Palabras claves: ciclo de vida, materiales, reducción, reutilización, reciclaje.
The impact of the disposal and misuse Demolition of public and private works becomes a social, environmental and economic problem for the city. The problem not only generates at its disposal but also, from the time of extraction, turning all their life cycle in an inefficient process leading to energy losses and causing impacts from inception to final disposition. The basis of this research is to describe, quantify and qualify the current state of constructionwaste reaching study Bogotá knowing the current processes in construction, and each of the stages in which produce this type of waste likewise have the knowledge of the shortcomings in internal processes, concerning the management of waste and implementing strategies to improve these processes. emphasis on reducingconstructionwaste through reduction strategies, reuse, recycling is done by facilitating the arrival of the material at strategic plants within the city, Bogota, generating materials for new design proposals or the development of new products and materials that are integrated back into production cycles and economic cycles
C&D materials means any substance, matter or thing which is generated as a result of construction work and abandoned whether or not it has been processed or stockpiled before being abandoned. It is a mixture of surplus materials arising from site clearance, excavation, construction, refurbishment, renovation, demolition and road works. Over 80% of C&D materials are inert and are known as public fill. Public fill includes debris, rubble, earth and concrete which is suitable for land reclamation and can be used as filling material for site formation. When properly sorted, materials such as concrete and asphalt can be recycled for use in construction. The remaining non-inert substances are known as C&D wastes which include bamboo, timber, vegetation, packing waste and other organic materials. In contrast to public fill, non-inert waste is not suitable for land reclamation and subject to recovery of reusable or recyclable items, is disposed of at landfills.
C & Dwaste represents one of the biggest shares of the solid wastes in almost all countries; it is also a con- sumer of a tremendous amount of natural resource and energy as well as emitter of lots of greenhouse gases which make it hence imperative to reduce the rate of C & Dwaste generation and maximize their reuse and re- cycling as an approach towards more sustainable C & Dwaste management. Following the zero waste concepts particularly on construction and demolitionwaste is a great progress towards sustainability as all waste materials are intended to become resources for other activities or processes hence minimizing the negative impacts of land filling. According to the definition adopted by the Zero Waste International Alliance on August 12, 2009, zero waste concept was defined as “designing and managing products and processes to systematically avoid and eliminate the volume and toxicity of waste and materials, conserve and recover all resources, and not burn or bury them” . Zero waste concepts are based on the belief that waste is a potential resource with a good value to benefit from, rather than a problem to deal with. It encourages the shift from one-way or linear resource cycle of use and disposal to a closed or circular flow of material. The zero waste approach is particularly important in industrial and building processes as it promotes the full use of industrial or construction inputs in final products or modifying them to better fit other industries or processes without generating waste. This has an immense benefit of eliminating waste to land, air or water causing a positive impact on sustainability. From the environ- mental point of view, zero wastestrategies help reduce the public health risks and greenhouse gas emissions re- lated to landfills as well as the energy consumed in the production by decreasing the need to extract and refine virgin materials. Nowadays, wastes are managed in an uneconomical manner. Landfills and incinerators which are the traditional end destination for waste require money to be constructed, maintained and operated. Recov- ered resources, following the closed loops concept allow for more jobs and less waste which benefit greatly any country on many levels including the economical level
A literature review was made to evaluate the different C&DWM methods practiced. The following familiar keywords have been selected for this research: waste from construction and demolition, circular economy, life cycle assessment, and 3R principle. We have sparse studies published between the year 2011 to 2017. Abstracts, material and adopted methods in C&DWM in the screening phase were investigated. Building and demolitionwaste is generated during the renovation of structures in the building industry. The amount and composition of these waste products may differ across the region depending on the country's population growth, legislation, regional planning, and building industry. It is understood that the circular economy is the best-adapted model that by intention and design helps retrieve or regenerate the waste products. Circular economy replaces the notion of end-of-life with restoration, eliminates toxic chemicals that influence reuse, use renewable energy in moving bases, and seeks to eliminate waste through superior designs and business models (Ellen MacArthur Foundation, 2016). The circular economy is implemented in the building industry to eliminate and maintain C&Dwaste through recirculation in closed loops (Smol et al., 2015). The adoption of a circular economy is the step towards optimum management of C&Dwaste. Assessment of the life cycle is a technique of visualizing C&Dwaste from the starting zone to the ending zone and categorizing waste based on its strategic stage to analyze waste (Ardavan Yazdanbakhsh 2018). The 3R principle is the fundamental basis of a circular economy. It includes reducing, reusing and recycling. This paper’s main objective is to define the environmental and financial effects of the C&DWM technique application of 3R principles.The Categorization of construction and demolition wastes is shown in table 2.1
Department of Applied Linguistics. Polytechnic University of Madrid (U.P.M), Madrid, Spain.
Construction activity in Europe has increased substantially in the past decade. Likewise, there has also been a commensurate rise in the generation of construction and demolitionwaste (C&DW). This, together with the fact that in many European coun- tries the rate of recycling and reuse of C&DW is still quite low has engendered a serious environmental problem and a moti- vation to develop strategies and management plans to solve it. Due to its composition, there is a significant potential to reuse and/or recycle C&DW, and thereby, contribute to improving the sustainability of construction and development, but practical procedures are not yet widely known or practiced in the construction industry. This article (a) summarizes the different appli- cations that are presently practiced to optimize the recovery and/or application of C&DW for reuse, and (b) proposes various measures and strategies to improve the processing of this waste. The authors suggest that to enhance environmental effective- ness, a conscious and comprehensive C&DW management plan should be implemented in each jurisdiction. More precisely, this study presents a holistic approach towards C&DW management, through which environmental benefits can be achieved through the application of new construction methods that can contribute to sustainable growth.
The need to manage construction and demolitionwaste (CDW) and plastic waste (<30µ) has led to environmentally-friendly actions that promote the reuse and recycling of this type of waste and other forms of waste valorisation. The main priority is to foment sustainable construction work, which has the advantage of avoiding the deposit of large quantities of constructionwaste at landfills and greatly reducing the use of borrow material in construction projects. In this sense, the reuse of CDW materials significantly lessens the impact of construction work on the surrounding environment. The aim of this project work is to verify the technical viability of using constructionwaste and plastic waste (<30µ) as material for the base pavement layers of road surfaces. For this purpose, various tests were conducted on CDW aggregates and bitumen, for the determination of their various properties to check their suitability for use in base course. The proportioning of aggregates was done by trial and error method, and the proportioning of bitumen was done by Marshall Stability test. Strength of the mix with varied proportions of plastic was tested and the optimum plastic content giving maximum strength was found out. The results showed that there is satisfactory strength for the DBM base course constructed using CDW and there is further increase in strength and stability by the addition of plastic in the base course for road construction.
This type of waste material is most usually seen on the road sides, communistic dustbin, occupy the land space, and reduce the use of land and fertility of land . If we say a statement that in most of the world when we travelling a few kilometers by road we saw huge piles of such type of waste and which is very heavily and that wastage is from the industrial or constructions project wastage and the effect of that is traffic congestion. From that type of waste material there is increase in floods, earthquake, and ecology imbalance, effect on the wild life, low space for living, reduction in the land fertility and adverse effect on the environment and peoples. So there is a need of proper planning of waste management and recycling of waste material. In India being developing countries, there is immense need of awareness for waste management. Due to lack of awareness waste management project is not working well. From the last few decades, European countries make excessive growth on the waste management and utilize the constructionwaste and recycling that waste.
Minimizing what you need to buy and planning to use these materials efficiently is the first step to avoid waste. There are many effective strategies to achieve this; all of which also lead to cost savings and increased profitability. Consider the following strategies; many of which you may already be part of your regular practices, but new ideas may occur to you as you move through this list. In all instances, apply the old adage “measure twice cut once” and avoid over-estimating and rounding-up the purchasing requirements. Rounding-up leads to wasted money and wasted materials that you have to deal with at the end of the job.
waste. Proper management of waste by the government organization has not been operative and is a bit poor in the urban center. The amount of uncollected waste is likely to increase day-to-day with increasing urbanization. Among the possible consequences, it is clear that the two clear options for effective solid waste management is either centralized or decentralized. However, to achieve financial solid waste management, so there is a need to systematically analyses through the strengths and weaknesses of the community as well as the municipal corporation founded on which an effective decentralized system can be progressed with the contribution of various stakeholders in Agra city. Sensitization of the community is also vital to achieve the above objective. The public can be altered by awareness campaigns and educational measure. We need to act fast as the city is already a breeding ground of many infectious diseases most of which are caused by inefficient waste management. To avoid any epidemic, to make the city healthy, economic, and environmentally sustainable, there is an urgent need for strategic waste management plan and a strong implementation for the same (Abhimanyu Singh et al., 2014).
Organized by S.V.B.I.T., Gandhinagar. Available Online at www.ijpret.com 89 that crushed concrete rubble, after separation from other C&Dwaste and sieved, can be used as a substitute for natural coarse aggregates in concrete or a sub-base or a base layer in pavements.
In recent years, the reuse and recycling of C&D wastes for obtain from the main components of residential and commercial structures appear to be making continuous progress (Wang, 2013; Hunt and Shields, 2014; Ahankoob, 2015). The benefits of reuse and recycling of waste streams from building construction and demolition include diversion of waste materials from landfill sites and reduced depletion of natural resources. Procedural and economic factors and the relevant standards that underwrite to the success of reuse and recycling are identified. Economic barriers include the need for rapid demolition and clearing of the site, the cost of separating the material to be recycled from contaminating materials and the relative economic advantage of disposal versus recycling. The economic feasibility of a recycling program often depends on whether the added cost (time, effort and resources/equipment) associated with the recycling activities is less than the avoided costs (tipping fees, labour, haulage, maintenance, taxes, and local permanent fees) (Duran et al., 2006; Begum and Siwar, 2006; Meyer, 2007; Srour et al., 2012; Calvo et al., 2014).
The construction industry is a major contributor to excessive natural resource consumption, depletion and degradation; waste generation and accumulation; and environmental impact and degradation. The amount of waste generated by the construction and demolition activity is substantial. Surveys conducted in several countries found that it is as high as 20% to 30% of the total waste entering landfills throughout the world (Bossink & Brouwers, 1996). Moreover, the weight of the generated demolitionwaste is more than twice the weight of the generated constructionwaste. Other studies compared new construction to refurbishment, and concluded that the latter accounts with more than 80% of the total amount of waste produced by the construction activity as a whole. The building activity at historical city centres tends to be an important waste generator because both refurbishment projects and new projects often include demolition (Teixeira & Couto, 2000). Construction site activities in urban areas may cause damage to the environment, interfering with the daily life of local residents, who frequently complain about dust, mud, noise, traffic delay, space reduction, materials or waste deposition in the public space, etc. Regarding this theme, an attempt was made to order each impact by the importance given to each one in scientific publications, being the following the most frequently mentioned (Couto, 2002; Couto & Couto, 2006):
A universal testing machine is used to test tensile and compressive strengths of C&D materials. The universal testing machine utilized is an Instron 600DX. It is designed for high-capacity tension, compression, bending/flexural and shears testing. Plate (1) gives a photograph image of the universal testing machine used in this research work installed at the Structures and concrete laboratory of the Construction Engineering Department at Al-Gashla/Rakah locality.
This project will be implemented so that the waste recycling operations would be managed starting from collecting, transporting, assorting and classifying the waste till the processes of recycling the construction and demolitionwaste or transporting the non-recyclable waste to their designated landfills.
The State of California has adopted the California Green Building Standards Code and the City of Roseville is mandated to enforce these standards. The City’s Construction & Demolition Recycling Ordinance, Chapter 9.17.000, and adoption of the CALGreen standards, assists the city in increasing the level of sustainability and in meeting the State’s regulatory requirements.
Skills and confidence building. As illustrated in Figure 4, it is important to provide more opportunities for career development of responsible persons with local and international exposure to enhance capacities of officials at strategic level. Parallel to this, providing opportunities for self-training through field activities, specifically in disaster waste management which eventually provide real exposure than workshops and seminars is also important. It is proposed to provide incentives to attract and retain staff such as life insurance/pension schemes and sufficient grants for career development, especially for government employees due to high risk in disaster waste management. Specifically, significant difference need to be visible in provided incentives than those provided to general employees. To avoid repetition or duplication of programmes and unethical practices, establish formal procedures to prepare, conduct, monitor and evaluate local and foreign programmes under responsible authorities. Example, implement a national-level project to build technical support, assigning Disaster Management Centre (DMC) with responsibility for training and building awareness aligned with master plans at strategic level. These would eventually align capacity development with economic development of the country. Additionally, introduce monitoring and evaluation methods such as beneficiary evaluations, statistical and non-statistical measures and progress reports. Sharing and disseminating knowledge among respective parties can enhance personal interests on interactive working such as collaborative projects. Further, enhancement of soft skills is proposed as an approach to eliminate traditional bureaucratic red tape. Gupta and Sharma (2006) pointed out that good governance and social capital are important elements to ensure equitable recovery processes, as well as to ensure appropriate capacity building for marginalised and highly vulnerable communities. Thus, promote training and development programmes focusing on native and sustainable approaches giving consideration to new aspects such as good governance, livelihood development and resilience emphasising on environmental protection and conservation. Development of an expert knowledge database consisting of experience of experts
•3R as an Economic Industry needs to have a genuine economic foundation on the ground, i.e. costs will be offset by its benefits;
• When will be the tipping point for benefits>costs? •The sky is the limit for C&Dwaste management. The question is “how can we work together to get there?”
It has been observed that a considerable proportion of construction and demolitionwaste material goes unused and ends up at landfill sites, which has recycling and reusability potential. This disposal of potential waste is mainly due to the lack of material management and quantity estimation of the type of waste generated on-site. Insufficient data and inadequate regulatory framework of construction and demolitionwaste pose significant challenges for its efficient utilization such as concern for disposal of waste and impact on environmental which also includes an increase in particulate matter during demolition activities and leaching from contaminated soil due to presence of chemical mix in dumping waste. Construction and demolition wastes are bulky in size and require excessive manpower and dumping area if disposed of at the landfill site. In India concrete is the most commonly found construction and demolitionwaste among all other categories along with sand and silt. It can be easily seen that the use of “Recycled Concrete Aggregate” and recycled product from construction and demolitionwaste not only result in a significant reduction in the extraction of natural resources but also helps to reduce the burden on the landfill site as well as the adverse impact on the environment.
However, United Nations Development Programme Report (2005) highlights poor performance of post-tsunami rehabilitation operations affected by a lack of responsive capacities with local government institutions to address the needs of an event of such magnitude. This was mainly caused by the fact that the strategic and operational level capacities of institutions responsible for public and commercial facilities were not expected to cater for a devastation of this magnitude. As such it has been identified that capacities of relevant institutions in Sri Lanka need to be improved to launch successful post disaster recovery programmes and to face any future challenges similar to the Asian Tsunami (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation, 2005; Asian Disaster Reduction Centre, 2005). In particular, the Joint Report of Government of Sri Lanka and Development Partners (2005)  revealed that the construction industry in Sri Lanka did not possess the adequate number of contractors, equipment, skilled workforce, modern management practices or access to easy finance necessary to maintain the required speed of post tsunami reconstruction work. This is a critical issue that needs to be addressed for the purposes of effective post disaster rehabilitation. There are no readymade solutions and every programme must be appropriately designed for a given post disaster scenario. This concept is very effective for developing countries, since most of them lack resources and suffer from inefficient use of available resources.
4.2 BRICKS - Bricks are the important building material in the construction of residential as well as non -residential buildings. It is also a significant component of the total C&Dwaste on new residential construction sites. Bricks are largely treated as waste when broken or damaged from the brick production line or from construction site due to poor internal handling and excessive cutting. Brick is a maintenance-free component of the structure which is durable during the complete service life of the building. The high durability property of the brick makes it environmental friendly in the sense that after the demolition of the structure, it can be reused repeatedly and the left over volume which is non- reusable can be recycled for other beneficial purposes. During the demolition process itself, bricks obtained are stacked for next use in its original form after the removal of mortar which is chiselled out and make the brick ready for reuse or recycling, if not reusable. Bricks, after the removal of the stuck up mortar remain reusable for restoration or for new homes and projects. Recovered bricks can be used like a fresh lot of bricks without any further processing. These can also be laid on as brick pavers or for landscaping or any other artistic creations. Brick paved streets are aesthetically pleasing and rain water also percolates through the pavement. Also, a brick surface is cooler in hot months. These street advantages make bricks a good choice in driveways. Bricks on edge are also sometimes used as economical pavement solutions in smaller compounds.