All of these factors explain the xeromorphic structure of plants and low specific diversity of these islands (del Hoyo et al., 1992). However, 14 endemic species that are unique to the archipelago and to the Balearic Ibero-Levantine region have been recorded, of which 2 are plants (Lobularia marítima columbretensis and Medicago citrina, which is the largest woody shrub in the archipelago), and 12 are animals, including invertebrates (a Valencian endemic gastropod, 2 mites and 8 insects) and 1 vertebrate, the Columbretes lizard (Podarcis atrata). There are also a large number of colonial seabirds typical of the Valencian and Balearic coastal environments (del Hoyo et al., 1992), including the following nesting species: Audouin’s gull (Larus audouinii), the storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus), Eleonora’s falcon (Falco eleonorae) and Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea), which has a breeding colony on the island with at least 55 couples according to coast guards information. The critically endangered Balearic shearwater (Puffinus mauretanicus) uses these waters as a feeding area (ERENA S.L., 2014). These islands also represent an important resting place for birds migrating between Europe and Africa. Snakes, whose abundance refers to the ancient Roman name of the archipelago (Colubraria), are now extinct.
Abstract: Translocation to island reserves is a common strategy in New Zealand and elsewhere for safeguarding species against introduced predators. When successful, however, the closed nature and relatively small size of many island sanctuaries can result in populations quickly reaching their carryingcapacity, which in itself can present further challenges such as reduced productivity and population growth rates associated with density- dependent effects as well as increased rates of inbreeding. As part of its management strategy, small numbers of the highly endangered takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri) were translocated during the 1980s and 90s from the last remaining natural population on the mainland of New Zealand to four offshore islands where introduced predators had been eradicated. We used logistic regression and generalised linear models to assess trends in population growth and recruitment and to evaluate whether the island metapopulation displays density-dependent effects on productivity. Our results indicate that the island metapopulation appears to have reached its carryingcapacity, as reflected in an increasing ratio of non-breeding to breeding adults, and recent declines in juvenile production. These density-dependent effects are likely to constrain management strategies aimed at maintaining genetic diversity and minimising inbreeding. A recommendation to increase the immigration rate of takahe onto islands via translocations of birds from the source population on the mainland may be ineffective unless surplus birds are removed.
Crete is the largest island of Greece and the fifth largest in the Mediterranean after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus and Corsica. It has an area of 8.162 square miles. Crete is the largest of the Greek islands, a long 260 km stretch with a width varying from 12 km to 60 km in its central part. It lies on the south of the Aegean Sea and its southern coast is on the Libyan Sea. Crete, with a population of 650,000 in year 2005, is one of the 13 regions into which Greece is divided. It forms the largest island in Greece and the second largest (after Cyprus) in the eastern Mediterranean. The island has an elongated shape: it spans 260 km (160 mi) from east to west, is 60 km (37 mi) at its widest point, and narrows to as little as 12 km (7.5 mi) (close to Ierapetra). Crete covers an area of 8,336 km 2
Summary: Predator-free offshore islands play an important role in the conservation of many of New Zealand’s endemic species. Takahe (Porphyrio mantelli) have small populations established on four offshore islands and although hatching success is lower than that of the wild mainland population in Fiordland, juvenile and adult survival is high and populations are growing exponentially. Accurate estimates of home range size and potential carrying capacities are therefore essential for the future management of the population as a whole. The mean home range size of takahe pairs in one study population on Mana Island (217 ha) was 2.8 ± 1.9 ha. The island was assessed for current and maximum available area for takahe and the potential carryingcapacity was estimated at 22 - 53 pairs. Current and maximum available areas were also used to calculate carrying capacities on each of three other islands using two different estimates of mean home range size for Maud Island (7 - 34 pairs) and Kapiti Island (5 - 33 pairs) and one estimate of home range size for Tiritiri Matangi Island (25 pairs). A model of the population growth of takahe on islands predicted that estimated carrying capacities would be reached between 1997 and 2009. The urgency of planning to make use of the considerable potential of island populations of takahe is stressed.
The seabed complexity in the no-take FMR is rather low (Table 4). R1 is dominated by flat rock, and in R2 seagrass and detrital sediment define boundaries with the shallow rocky blocks (Ballesteros and Cebrian 2004). The richness of the target fish assemblage was lower in this area than in the control area during the first two years of monitoring. However, although the protec- tion time reversed this trend and significantly increased fish richness, the habitat type of these sites does not favour the establishment of large populations of large carnivores (e.g. large Serranidae) as in other Mediter- ranean MPAs that have highly complex substrates down to considerable depths (>30 m depth) (Zabala et al. 1997, Reñones et al. 1999, García-Charton et al. 2004). The data on habitat type and rugosity (Table 4) sug- gest that there are probably very few refuges for these large carnivorous fish. Therefore, with low values for this fish guild, the habitat characteristics of the no-take FMR favour large-sized, long-lived Labridae species of the Labrus genera which feed on invertebrates and small fish. The biomass of these species has increased by two orders of magnitude in the no-take area and by a fac-
In Figure 1-a an actual rim axle joint is shown. In order to analyse the joint an experimental model was created and a specimen (Fig. 1-c), which is a load carrying element in the model, was designed. The loading, originating from the contact between the wheel and the cart surface, transfers through the pneumatic tyre to the rim, where a multiaxial stress state occurs. The most significant of which are bending stresses, owing to the relatively small bending stiffness in comparison with the torsional stiffness. Additional local compressive stresses are due to the clamping force also present at the location of the screw-joints.
The selection of sectors for carryingcapacity assess- ment was undertaken as an iterative process involv- ing the Deputy I staff and Indonesian scientists. They commented on draft papers and made proposals and arguments for relevant sectors and indicators. From the point of view of the Indonesian planners, the main priority sectors were water, food and waste. In this paper, we present data water quantity and qual- ity, food security and municipal solid waste because all criteria in Table 3.1 are observed. Furthermore we include land and forest degradation as a sector even though data are centralised and the ministerial staff were not very interested. The reason is that natural forests in upper watershed are important to water quality. Transportation is excluded because important decisions within this field are taken outside the juris- diction of local authorities and the same applies to the remaining sectors. The concept of carryingcapacity could also be used in relation to the mentioned sec- tors but providing data could be more complicated since other ministries have to be involved.
Thermal management is an important design consideration in modern electronic packaging according to a journal written by Tsung-Yu Pan titled “Current Carrying of Copper Conductors in printed Wiring Boards” . The author state that the requirement of the current carryingcapacity of copper conductors on the surface of a printed wiring board due to temperature rise has not been studied thoroughly since the generic handbook data being published. In this journal, the author discuss more about the effect of thermal management of the copper conductors on Printed Wiring Board (PWB) or what they called now is Printed Circuit Board (PCB) having a different dimensions and arrangement. The author also stated that the experiment is used an infrared thermal as experiment basis. Then finite element analysis will be applied to correlate temperature rise versus conductor dimension and spacing, current amount and board dimensions.
Electronic circuits manufacturing is generally manufactured through the use of PCB (Printed Circuit Board). The bare boards are made from glass reinforced plastic with copper tracks in the place of wires. Fundamentally, current carryingcapacity is maximum current that can be continuously carried without causing permanent deterioration of electrical properties of a device or conductor. Damage to a PCB track may finally happen if trace is uncovered to a higher temperature than its limit. Temperature rise is basically important in making a guideline for PCB design. Current carryingcapacity is the maximum quantity of electrical current a conductor or device can carry before sustaining immediate or progressive decrease. Also described as current rating or ampacity, is the root mean square (rms) electric current which a device can constantly carry while residual within its temperature rating .
ABSTRACT. The Curculionoidea of the families Anthribidae, Rhynchitidae, Apionidae, Nanophyidae, Brachyceridae, Curculionidae, Erirhinidae, Raymondionymidae, Dryophthoridae and Scolytidae from the Maltese islands are reviewed. A total of 182 species are included, of which the following 51 species represent new records for this archipelago: Araecerus fasciculatus and Noxius curtirostris in Anthribidae; Protapion interjectum and Taeniapion rufulum in Apionidae; Corimalia centromaculata and C. tamarisci in Nanophyidae; Amaurorhinus bewickianus, A. sp. nr. paganettii, Brachypera fallax, B. lunata, B. zoilus, Ceutorhynchus leprieuri, Charagmus gressorius, Coniatus tamarisci, Coniocleonus pseudobliquus, Conorhynchus brevirostris, Cosmobaris alboseriata, C. scolopacea, Derelomus chamaeropis, Echinodera sp. nr. variegata, Hypera sp. nr. tenuirostris, Hypurus bertrandi, Larinus scolymi, Leptolepurus meridionalis, Limobius mixtus, Lixus brevirostris, L. punctiventris, L. vilis, Naupactus cervinus, Otiorhynchus armatus, O. liguricus, Rhamphus oxyacanthae, Rhinusa antirrhini, R. herbarum, R. moroderi, Sharpia rubida, Sibinia femoralis, Smicronyx albosquamosus, S. brevicornis, S. rufipennis, Stenocarus ruficornis, Styphloderes exsculptus, Trichosirocalus centrimacula, Tychius argentatus, T. bicolor, T. pauperculus and T. pusillus in Curculionidae; Sitophilus zeamais and Sphenophorus parumpunctatus in Dryophthorıdae; Dactylotrypes longicollis and Scolytus ensifer in Scolytidae. Of the above mentioned new records, Araecerus fasciculatus and Naupactus cervinus represent established alien species in Malta whereas the records of Otiorhynchus armatus and O. liguricus are based on material intercepted with plant material arriving from Italy and their local establishment is not confirmed. Limobius mixtus, Brachypera fallax, B. parvithorax, Smicronyx rufipennis and Tychius pauperculus are not present in Italy, and for the last three species
KEY WORDS. Trogidae, Geotrupidae, Hybosoridae, Scarabaeidae, Malta, new records.
The Scarabaeoidea constitutes a diverse group of beetles distributed throughout the World with more than 30,000 described species. Ecological requirements are very varied. Certain groups dig deep burrows in the soil which they stock with organic material like fungi, rooting vegetation, dung and carrion as food for their larvae; others feed on dried carrion; others are specialised in recycling mammalian dung, especially that of the larger herbivores; other species are root feeders as larvae and pollen/nectar feeders as adults (M ARTÍN P IERA & L ÓPEZ -C OLÓN , 2000; K RAJCIK , 2006). According to L AWRENCE & N EWTON (1995) the Superfamily Scarabaeoidea currently accommodates 13 families. This classifi cation will be the one followed in the present work. Of these, only four families (Trogidae, Geotrupidae, Hybosoridae and Scarabaeidae) are represented in the Maltese islands.
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Here an attempt is made to quantify the scope of tourism development in Kumarakom panchayath with a target year is taken as 2011. Such an assessment may help to understand the growth and spatial capacity of panchayath to hold the tourism development within the reasonable limit. Tourism development in this locality mainly concentrated in Kumarakom panchayath. It can be assumed that 80% tourism development will be Kumarakom panchayath. The balance 20% tourism development will be undertaken in adjoining panchayath like Aiyamanam and Arpookara. This distribution is worked out based on the existing situation as well as in proportion to Lake Shore length available in these panchayaths. Therefore, all assessment made to quantify the tourism development worked out for Kumarakom panchayath may be increased by 20% to get the total assessment.
Xianyang, the carryingcapacity of Xi’an changed between the high and low le- vels but was mostly near the medium level. On the whole, the index of infra- structure construction is higher than that of other carryingcapacity. The distri- bution of comprehensive carryingcapacity of ECC in each year is shown in (Figure 6). As can be seen that Xi’an and Yulin had the highest 6-year compre- hensive carryingcapacity among all the investigated cities, except Yulin in 2010. Ankang was at the low level. As shown in (Figure 7), the average resources supply of ECC was highest in Xi’an, and was lowest in Qinba mountain. The av- erage carryingcapacity of environmental quality was highest in Weinan and Yu- lin, and lowest in Yan’an. The average carryingcapacity of socio-economic level was highest in northern and lowest in Weinan. The average carryingcapacity of infrastructure construction performance was highest in Xianyang and lowest in Tongchuan. The comprehensive carryingcapacity was highest in Xi’an and low- est in Ankang. On the whole, ECC was highest in Guanzhong Plain, medium in Loess Plateau of northern Shaanxi Province and lowest in Southern mountain- ous. It can be seen from (Figure 8), resources and environmental quality carry- ing capacity indices were relatively low showing a fluctuating trend. Economic and infrastructure construction carryingcapacity of ECC were relatively high showing an increasing trend. It indicated that resource and environmental pro- tection capacity were relatively fragile in those regions, but the infrastructure and the economy were in a good status.
The contact ratio is an important parameter for successful gear design. The helix angle is considered to be an effective parameter to increase the contact ra- tio of a helical gear. Thus, it is possible to increase the helical gear load carrying How to cite this paper: Bozca, M. (2018)
Taken together, the plasmid carryingcapacity was lower in MDS42, independent of the growth temperature or the plasmid size (Figure 5), whereas gene expression was def- initely higher in MDS42 (Figure 6C), a finding in agree- ment with previous reports [15,18]. Compared to the wild-type genome, the clean genome assigned a higher priority to the gene expression of foreign DNA than to its replication. Such trade-off like phenomena of increased protein production with decreased plasmid carrying cap- acity in the reduced genome could be also detected when using the rich medium, despite of the highly accelerated cell growth (Additional file 1: Figure S6). This finding indicates that removing the redundant genes from a host genome can save energy and resources for their direction toward both host genome expression  and the ex- pression of foreign genes (Figure 6C), but not DNA replication.
carryingcapacity of Ergangdao Island in Tianjin Port. Through the retrospective assessment, the historical de- velopment situation in reclamation domain is shown by single factor and multiple factors assessment. The as- sessment results show that the environmental level is acceptable for marine reclamation. Meanwhile, more re- searches need be done for obtaining the environmental impact level of marine reclamation, such as hydrody- namics, water exchange, ecological loss and sediment etc.
As a peripheral destination, tourism in Akaroa is suffering from the issues related to seasonal over-concentration and the resulting pressures on the natural resources (e.g., drinking water supply), on some attractions (e.g., nature cruises), services (skilled workers) and facilities (parking space, public toilets, and restaurants). In addition to this the cruise tourism in Akaroa, over the past six years has increased rapidly. From just over 1,120 in 2003/2004 to 6,656 in 2008/2009 passenger numbers to Akaroa have increased by 494%. The growth trend of cruise tourism indicates that it is likely to expand in future. Additional pressure from a relatively new phenomenon such as cruise tourism and the increased number of visitors may increase the use of already overstretched services and facilities, in addition to an unavoidable visible interaction between day, overnight and cruise ship visitors. Considering the relative newness of cruise tourism activities, the smallness of Akaroa and its capacity to accommodate the increasing demand, there is a need for a greater understanding of and analyzing the impact of cruise tourism on Akaroa’s TCC.