MCU chip and needs no memory space to save **fuzzy** rules, and that optimizing factor in the **fuzzy** inference equation can adjust **fuzzy** rules on-line automatically to improve **system** **control** effect, which provides the **system** with an intelligent characteristic. An intelligent **control** method for MPPT of a photovoltaic **system** under variable temperature and insolation conditions which uses a **fuzzy** **logic** controller applied to a DC– DC converter device is proposed in Cheikh Aı¨t et al. (2007) . Results of this **simulation** are compared to those obtained by the perturbation and observation controller. A **fuzzy** **logic** con- trol (FLC) is proposed in Takun et al. (2011) to **control** MPPT for a photovoltaic (**PV**) **system**; this technique uses the **fuzzy** **logic** **control** to specify the size of incremental current in the current command of MPPT. This paper presents a **maximum** **power** **point** tracker (MPPT) using **Fuzzy** **Logic** for a **PV** sys- tem. The work focused on the well known Perturb and Ob- serve (P&O) algorithm and compared to a designed **fuzzy** **logic** controller (FLC). A **simulation** work dealing with MPPT controller, a DC/DC C´uk converter feeding a load is achieved. The results will show the validity of the proposed **Fuzzy** **Logic** MPPT in the **PV** **system**. Most of the performed works in the literature reviews in this **point** is **based** on assumed not actual solar radiation data but this paper is used a real data for solar radiation measured by solar radiation and meteorological sta- tion located at National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Helwan, Cairo, Egypt which is located at latitude 29.87N and longitude 31.30E. The station is over a hill top of about 114 m height above sea level. Example of the daily re- corded measured solar radiation is shown in Fig. 6 .

Show more
Because of the increasing of population growth, demand for electricity also increases rapidly. In fact, most **power** sources obtained today are from fossil fuels that are not renewable and limited. Then, we need renewable energy sources to overcome the crisis in future. Photovoltaic is one of the renewable energy resources in recent years. However, **PV** modules still have low efficiency due to the atmospheric conditions until right now although the earth receives huge energy from the sun. Therefore, a **system** that can **control** and gain **maximum** **power** **point** **tracking** for the solar array is urgently needed [1].

Show more
Antara sumber tenaga yang boleh diperbaharui, tenaga solar yang digunakan dalam sistem fotovolta merupakan pilihan utama dalam kajian sumber tenaga yang boleh diperbaharui. Disebabkan oleh sistem ini tidak perlu penyelenggaraan, mudah digunakan dan bebas pencemaran, permintaannya meningkat dengan pantas bagi kegunaan perumahan dan industri. Walau bagaimanapun, sel fotovolta menunjukkan kecekapan kuasa yang rendah dalam julat 15-30% dan harga pasaran yang masih mahal; faktor-faktor ini adalah kelemahan utamanya. Disebabkan cirinya tak linear, satu teknik kawalan, dikenali sebagai pengesanan titik kuasa maksimum, perlu bagi sistem fotovolta untuk memastikan kuasa keluaran **maximum** sentiasa berada pada titik kuasa maksimum. Umumnya, pengesanan titik kuasa maksimum boleh dibahagikan kepada algoritma konvensional dan pintar buatan. Algoritma konvensional yang paling popular adalah usik dan cerap, dan kealiran tambahan. Kelemahan utama kedua-duanya adalah sentiasa gagal untuk mengesan titik kuasa maksimum dan ayunan tinggi berlaku apabila cahaya matahari (sinaran) sering berubah. Antara algoritma pintar buatan yang digunakan dalam pengesanan titik kuasa maksimum adalah rangkaian neural, kawalan logik kabur dan algoritma genetik. Dalam kerja ini, kawalan logik kabur dipilih kerana ia mudah untuk dilaksanakan dan tidak memerlukan model matematik dalam reka bentuknya.

Show more
26 Read more

In this paper, sliding mode controller **based** MPPT algo- rithm has been introduced for the **maximum** **power** **tracking** of **PV** systems. By combining the ASMC controller and the incremental conductance method, the MPP is successfully achieved even considering rapidly changing atmosphere. Via simulations, the better performance has been obtained compared to CSMC. Furthermore, the ASMC-**based** MPPT **control** method assures better **tracking** performance and high robustness.

Due to the fossil fuel exhaustion and the environmental problems caused by the conventional **power** generation such as gasoline, coal, etc..., renewable energy sources and among them photovoltaic panels and wind-generators are now widely used [1]. Photovoltaic (**PV**) energy is one of the most promising renewable energy it is clean, inexhaustible and free to harvest. However, there are two main drawbacks of **PV** **system**, namely the high installation cost and the low conversion efficiency of **PV** modules [2]. Besides that, **PV** characteristics are non linear and it is very much weather dependent. Fig.1 and Fig.2 show the I-V and P-V characteristics of a typical **PV** module for a series of temperatures and solar irradiance levels [3, 4]. It can be noticed that **PV** output voltage greatly governed by temperature while **PV** output current has approximate linear relationship with solar irradiances. In general, there is a unique **point** on the I-V or P-V curve, called the **Maximum** **Power** **Point** (MPP), at which the entire **PV** **system** (array, converter, etc…) operates with **maximum** efficiency and produces its **maximum** output **power**. However, since the MPP varies with insolation and seasons, it is difficult to maintain MPP operation at all solar insolations without changes in the **system** parameters. To overcome this problem an intermediate DC-DC converter is proposed. The MPP **tracking** is applied to **PV** systems in order to extract **maximum** available **power** © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

Show more
A **maximum** **power** **point** tracker is a high-efficiency DC-DC converter, which functions as an optimal electrical load for photovoltaic cell, most commonly used for a solar panel or array and converts the **power** to a voltage or current level which is more suitable to whatever load the **system** is design to drive. **PV** cells have a single operating **point** where the values of current and voltage result in a **maximum** **power** output for the cell. **Maximum** **power** **point** tracker is basically an electronic **system** that controls the duty circuit of the converter to enable the photovoltaic module operate at **maximum** operating **power** at all condition. The advantages of MPPT regulators are greatest during cloudy or hazy days or cold weather. There are different types of **maximum** **power** **point** **tracking** methods developed over the years and they are listed below as follows (1) Perturb and observe method, (2)Incremental conductance method, (3) Artificial neutral network method, (4) **Fuzzy** **logic** method, (5) Peak **power** **point** method, (6) Open circuit voltage method, and (7) Temperature method etc.

Show more
The algorithm of a battery charge controller determines the effectiveness of battery charging as well as the **PV** array utilization, and ultimately the ability of the **system** to meet the electrical load demands. The most common approaches for charge controllers are the shunt, series, pulse width modulation (PWM) and MPPT charge controllers. The shunt regulator controls the charging of a battery from the **PV** array by short -circuiting the array internal to the controller. The series controller utilizes some type of **control** element connected in series between the array and the battery. While this type of controller is commonly used in small **PV** systems, it is also a practical choice for larger systems due to the current limitations of shunt controllers. The MPPT battery charge controller incorporates a DC-DC converter such that the **PV** array can operate at the **maximum** **power** **point** at the prevailing solar irradiance. The structure of battery charge controllers depends on the type of the controller. In the series and shunt controllers, it simply consists of a switching element, such as a relay that is switched on/off **based** on the value of a predefined set **point**. In a PWM and MPPT **control** lers, the circuits are more sophisticated. In PWM generator circuits, microcontrollers are needed in order to drive the switches of a DC–DC converter while MPPT controller consists of a controller that manages the **maximum** **power** **point** **tracking** process and DC-DC converter [8]. In this paper, a DC-DC SEPIC converter is selected and has been employed for standalone **PV** **system** application. Using this converter, the **PV** **system** is able to execute good MPPT and charging **control** performance.

Show more
14 Read more

also it is known that P&O algorithm can be jumbled during those time intervals characterized by rapidly changing the environmental conditions. This paper it is shown that, to limit the negative effects related to above drawbacks, the P&O MPPT parameters must be modified to the dynamic behavior of specific converter adopted. A theoretical analysis permitting optimal choice of such parameters is carried out. [7]For large **Power** Generation **System**, probability for partially shaded condition to occur is high. Under Partially shaded condition(PSC), the P-V curve of **PV** **system** has multiple peaks, which reduces effectiveness of conventional **maximum** **power** **point** **tracking** methods. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO) **based** MPPT algorithm for **PV** **system** operating under PSC is proposed. Standard version of PSO is modified to meet practical consideration of PGS operating under PSC. Problem formulation, design method and parameter setting method which takes hardware limitation into account are styled and explained in detail. The proposed method claims the advantages such as very easy to implement, **pv** **system** independent and has high **maximum** **power** **point** **tracking** efficiency. To confirm correctness of the proposed method **simulation** results, and experimental results of 500W **PV** **system** will be provided to demonstrate effectiveness of proposed technique.

Show more
67 Read more

In this study, the characteristics of a **PV** module (Kyocera KD210GH) were mathematically modeled and simulated using MATLAB **simulation** tool. Then, the proposed MPPT algorithm and dc-dc boost converter were designed and developed in the same tool. **Simulation** results are presented to validate performance of the algorithm under different irradiation schemes, and to compare with the results obtained from conventional algorithm. Further experimental setup was carried out for comparative evaluation and the MPPT algorithm was implemented to performance verification of the algorithm by using digital signal processor (TMS320F28335).

Show more
15 Read more

ABSTRACT: In **PV** **system** **power** available at the output of solar cell keeps on changing with changing irradiation, temperature and load because solar cell exhibits nonlinear V-I characteristic therefore MPP of solar cell varies. **Maximum** **power** **point** **tracking** therefore plays an important role in optimizing solar energy efficiency. In this paper two intelligent **control** technique – **Fuzzy** **logic** and Artificial Neural Network are use for MPPT of **PV** array. **Fuzzy** **logic** does not need the knowledge of exact model of the **system** and uses heuristic reasoning **based** on experience to deal with this nonlinearity of **PV** arrays. The proposed ANN is trained with **PV** output current, voltage to estimate the duty cycle of dc-dc boost converter and their by track MPP of **PV** arrays. A conventional IC algorithm is compared to these intelligent **control** algorithm on the basis of settling time, efficiency, transient **tracking** time, steady state oscillation, dynamic behaviour. MATLAB/SIMULINK is use to design three phase grid connected **PV** **system** consisting of 100kW **PV** array, DC-DC boost converter, three phase three level diode clamped inverter along with synchronous reference frame **control** strategy connected to utility grid via a three phase coupling transformer.

Show more
10 Read more

Several MPPT techniques have been discussed in this paper. From this, it is clear that it can be very difficult to choose the best; each MPPT method has its own advantages and disadvantages and the choice is highly applica- tion dependent. For example, solar vehicles require fast convergence to the MPP; in this case good options are **fuzzy** **logic** **control**, and neural network. In orbital stations and space satellites, which involve large cost, the performance and reliability of the MPPT are most important. The tracker must be able to continuously track the true MPP in the minimum amount of time and should not require periodic tuning. In this case, the appropriate methods are O & P/Hill-climbing and IC [5]. When using solar panels in residential locations, the objective is to reduce the payback time. To do so, it is necessary to constantly and quickly track the **maximum** **power** **point**. Furthermore, the MPPT should be capable of minimising the ripple around the MPP. Therefore, the two stage IC and optimised P & O methods are suitable.

Show more
15 Read more

The inductor in the boost converter possibly produces the ripples in the input current. This can be minimized with two- phase interleaved boost converter. The interleaved boost converter has its high **power** density and fast dynamic response by operating at 180 o out of phase. This causes the ripple currents to cancel out. The proposed **system** is controlled by the **fuzzy** **logic** controller (FLC) that produces the desired gate pulses for the switches to operate at desired time intervals for the switching sequences.

10 Read more

Abstract- How to design a grid connected photovoltaic **system**, including modeling of photovoltaic cells DC-DC Ćuk design. The **maximum** **power** **point** **tracking** is superior other techniques. **Maximum** **power** **point** **tracking** is implemented in grid-connected photovoltaic **system** **based** on Perturb and Observation (P&O) algorithm. sliding mode controller is best for **maximum** **power** **point** **tracking** **system**. Due to non-linear nature of the **system**, the use of sliding mode method can sustain the stability of the converter in wide range of variations in radiation, load, sliding mode method, only input voltage and capacitive filter current are utilized as a feedback and the design process is completed without the converter model inclusion. The effectiveness of the proposed photovoltaic **system** is evaluated by simulations conducted on MATLAB/SIMULINK.

Show more
consuming. The method in [15] is **based** on IC and sampling is done in the **PV** characteristic curve of the array. But it limits the search area as in [11] and also requires high sampling number. In references [16-21] the MPPT is studied as an optimization problem +using PSO method, simulated annealing method and colony of flashing fire flies method. These methods are successful but the sampling number used is so high. It is known from references [22,23] that boost converters undergo some transients to settle the **PV** array. In [1, 19] a typical PSO method is used which has the low speed. In [18] the PSO method is modified to improve in complexity and speed. In [20] a method **based** on the firefly algorithm is proposed. This method has the better speed and efficiency compared to the PSO method. The main purpose of this paper is to study and compare two **maximum** **power** **point** **tracking** (MPPT) methods in a photovoltaic **simulation** **system**. The methods used are Incremental Conductance method and **Fuzzy** **Logic** Controller.

Show more
10 Read more

A successful MPPT-**PV** **system** design must take into consideration a few requirements. Stability is the most fundamental design requirement of a dynamic **control** **system**. In **PV** **power** systems, the switching mode converters are nonlinear systems and the output characteristics of solar array are also nonlinear. Therefore, stability is a critical factor to evaluate a **PV** MPPT **control** systems dealing with non-linearity. Besides this, in MPPT **control** systems, a good dynamic response is desirable for the fast **tracking** requirement. A good MPPT **control** algorithm needs to respond quickly to rapidly changing atmospheric conditions like temperature and illumination and track the **maximum** **power** points quickly. It is also important to design a MPPT **control** **system** robust to any kind of disturbances. The disturbances can arise from various sources, one of the most common problems is that the **PV** modules manufactured by different technologies

Show more
Today photovoltaic (**PV**) systems are becoming more and more popular with increase of energy demand and there is also a great environmental pollution around the world due to fossils and oxides. Solar energy which is free and abundant in most parts of world has proven to be economical source of energy in many applications [1]. The energy that the earth receives from the sun is so enormous and so lasting that the total energy consumed annually by the entire world is supplied in as short a time as half an hour. The sun is a clean and renewable energy source, which produces neither green house effect gas nor toxic waste through its utilization. It can withstand severe weather conditions, including cloudy weather. The watt peak price is decreased since the seventies, this leads to large scale promising areas. It does not have any moving parts and no materials consumed or emitted. Unfortunately,[3] this **system**

Show more
In this study, FLC has been developed to track the **maximum** **power** **point** of **PV** **system**. **PV** panel, boost converter with FLC connected to a resistive load has been simulated using Matlab/Simulink. **Simulation** results have been com- pared to nominal **power** values. The proposed **system** showed its ability to reach MMP under uniform irradiation, sudden changes of irradiation, and partial shading. **Simulation** results have shown that using FLC has great advantages over conventional methods. It is found that **Fuzzy** controller always finds the global MPP. It is found that **fuzzy** **logic** systems are easily implemented with minimal oscillations with fast convergence around the desired MPP.

Show more
14 Read more

The open circuit P-V, P-I, I-V curves we obtained from the **simulation** of the **PV** array designed in MATLAB environment explains in detail its dependence on the irradiation levels and temperatures. The entire energy conversion **system** has been designed in MATLB-SIMULINK environment. The various values of the voltage and current obtained have been plotted in the open circuit I-V curves of the **PV** array at insolation levels of 100 mW/m2 and 80 mW/m2. Then the sliding-mode observer for the estimation of solar array current in the **PV** **system** has been proposed. The sliding-mode observer is constructed from the state equation of the **system**, and the convergence of the error **system** is proved using equivalent **control** concept. A switched **system** model was introduced to design **maximum** peak **power** **tracking** controller for **PV** cells **based** on the sliding mode **control** approach, where

Show more
39 Read more