Learning to Read and Write: Developmentally Appropriate Practices for Young Children (1998), a joint position statement of the International Reading Association (IRA) and NAEYC, echoes Wells (1985) and Bus, van IJzendoorn, and Pellegrini (1995): “The single most important activity for building these understandings and skills essential for reading success appears to be readingaloud to children.”
The first two chapters provide at least a measure of quantification within which to set the scene. The volume opens with the pioneer study by Antonio de Almeida Mendes of the trade in child slaves in the early North Atlantic during the 15th and 16th centuries. While the Portuguese trade in black Africans began as early as the 13th century, by the early 16th century – the first time that complete figures for the trade between Portugal and Africa become available – children and women were making up more than 70 per cent of the slaves that were exported from Arguin to Portugal, in order to satisfy a long-standing demand for women and children, both black and white, in the spheres of domestic and sexual work. Mendes offers some useful price data: adult men and women were traded at the same price; children between the ages of six and seven were worth 40 to 45 per cent of the adult price. He is also the first to suggest reasons why children were consistently the victims of enslavement, offering explanations that have their echoes in all the subsequent chapters. Along with women, children were often an easy target, and frequently became the earliest victims of feuding political factions that expanded under the influence of the Atlantic demand. In addition, slave children, especially the younger ones, tended to adopt their European owners as parents; ‘when educated, converted and acculturated while very young (they) were more easily integrated into Portuguese society than adults’ (p. 32).
This paper introduces the LetsRead Corpus of European Portuguese read speech from 6 to 10 years old children. The motivation for the creation of this corpus stems from the inexistence of databases with recordings of reading tasks of Portuguese children with different performance levels and including all the common readingaloud disfluencies. It is also essential to develop techniques to fulfill the main objective of the LetsRead project: to automatically evaluate the reading performance of children through the analysis of reading tasks. The collected data amounts to 20 hours of speech from 284 children from private and public Portuguese schools, with each child carrying out two tasks: reading sentences and reading a list of pseudowords, both with varying levels of difficulty throughout the school grades. In this paper, the design of the reading tasks presented to children is described, as well as the collection procedure. Manually annotated data is analyzed according to disfluencies and reading performance. The considered word difficulty parameter is also confirmed to be suitable for the pseudoword reading tasks.
To support all forms of development for early childhood, the role of parents is absolutely necessary. Every parent must crave his child to be the best. Because children are the foundation of hope from parents in the future. So that the needs of children in general will always be responded to and fulfilled by their parents both in terms of physical and psychological needs. Everything is done because of the desire of parents to provide the best for their children. The expression of parental love tends to be devoted to their children when their children are still young. Because the figure of early childhood in a family has its own place and its existence requires more special attention than adults. Potentials that children have can be tangible into quality abilities or potential. But not a few of these potentials never appear even lost with hidden potency. This is influenced by the insensitivity of parents in seeing the needs of children to grow and develop.
In the paper condition, the narrative was presented in Verdana font 10pt, left aligned with 1.5 line spacing in black and white and was placed on a reading stand. Viewing distance was 32 cm. The experiment leader recorded reading time and with a stopwatch and wrote down misread words and spoken responses. In the monitor condition, narratives were presented in Verdana font 20pt, left aligned with 1.5 line spacing in black and white on a grey background using a 24 inch monitor. Viewing distance was 65 cm. Eye movements from both eyes were recorded with an infrared eye tracker (Tobii T60XL, Tobii Corporation, Sweden) using a 60 Hz sampling rate. A five point calibration procedure was performed at the beginning of each narrative to determine accurate gaze point data. Each participant was taped on video using an integrated webcam. All measurements were stored on the hard disk and not connected to the internet.
Participants were recruited from 3 community pharmacies: 1 located in rural western North Carolina and 2 in an urban region of western Pennsylvania. Based on the study objectives and earlier observational ﬁ ndings, 21 children participants were eligible if they could speak English, were 7 to 17 years of age, and took medication for a chronic condition, such as asthma, diabetes, depression, or attention de ﬁ cit- ehyperactivity disorder. We purposefully included children with various chronic conditions and ages who might have different capabilities and cognitive development to better understand pediatric day-to-day medication use experiences and communication with pharmacists. Parent interviews were conducted to understand their perspectives of their children's medication use and pharmacist-provided counseling; eligible participants could speak English and picked up medication for a child at the pharmacy. Flyers describing the study were distributed to families picking up medications for children with chronic conditions. Pharmacy staff contacted the research team when eligible families showed interest in study participation. Parents and children provided written informed consents and assents, respectively. The University of Pitts- burgh and University of North Carolina Institutional Review Boards approved this study.
were consistently ( ⬎ 75% of the time) giving books to eligible children at well-child visits (97% vs 74%; P ⫽ .02). There was no statistically signiﬁcant improvement in the frequency of self- reported delivery of anticipatory guid- ance. Providers reported statistically signiﬁcant improvement in their as- sessment of their self-efﬁcacy for 2 clinically important anticipatory- guidance skills: demonstrating read- ing aloud and using a children’s book to assess development (P ⬍ .05). Time barriers to implementing the ROR model were more commonly cited for giving anticipatory guidance than for giving books. Only 20% of the providers noted that it was difﬁcult to remember to give a book with their busy ofﬁce workﬂow. However, 45% felt that they did not have adequate time to give reading-aloud guidance to all families. More than half of the providers (58%) agreed that the changes made in their practice as a result of the QI process helped them remember to give antici- patory guidance. Nearly all (30 of the 31) providers surveyed reported hav- ing viewed part or all of the training DVD. More than half (54%) of them noted that integration of general devel- opmental “milestones” into the con- tent for age-speciﬁc visits was help- ful, and 40% indicated that the video clips of providers modeling ROR were helpful.
lthough readingaloud with children is widely agreed to be beneficial, it is often assumed, both by teachers and young people themselves, that it is something you grow out of as you become an increasingly proficient reader” (Hodges, 2011, p. 19). Mention the term “read-aloud”, where the teacher reads the text to the students, to an educator and many times the association made will be the word “elementary.” While used predominantly in the elementary grades, it is also becoming a technique that secondary teachers are beginning to employ as well. As more research literature becomes available, this technique may become part of the repertoire of many teachers outside of elementary; namely, middle school.
P = .15). Moreover, dyads lost to follow-up were equivalent between intervention and control groups on all baseline measures. Among families in the analytic sample, parents in the intervention group attended a median of 5 (out of 9) workshops, with 97% attending at least 1 workshop; children borrowed a median of 20 books, with 84% borrowing at least 1 book. In Table 2, we show results for parenting outcomes. Differences between intervention and control groups were seen for cognitive stimulation (mean difference StimQ Total = 2.77, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21 to 5.34, P = .03), especially in the context of reading activities (mean difference StimQ READ = 1.84, 95% CI: 0.76 to 2.92, P < .001), and observed interactive reading (mean difference ACIRI = 2.80, 95% CI: 1.40 to 4.19, P < .001). After adjustment, the intervention group also had lower physical punishment scores than the control group (mean difference = −0.33, 95% CI: −0.01 to −0.04, P = .04). After Bonferroni correction, significant differences between intervention and control
aloud, play, and talking resulted in enhanced social-emotional development for children in low- income families. VIP 0-3 (infant through toddler) resulted in sustained impacts on Externalizing Behavior and Attention Problems 1.5 years after program completion. VIP 3-5 (preschool period) resulted in additional, independent impacts, with some evidence of synergy for Attention Problems in which impacts were seen only for children participating in both components. Effect sizes per dose of VIP (up to 0.32) were comparable to many home visiting programs, whereas those for double dose (up to 0.63) were even greater. 32, 33 Notably,
Despite the caveats noted above, it seems likely that in the Pima population excess accumulation of fat begins early. Apart from studies of birth weight, this is the first publication of weight, height, and adiposity in Pima children before the age of 5 years. It would seem from our data that Pima children on average accumulate weight relative to height in a similar fashion to the reference population apart from 2 periods of life: at ages 1 to 6 months (weight- for-length) and 2 years to 11 years (BMI). For the reasons discussed above, it seems likely—at least from age 5 to 11 years—that this represents a true accumulation of adiposity compared with the refer- ence population. It is more difficult to be certain that the increase in weight-for-length observed between 1 and 6 months represents an increase in adiposity.
Apart from listening, the oral stage of language is also constituted by speaking. It is an important area of activity for L2 learners if they will be using the language for interpersonal purposes, whether these are primarily social or instrumental (Saville-Troike, 2006). Additionally, according to Chaney (1998) in Kayi (2006),speaking is defined as a process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbol in a variety of contexts. This speaking ability will help the learner enter the written stage of language, in this case reading. According to Cameron (2001), oral skills in the new language are an important factor in learning to be literate. In addition, she, citing Vygotsky (1978),states that written language is ‗second-order‘ meaning representation and spoken language was used first to represent mental idea and meaning. In addition to that, Pinter (2006) states that oral language proficiency is directly related to the reading ability; because the solid language knowledge helps children make intelligent guesses when they attempt to read.
• Present your learner with the writing frame (Worksheet 7). Work together to fill in the gaps on the invitation, giving your learner as much support as necessary. Your learner can fill in the invitation for his or her own party. Alternatively, the learner can complete the invitation for a party for his or her children.
Given that vision and speech are natural ― or genetically programmed ― cognitive pro- cesses, it could be assumed that something similar happens when an illiterate person listens to somebody read aloud. While the neurological pathways for vision and speech are already formed in every human brain, the pathways for reading are arranged artificially by combining these two. In other words, once a brain has learned how to read, its pathways have been changed. Therefore, the process of a literate person listening to someone read aloud is presumably neurologically different from that of an illiterate, in whose brain the pathways have not been combined. The different pathways that are created when a brain has learned how to read may have significance for human civilizations beyond the skill of reading. According to Stanislaw Dehaene, the development of the reading brain ― which entails the creation of novel pathways ― has allowed us to “arrive at new combinations of ideas and the elaboration of a conscious mental synthesis”. 17 Thus someone without the
The vagueness in defining who is an older worker is reflected in the literature, probably because aging is a multidimensional process that is difficult to measure or capture in a single definition (Cleveland & Lim, 2007). A related problem with distinguishing between age-categories is that there are large individual differences. This appears to be especially true for older workers. The term “differential aging” refers to individual differences increasing with age. Differences within age groups can become bigger than differences between age groups (Boerlijst , Munnichs & Van der Heijden, 1998). There is a common tendency to view older workers as slower, less interested in new training, less flexible, and more likely to become weary than their younger colleagues (Maurer, Barbeite, Weiss & Lippstreu, 2008, p 396). Some negative stereotypes deal with mental decline, physical decline, inability to cope with change, performance and productivity. Because the retirement age in the Netherlands is set at 65 years, people of that age are expected to retire (social pressure) even if they want to remain working. The organization could try to create a culture where working after the age of 65 is encouraged. These prejudices are not always valid. Older workers are ill less often than younger workers, but when they are ill the duration is longer (Silverstein, 2008). Training, practice and experience can enhance performance at older ages and can often result in older workers outperforming younger ones, despite the fact that age-related decline continues at the same rate as they do in workers with less experience and practice (Silverstein, 2008).