. Therefore, meeting all of the stages present in the definition, implementation and operation of a railway project, as efficiently as possible to our Clients’ needs.
The Company has well-established Quality systems to ensure quality at all stages and Total Quality Work Culture, where participation by everyone reigns supreme. Quality is a watchword across the entire Organisation and has proved to be a corner stone for the Company's sustained growth and success. The Company today has the latest certification for compliance to ISO 9001:2008. The ISO 9001:2008 certification is presently being updated to ISO 9001:2015. Enhancing Customer satisfaction is the prime objective of the Quality Policy of the company. 
Further, it is decided to rename Civil Engineering Training Centre/Washim/SCR appearing under “Other Training Centres” at Sl.No.170 as “Divisional Civil Engineering Training Centre/Purna/Nanded/SCR”. Accordingly, Ministry of Railways have decided to modify the “Manual of Management on Training” (Edition 1998) as per the Correction Slip No.2/2006 and the revised list of training centres (Appendix-I) is enclosed with the correction slip. This supersedes all other lists issued earlier.
Commercial operation of electric railways in Japan dates back to 1895 when a 500- V dc tram system was started in Kyoto. The first electric railway owned by the Japanese Government Railways began op- eration in 1906 between Ochanomizu and Nakano in Tokyo, which used to be- long to Kobu Railways before being pur- chased by the government. The 600-V dc system was later replaced by a 1200- V dc system to prevent voltage drop. In 1922, it was replaced again by a 1500-V dc system when the section between Yokohama and Kozu was electrified. The 1500-V dc system is still used today by all DC electric railways in Japan. The postwar increase in transportation demand in Japan led to the introduction of more powerful electric locomotives around 1950. At that time, it was feared that the 1500-V dc system had reached its limit, and a study was started on rail- way electrification based on commercial- frequency, single-phase alternating current. After a successful demonstration test on the Senzan Line, the first commer- cial operation using an electric locomo- tive started in 1957 on the Senzan and Hokuriku Lines, soon followed by a 20- kV single-phase, alternating-current system using a step up or boosting trans- former (BT) to minimize inductive inter- ference in telecommunication lines. In 1964, the Tokaido Shinkansen began operations using the BT feeding system, marking the first high-speed train opera- tion with a maximum speed of 210 km/h. However, it soon faced maintenance and other technical problems associated with the large collection current requiring com- plex anti-arcing designs. This led to a study of the auto transformer (AT) feeding system, which was introduced on the Yatsushiro-Nishi Kagoshima section of the Kagoshima Line in 1970, and on the Shin Osaka–Okayama section of the Sanyo
Famakin and Fawehinmi (2012) stated that provision of safety plans and policies such as welfare facilities, workers' motivation, enabling working tools and environment, provisions and use of safety wears have positive results on productivity, and increase profit. Unsafe practices common among the workers on construction sites include the failure to adhere to the required safety procedures, and as well take precautions against hazards by wearing personal protective equipment arecommon on project sites (Clark, 2006). Some of the challenges of safety practices are: lack of necessary implementation due to the absence of proper monitoring system, low level of safety awareness and inadequate support from safety managers (Awwad, El Souki and Jabbour 2016). There have been perceived increments in the number of unsafe practices reported on project sites which are unacceptably high considering the numerous regulatory standards and control systems for the safety of workers in the construction industry. Hinze (1997) avows that the construction industry in comparison with other labour-intensive industries, exhibits a disproportionately high rate of disability, injuries, and fatalities.
Metro to this system. The paper goes on to explain how it derived General, Functional and Availability requirements, as well as Degraded Modes and Maintenance requirements. It then explains how the Siemens system meets these requirements and how the functionality is divided between the On-board and Wayside equipment. It also outlines the communications system and Automatic Train Supervision capabilities before detailing the benefits the new system brings to passengers and operators. It is interesting to note that these benefits do not always relate directly to the identified requirements. What this paper does not discuss is what methods were used to ensure that all requirements were met or how the generic products were adapted to the specific application of the Barcelona Metro. Another paper published by Oh. et al in 2013 (Oh, et al., 2013) discusses how Korea has developed its Korean Radio-based Train Control System (KRTCS) as its standard for CBTC. The paper details the system’s functionality from a generic point of view, independent of any specific application. It presents a good high level view of the architecture and how its functionality works, particularly in the interactions between the wayside and on-board systems. It does not go into any details of how the system’s functionality relates to industry needs nor how it can be applied to specific applications.
Engineering and software development by FEV
FEV is an internationally recognized leader in design and deve- lopment of powertrain and vehicle systems. Professor Stefan Pischinger, President and CEO of the FEV Group, maintains the company’s focus towards sustainable and significant contribu- tions to the design and development of advanced gasoline, diesel and hybrid powertrains as well as alternative propulsion systems. FEV has decades of experience in calibration and, in par- ticular, in the application of model-based methodologies. The corresponding tool-set has been incorporated into the TOPEXPERT Suite, FEV’s central platform for calibration tools.
The Meccano Magazine in August 1930 reported on the ‘George Bennie Railplane system of Transport’ (Fig. 8), which made use of cars suspended from an over- head structure 16 feet above the ground and using airscrews as the means of propulsion. Cars weighed 10–12 ton and were to run at 120 miles per hour. A test track was set up near Glasgow but the sys- tem did not enter commercial service . This is one example of many novel railwaysystems that were developed but failed to provide signiﬁcant beneﬁt over conventional arrangements. More successful was the Micheline Railcar developed in France in the 1930s  and also brieﬂy operated in the US and UK. This had pneumatic tyres running on conventional rails but the lower maximum axle load possible with this arrangement proved to be a serious limitation despite the low noise and vibration and better acceleration and braking capability. Pneumatic rubber tyres are still used on some metro systems but usually running on
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a universal company having a major mission to arrange International standards. IEC TS 62257 introduced herein is one of those series. It concerns about rural electrification which is further away from the national main power line. It is very expensive to get a few single users to utilise a grid to meet cost-effective. Therefore the stand-alone electrical systems are taken into account to serve better situations. In these days, rural electrification is played one of the important strategies to maximise comfort to those people in rural area as well as rural economic expansion.
The charge controller controls the charging and discharging of the battery and thus prevents the battery from deep discharging and overcharging. In standalone systems, a charge controller provides protection to the loads from short circuits and over-current faults. Proper and intelligent use of the charge regulator ensures longer life of the system. It also protects the battery from discharging through the photovoltaic panels at night when there is no sunlight. Poor quality charge controllers reduce the energy storage capacity and consequently the service time in terms of electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of the battery . Lead-acid batteries, typical in Bangladeshi SHS installations, are particularly prone to damage by poor charging control. The following tests were performed to assess the performance of the charge controllers (N = 24) from six manufacturers.
In the meantime, the Traffic Manager (TM) is waiting for information from the pertinent Operation Maintenance Department (OMD) in order to start the rescheduling process. As soon as possible, OMD will communicate (by phone) times and possible constraints (i.e. the other binary is blocked too for transferring passengers on a rescue train) to TM. Issuing a contingency traffic plan is a task for TM but it needs fundamental information from some involved actors: OP (Operator) will provide suitable resources and IM (Infrastructure Manager) will identify new paths. This decision making process is often complicate since information systems used by the actors are not integrated, so the information exchange will be carried out several times to find a common feasible solution. Several phone conversations and a lot of time are required and the identified solution is often not the best.
Signalling systems, like most electronic equipment, must have their hardware maintained; when parts are replaced, the software should be updated or not, depending on whether the new electronic device is configured by the factory or must be adapted to the particular specifications of its location and functions. Therefore, it is critical for the network to establish a good management process. Data mining can help, improving the management process and helping to diagnose any discrepancy.
The utility-based model is another option that has been widely used around the world. Utilities generally have more experience, financial resources, and technical capabilities to carry out rural electrification projects. They can realize economies of scale and use their central position to take advantage of financing options, but many of them are also inefficient and lack commitment at the local level. If this model is to be successful, it has to follow a business-oriented approach. Because of their capacities and experience, utilities should have a role to play in the future; however, partnering with private sector and community-based organizations will allow them to avoid the barriers linked with their centralized management structure and size. This type of hybrid, public-private model is probably the most interesting structure, but is also the hardest to define because it can encompass many different approaches. Hybrid business models tend to be very site specific and thus can be quite diverse with changing ownership structures, O&M contracts, and other variables.
IEC 61427: Secondary Cells and Batteries for Photovoltaic Energy Systems (PVES)
General requirements and methods of test
Battery selection for off-grid and mini-grid systems should always be informed by relevant performance testing according to presiding international standards. A broad international standardisation framework governs the safety and consistency requirements for RES off-grid systems. Implemented by the International Electrotechnical Committee (IEC) or International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO), individual quality standards target each system component, including PV panels, wind turbines, charge controllers and inverters.
The second application domain is the integration of the on-board systems of a vehicle fleet into the back office system of an operator and a manufacturer. Typical examples are off-board databases that store disturbance data for all devices of all vehicles of a fleet for the entire life cycle of the fleet. These systems generate work orders and allow for the development of new maintenance strategies based on data analysis. Another typical example is the remote management of on-board services. Installation, removal, or updates of on-board services is very complex and expensive because operators have to schedule train stops to allow maintenance staff to go on-board a train and perform the tasks manually.
In Japan, the proportion of driving wheels is increasing to reduce the mass per axle and ensure an adequate level of adhesion. The purpose is to reduce the effect on the railway track. As a result, individual converter-inverter systems tend to have a smaller output, with the control of four 300-kW motors being a typical configuration. Development trends include environmental considerations such as higher efficiency and making devices smaller and lighter while retaining the same capacity.