suffocating or drowning. Emotional abuse […] is captured by the mental injury inflicted on children through patterns of interaction that indicate the child is worthless, flawed, unloved or unwanted. Sexual abuse has been defined as using superior strength and/or resources to make a child engage in undesired sexual behaviour. Neglect concerns the omission of care, where caregivers fail to provide adequate supervision, physical and emotional nourishment, or medical care” (p.178). More detailed definitions can be found in Working Together to Safeguard Children (HM Government, 2015, pp.92-93), while Chapter 3 of this report provides a more detailed definition of child sexual abuse. Although the nature and extent of impairment following child maltreatment varies, suggesting that some people are more resilient than others (Afifi and MacMillan, 2011), it is recognised that adults who have been exposed to childhood abuse or neglect are at increased risk of behavioural, emotional and social problems (including delinquency, depression, suicide ideation, chronic illnesses and post traumatic stress disorder) (Hildyard and Wolfe, 2002; MacMillan et al., 2007; Radford et al., 2013). From a public health perspective, these health trajectories are particularly concerning given the links between these outcomes and various physical health problems (Widom et al., 2012). Therefore, while research is increasing knowledge of various ways to enhance resilience in these children (Collishaw et al., 2007), there remains a clear case for prevention and early intervention (Radford et al., 2013), not least because intervening post-abuse is increasingly difficult and costly (Kilburn and Karoly, 2008).
3.4 There is a small amount of evidence for the effectiveness of interventions seeking to raise adults’ awareness of child sexual abuse and helping them to recognise and respond to it. One of 2 primary studies focused on the general public, while the other targeted adults with formal caring responsibilities for children (referred to as ‘childcare professionals’). The impact on actual abuse was not measured, but both studies found improved knowledge about child sexual abuse and one (for childcare professionals) found an effect on prevention behaviours (the other one found no effect). Interventions that mobilise adults are arguably an important complement to child-focused
• Implementers of interventions to prevent child abuse and neglect need to have appropriate training and support, particularly if the content lies outside their usual range of expertise and experience (which is not uncommon). • There is need for further intervention development in a range of areas (for
SHARRP Consent 101 and Acquaintance Rape Education programme reported positive effects on sexual violence behavior in a non-rigorous evaluation or positive effects on risk factors or related outcomes in a rigorous evaluation. Coaching Boys into Men and Expect Respect are regarded as having “substantial potential for impacting sexually violent behavior if subjected to rigorous evaluation on those outcomes” (p. 359). This is because they exhibit some of the features associated with positive effects (see ‘Other information’ section below).
Emotional abuse is the persistent emotional maltreatment of a child such as to cause severe and persistent adverse effects on the child's emotional development. It may involve conveying to children that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate, or valued in so far as they meet the needs of another person. It may include not giving the child opportunities to express their views, deliberately silencing them or 'making fun' of what they say or how they communicate. It may feature age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being imposed on children. These may include interactions that are beyond the child's
b) Child Protection - the work that the Ministry of Education and Training undertakes (at local, provincial and national levels) to improve the protection situation in general for children who live in Vanuatu, as guided by the National Child Protection Policy of the Ministry of Justice and Community Services. This includes working holistically, in an integrated way, and in close collaboration and co- ordination with key stakeholders (including children themselves) across different Ministries and sectors (e.g. Health, Justice and Community Services, the Religious community, Kastom, etc.); within a framework of awareness, prevention, early identification and early intervention of child protection concerns, reporting of concerns, and appropriate response and support which puts children’s best interests at the center.
• Schools are expected to assess the risk of children being drawn into terrorism, including support for extremist ideas that are part of terrorist ideology. This means being able to demonstrate both a general understanding of the risks affecting children and young people in the area and a specific understanding of how to identify individual children who may be at risk of radicalisation and what to do to support them. Schools and colleges should have clear procedures in place for protecting children at risk of radicalisation. These procedures may be set out in existing safeguarding policies. It is not necessary for schools and colleges to have distinct policies on implementing the Prevent duty.
The Review was also clear, along with the other reviews established by the Coalition government (Field, 2010; Allen, 2011a, b; Tickett, 2011), that it wished to emphasise the importance of ‘early help’ for ‘preventative services can do more to reduce abuse and neglect than reactive services’, and recommended that the government should place a duty on local authorities and their statutory partners to secure sufficient provision of ‘local early help services for children, young people and families’. In addition the Review made a number of recommendations designed to improve accountability and emphasised the importance of the local authority acting as the lead agency while wanting to strengthen the role of Local Safeguarding Children Boards (LSCBs).
It is important to highlight the fact that children are not only victims, but can also be actors of change in their own right. The National Director of SOS Villages emphasised the need to “ include chil- dren in creating measures and making sure they are safe from harm. ” 15 UNMIL radio has segments that are run by children for children. “ On the radio the children talk about child safety, staying safe in com- munities and families. It raises public awareness. And it teaches children what to do if they are abused. ” 16 The station also hosts monthly sessions by the CDT that explain what sexual exploitation and abuse is, and how it can be reported. Important for certain rural communities especially are the awareness- raising programmes that are delivered in various local Liberian dialects. Finally, education is crucial for prevention of child SEA: “ In schools children learn what abuse is and how to be safe. Education is the most important way to prevent children being harmed. ” 17 Children in urban areas are more aware than their rural counterparts of what is acceptable and appropriate. “ We see with children in the cities that they know what they can do to be safe, and how to say ‘ no ’ . They have more awareness and they have more education. ” 18 Children ’ s clubs in communities enable children to be part of their own protection. “ Children in clubs help younger children, they explain what things are wrong and what to do if someone exploits them. ” 19 Schools with speci ﬁ c curricula aimed at education on SEA are central to those e ﬀ orts. One example is the ECOMOG School, made up of children fathered by ECOMOG soldiers, another example is a school for girls who have been abused or exploited. In those schools we saw posters stating “ It Is Always OK To Say No To Sex ” . 20 In the classroom we observed lessons centred on empowering girls about sex and their bodies. 21
Repeated accidents in childhood may give cause for concern about neglect to provide adequate supervision but the type of maltreatment usually associated with intraoral injuries is physical abuse. The head and neck region is frequently the target of abuse, with injuries occurring in 59-76% of physically abused children.[32-37] Intraoral injuries are far less commonly observed, making up 2-7% of all recorded injuries in children assessed for physical abuse (see Table 2),[32-38] leading many to suggest it is likely that abusive intra-oral injuries often go undetected.[32, 34, 35, 39] Several factors are probably involved: bleeding stops quickly after minor oral soft tissue trauma, injury to the inside of the mouth remains hidden from view of the casual observer and the oral mucosa heals quickly, often without active treatment and usually without obvious scarring. Furthermore, the oral cavity is possibly not always fully explored or the examining doctor may lack training in how to conduct an optimal examination.[5, 40] Standard dental techniques use additional bright
Preconception care is one such preventive measure to get shreyasi praja, it helps in early identification of high risk factor & prevent the adverse effect of that. As there is an increasing incidence of congenital anomalies & prenatal deaths. In such situation Ayurveda can contribute tremendously with the effective preconception care & Antenatal care which monitors the mother regularly makes dream come true .For every woman bearing and bringing up a healthy offspring is a joyful experience .India is one of the 6 th countries that account for 50% of the maternal deaths worldwide. Maternal Mortality Rate is 230 per 100, 00 live births in developing countries. (4)
Sexual exploitation may be organised or opportunistic. It may take place when a student is groomed using technology or is encouraged to think that they are entering into a relationship. It may be linked to gang membership. Boys as well as girls are sexually exploited. Young people are vulnerable to sexual exploitation in many ways and the vigilance of staff is key in identifying possible signs or indicators. The Rochdale Serious Case Review into the sexual exploitation of a group of young people highlighted the importance of FE colleges in identifying and meeting the needs of vulnerable young people who might be at risk of this form of abuse.
This form is designed to assist all agencies in making referrals to the Social Services Department. Referring agencies should complete as much of the information as they are able, as this will assist Social Services to make an appropriate and timely response to the child and family. As part of good practice, and in compliance with the requirements of the Data Protection and Human Rights Acts, the referring agency should normally seek the prior agreement of the child/young person’s family. The exception to this is where it is felt that the child’s welfare would be compromised. If discussion with the child’s parents or seeking their agreement is likely to increase the risk of significant harm then such discussion should not take place, and a telephone referral should be made directly to Social Services on the same day that the concern arises – the referral should then be confirmed in writing by completing this form. For all types of referral, further advice can be sought from the Social Services Department.
Observation 1. This involved a close study of two boys, (Child A and Child B), who were working separately in the creative area, both building and joining 3D materials, engaged in their activity for more than 30 minutes. In both cases, the boys independently selected resources and equipment that they needed and that were appropriate to their task. They were also both able to identify from the different types of scissors available (plier scissors, spring scissors and standard scissors) which were appropriate to their level of development, with Child B changing from standard to plier scissors. Child A tried different shaped and sized boxes, measuring whether they would fit and cutting out pieces from a box to fit a tube in. The only time he interacted with an adult was to ask for help finding the end of the cellotape. Child B proudly told the adult “Look I’ve made a rocket” when he had completed his model.
16 revealed to be associated with the severity of COVID-19 [77, 78, 79]. These data suggest that the IL-6 pathway may play an important role in the overactive inflammatory response in the lungs of COVID-19 patients. Therefore, it could be a potential target for immunotherapy of COVID-19. Based on these clinical evidence, the FDA has given fast track approval to a phase III clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of tocilizumab plus standard of therapy in hospitalized adults with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Another multicenter RCT for the safety and efficacy of tocilizumab in the treatment of COVID-19 is also ongoing in China  . The 7th edition of China NHC guideline on COVID-19 has included tocilizumab as one of treatment options for COVID-19 patients who show severe lung damage and elevated level of IL-6 (table 2) . The recommended dose is 400 mg as the initial dose. Additional dose of 400 mg can be given if clinical improvement does not occur 12 hours after the first dose.
Our Designated Safeguarding Lead is Tim Lissimore and cover is provided in his absence by Tom Coop. They are responsible for child protection issues. Any member of staff concerned about a pupil should tell the Designated Safeguarding Lead (or the member of staff covering this role) immediately. We also have a nominated governor for child protection who is Lynne Smithard. Her deputy is Julian Pearcey. The Designated Safeguarding Lead has a responsibility to:
Suspension should be considered only in a case where there is cause to suspect a child or other children at the school or college is/are at risk of harm or the case is so serious that it might be grounds for dismissal. However, a person should not be suspended automatically: the case manager must consider carefully whether the circumstances warrant suspension from contact with children at the school or college or until the allegation is resolved, and may wish to seek advice from their personnel adviser and the LADO. In cases where the school or college is made aware that the Secretary of State has made an interim prohibition order in respect of an individual at the school or college it will be necessary to immediately suspend that person from teaching pending the findings of the NCTL’s investigation. The case manager should also consider whether the result that would be achieved by immediate suspension could be obtained by alternative arrangements. In many cases an investigation can be resolved quickly and without the need for suspension. If the LADO, police and children’s social care services have no objections to the member of staff continuing to work during the investigation, the case manager should be as inventive as possible to avoid suspension. Based on assessment of risk, the following alternatives should be considered by the case manager before suspending a member of staff:
H iV s a vrus carred n blood and body fluids. It damages the immune system of the person nfected to the extent that the person becomes susceptble to a varety of common and rare dseases. HiV nfecton is called AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) when t becomes fully developed n the body. People wth aiDS contract repeated nfectons wth unusual organsms and cancers that do not normally affect people wth healthy mmune systems. there s no evdence that HiV s spread from chld to chld n chld care, pre-school or school through normal socal contact. HiV s not transmtted through ar or water, the sharng of plates, cups or cutlery, swmmng pools, toilets, kissing, coughing, sneezing or spttng. there s no evdence that HiV can be spread by mosqutoes or other btng nsects, as the vrus des rapdly outsde the human body.
The effect of any form abuse can be traumatic. Sexual abuse is particularly so because it may have remained undetected for a long time. The damaging physical, emotional and psychological effects can last a lifetime. If a child has been abused by someone they know and trust, it can lead to feelings of insecurity and distrust of those around them and in future relationships. Children can feel powerless and helpless because they think they may not be believed or they have been silenced by threats. Children may also feel guilty and ashamed because they have been made to believe that the abuse is their fault.