Top PDF Regional differences in attainment in the early years

Regional differences in attainment in the early years

Regional differences in attainment in the early years

40 achievement of pupils in the early years in the East Midlands has declined markedly, as it has in the North West to a lesser extent. A more stable pattern over time is evident when local areas with similar social, economic and demographic characteristics are grouped together and analysed as specific clusters. For instance, pupils from areas defined as Prosperous England had the highest levels of development 2007, 2011 and 2015. At the other end of the achievement scale, areas with characteristics common to Business and Education Centres were one of the lower performing regions over the same time period. This consistency suggests that the characteristics common to these distinct regions may well underpin their overall levels of attainment. Furthermore, it suggests caution when using GOR to make generalised claims about levels of attainment due the higher level of variability in the background characteristics of the local population.
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Early years foundation stage profile attainment by pupil characteristics, England 2014

Early years foundation stage profile attainment by pupil characteristics, England 2014

The early years foundation stage profile (EYFSP) collection in 2014 required LAs to load the data into the DfE bespoke data collection system; COLLECT by Friday 29 August 2014. Data received by this date has been taken as final and used to inform statistical first releases. No amendments will be accepted after the database is closed and all figures in SFRs are considered final. The department is committed to providing LA and national level analysis of performance as quickly as possible and headline attainment statistics were published on 16 th October 7 weeks after the collection closed. Attainment by pupil characteristics has been published 4 weeks later on 20 th November following matching the EYFSP data to the school census.
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Early years foundation stage profile attainment by pupil characteristics, England 2014

Early years foundation stage profile attainment by pupil characteristics, England 2014

There is also a supporting measure which measures the total number of points achieved across all 17 ELGs and reports the average of every child’s total point score (APS). See section 6. The following sections report where the largest and smallest attainment gaps exist for each of the characteristics in turn, and look at how these have changed compared with the previous year. The attainment gaps compare the percentage of pupils with and without a particular characteristic achieving the measure stated. Commentary focuses on differences in the percentages of pupils achieving a GLD.
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Regional Differences in Overeducation

Regional Differences in Overeducation

women had shorter commuting distance, so they were more spatially constrained than married women whose education matched their jobs. (Büchel & Battu 2003, 1-16.) Hensen and de Vries (2004) researched overeducation and geographic mobility in the Netherlands using a school-leaver survey from the Netherlands. The hypothesis was that more mobile individuals would have lower probability of mismatch between job and education. Several types of mismatch were defined: job below educational level, job outside the field of study, flexible job, and part-time job. They used a subjective measure to identify overeducated individuals. Respondents reported the required level of education for their job, which was then compared to respondent’s educational attainment. The binary logit model, interaction effects and multinomial logit model were the statistical methods used. According to the results geographic mobility reduced probability of education-job mismatch. In general, mobility increased the probability of finding a permanent and full-time job, and reduced the risk of overeducation, especially for highly educated individuals.
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Regional differences in fertility in Thailand

Regional differences in fertility in Thailand

The Longitudinal Study found a strong inverse relationship between years of schooling and the number of children ever born among both rural and urban women. In the rural sample, women who had received education beyond fourth grade had the lowest fertility. Women with 0-4 years of schooling had above average fertility. For the urban sample, the wider range of educational attainment could be investigated, women with ten or more years of education had fewest children and women with either no schooling or with only 1-3 years schooling had the most (Knodel and Prachuabmoh, 1973a). Fertility difference by husband's education showed a similar association to that illustrated by wife's education (Chamrathrithirong and Boonpratuang, 1977).
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Early years provision

Early years provision

However, the effect remains significant at GCSE, A level and possibly during higher education. Indeed, recent evidence found that autumn-born children were 25% more likely to gain a place at Oxford or Cambridge than those born in the summer. 82 The evidence also suggests that a disproportionately high percentage of relatively young children in the school year are referred for special educational needs, and many of them appear to be misdiagnosed. A suggested reason for this is that teachers may have unrealistic expectations of younger pupils, and, as such, may not make sufficient allowances for their level of attainment. 83
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“Geography of talent and regional differences in Spain”

“Geography of talent and regional differences in Spain”

Tentative empirical evidence suggests that the agglomeration of talent contributes to regional development. However, given that talented people are not evenly distributed across regions, this paper seeks to determine how the concentration of talent affects patterns of regional development. Here, we empirically evaluate the effects of the distribution of talent on regional differences by means of a detailed analysis of the 17 Autonomous Communities of Spain between 1996 and 2004. We hypothesise that regions specialising in strategic sectors that are creative and which can be assumed to enjoy rapid growth in productivity will experience faster rates of development and, in turn, that this concentration of talent will have a positive impact on the region’s economic performance. Thus, we believe that this mechanism can explain the marked regional imbalances in Spain. Our findings confirm that regional differences, measured in terms of GDP per capita and by, - industrial and service- oriented production, are influenced by the Communities’ talent bases as determined by, educational attainment and employment in assumed to be strategic for regional development, inasmuch as these sectors provide economic specialization.
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What really works for the early years? : guidance for the Early Years Pupil Deprivation Grant

What really works for the early years? : guidance for the Early Years Pupil Deprivation Grant

The gap in attainment gets bigger as they move through the education system, and the evidence shows that the best time to address this is in the early years. The Early Years Pupil Deprivation Grant (EYPDG) provides a new opportunity for schools and settings to address these inequalities.

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Regional differences in the age structure of Poland s population in the years : a multivariate approach

Regional differences in the age structure of Poland s population in the years : a multivariate approach

The contrasts in the age structures are primar- ily due to the older groups, which means that the voivodships tend to grow increasingly similar in the proportion of children and teenagers (this fig- ure declining in most of them). An interpretation of the population age structures in the years 1999 and 2010 depicted on maps in terms of principal components is not easy because of their diversi- fied, complex, and sometimes bipolar nature. But they, too, seem to indicate that the age structures tend to unify. Unlike in regions distinguished on the basis of the first two principal components in 1999, in 2010 one can hardly see any fundamental differences in the population structure in eastern and western Poland, where the percentages of both, people of university age and those of retiring age are relatively high. There is a greater heterogeneity in this respect in a central belt running across the
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Gender Differences in Earnings and Occupational Attainment in Europe

Gender Differences in Earnings and Occupational Attainment in Europe

However, the full-time rate in year t+1 for women who gave birth in year t is likely to be over-estimated because some of these women would be on maternity or parental leave. Unfortunately, the ECHP does not use maternity/parental leave as a separate labour market activity category, so women may choose between inactivity and work responses. The two-year transitions (t-2, t+2, last birth at t) may show a more realistic picture of women’s activity around childbirth. Figure 4.3 summarises the probabilities of remaining full-time two years after the last birth for women who had worked full-time two years before childbirth. The estimated probabilities are consistently lower than these in the year-on-year analysis in Figure 4.2 but the country variation pattern is similar. The Scandinavian and Mediterranean countries still have the highest rates of staying in full-time work, while the rates are still lowest in Austria, Germany and the Netherlands.
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Obesity and Skill Attainment in Early Childhood

Obesity and Skill Attainment in Early Childhood

ABSTRACT This paper investigates the association between obesity and skill attainment in early childhood (aged 2-4 years). Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study are used to estimate models of developmental functioning in four critical areas (verbal skills, activities of daily living, motor skills, and social skills) as a function of various measures of weight (including body mass index and obesity) controlling for a rich set of child, parent, and family characteristics. The findings indicate that, among boys, obesity is associated with reduced verbal skills, social skills, motor skills, and activities of daily living. Among girls, obesity is associated with reduced verbal skills. Further investigations show that the correlations exist even for those preschool children who spend no time in day care, which implies that it cannot be due solely to discrimination by teachers, classmates, or day care providers.
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Exploring Gender Differences in Literacy and Mathematical Understandings in the Early Years of School: Can Differences Be Explained by Behaviours in the Classroom?

Exploring Gender Differences in Literacy and Mathematical Understandings in the Early Years of School: Can Differences Be Explained by Behaviours in the Classroom?

This is the author-manuscript version of this work - accessed from http://eprints.qut.edu.au Walker, Sue and Berthelsen, Donna C. (2007) Exploring gender differences in literacy and mathematical understandings in the early years of school: Can differences be explained by behaviours in the classroom?. In Proceedings 2007 Longitudinal Study of Australian Children Research Conference, Melbourne.

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The early years

The early years

Only half of the students, however, reported that the level of content met their needs. The medical students at McMaster University have a wide variety of backgrounds and differing levels of previous exposure, training, and experience with early years material. Some have had no clinical or educational exposure to children at all, while others have postgraduate degrees related to child devel- opment. Students also have various levels of interest and varied initial perceptions of the relevance of early devel- opment issues to their future practices. These differences have created challenges in presenting the material to students. Also, the program takes a broad perspective and interdisciplinary approach to the material, with a strong emphasis on preventive strategies and early detec- tion of risks and delays rather than a specific diagnosis- and-treatment approach that students might expect. This might influence the perception that the level of content does not fully meet students’ needs. However, the pro- gram perspective is unique and aims to help future physi- cians see themselves as part of an interdisciplinary team promoting optimal early child development.
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Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Attainment: A Look at Racial Differences

Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Attainment: A Look at Racial Differences

One paper which focuses on the difference in educational attainment by race and ethnicity is by Gang and Zimmerman (2000). However, rather than focusing solely on race within a country, they look at the difference between various immigrant ethnic groups in Germany and how those groups perform when compared to the native population. Their study uses the Gary Becker allocation-of-time model to derive the demand for education for the households by assuming that the potential income of the households is maximized. They use a cross-sectional dataset, measuring individuals who were 17-38 years old in 1984. In their results they find that large differences in educational attainment exist between the various ethnic groups in Germany 3 . Moreover, they found that while German parents had positive relationship on
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Sex Differences in Genetic and Environmental Influences on Educational Attainment and Income

Sex Differences in Genetic and Environmental Influences on Educational Attainment and Income

In many Western countries, women now reach educational levels comparable to men, although their income remains considerably lower. For the past decades, it has become increasingly clear that these measures of socio-economic status are influenced by genetic as well as environmental factors. Less is known about the relationship between education and income, and sex differences. The aim of this study was to explore genetic and environmental factors influencing education and income in a large cohort of young Norwegian twins, with special emphasis on gender differences. National register data on educational level and income were obtained for 7,710 twins (aged 29–41 years). Bivariate Cholesky models were applied to estimate qualitative and quantitative gender differences in genetic and environmental influences, the relative contri- bution of genetic and environmental factors to the correlation between education and income, and genetic correlations within and between sexes and phenotypes. The phenotypic correlation between educational level and income was 0.34 (0.32–0.39) for men and 0.45 (0.43–0.48) for women. An ACE model with both qualitative and quantitative sex differences fitted the data best. The genetic correlation between men and women (r g ) was 0.66 (0.22–1.00) for educational attainment and 0.38 (0.01–0.75) for income, and between the two phenotypes 0.31 (0.08–0.52) for men and 0.72 (0.64–0.85) for women. Our results imply that, in relatively egalitarian societies with state-supported access to higher education and political awareness of gender equality, genetic factors may play an important role in explaining sex differences in the relationship between education and income.
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Regional population and household projections, : Marked regional differences

Regional population and household projections, : Marked regional differences

households is also expected to continue to grow strongly throughout the Netherlands – only in north-east Groningen and Zeeuws-Vlaanderen will growth level off or even turn to decline. Thirdly, although the size of the potential labour force has increased continuously over the last few decades, it is expected to decline significantly in the near future. Decrease in the potential labour force, already a fact in many regions, will spread to almost all regions. Only in a strip that runs from The Hague Agglomeration, through Utrecht, Greater Amsterdam and Flevoland to north Overijssel will the potential labour force continue to grow over the coming 15 years. Fourthly, ageing of the population will accelerate in the coming decades as the post-war baby-boomers enter the over-65 age group. Although the number of people aged 65 and older will increase throughout the Netherlands, the increase will be stronger on the periphery of the country (where the
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Early childbearing, human capital attainment and mortality risk

Early childbearing, human capital attainment and mortality risk

of high school and 22 percentage points less likely to matriculate. Earlier births are associated with greater educational deficits. For example, women who had their first child before the age of 17 are on average 1.26 years behind their peers in contrast to older teen mothers who are about 0.6 years behind other girls. We take advantage of longitudinal data in ACDIS to assess the extent to which pre‐fertility characteristics can explain the negative association between early childbearing and education. In contrast to many other studies, we find no clear evidence of selectivity into teen childbearing in either schooling trajectories or pre‐fertility household characteristics. Enrolment rates among teen mothers only begin to drop in the period immediately preceding the birth and future teen mothers are not behind in their schooling relative to other girls at age 12 or 13. Pre‐fertility household characteristics also do not appear to be predictive of future teen childbearing. The longitudinal data not only allows us to investigate the timing of falling behind but also to examine the factors associating with continuing school after the birth. Younger teen mothers are the most likely to drop‐out of high school. Girls who were further ahead in school for their age prior to the birth are more likely to continue their education. We follow women over an eight year period and document higher mortality risk before the age of 30 for teen mothers. This differential in mortality rates cannot be explained by household characteristics in early adulthood.
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Disruptive Events during the High School Years and Educational Attainment

Disruptive Events during the High School Years and Educational Attainment

Table 2 shows similar results for the outcome variable “Times Late,” but the differences between the various coefficients are not as great. The coefficient for students from stepparent families is 0.247 versus 0.325 for students from single-parent families and 0.464 for students who live in “other” family arrangements (with neither biological parent or independently). The coefficients related to “Times Skipped” are comparable to those for the “Times Late” outcome. Students from stepparent families have a coefficient of 0.289 while the coefficient for students from single-parent families is 0.306 and that for students from “other” family arrangements is 0.486. The consistently positive coefficients across the three response variables indicate that students who do not live with either of their biological parents are the most likely to exhibit the most deviant forms of behavior with respect to missing school, being late for school, and cutting classes. They are followed by students from single-parent families, students from stepparent families and, finally, by students from two-parent families.
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Persistence and Attainment of Beginning Postsecondary Students: After 6 Years

Persistence and Attainment of Beginning Postsecondary Students: After 6 Years

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2004/09 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/09). A by-product of imputation is the reduction or elimination of item-level nonresponse bias. While item-level bias before imputation is measurable, after imputation it is not. As a result, how well an imputation procedure worked in reducing bias cannot be directly evaluated. Instead, the before- and after-imputation item estimates are compared to determine whether the imputation significantly changed the biased estimates, thus suggesting a reduction in bias. 15 As shown in table B-9, there are significant differences between estimates computed before and after imputation of DEPINC for all but private nonprofit less-than-4-year institutions and private for- profit 2-year-or-more institutions, suggesting that imputation has reduced the bias due to item nonresponse.
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The Early Years Study Three Years Later

The Early Years Study Three Years Later

Early Head Start The Early Head Start initiative in the United States is intended to enhance children’s early development and health, strengthen family and community partnerships and support staff working with low income families with pregnant women, infants or toddlers. 11,12 The Early Head Start targeted program began in 1995 and operates in 664 communities, serving 55,000 children. Seventeen of the programs participated in a randomized controlled trial evaluation. Program approaches included centre-based care, home-based care and mixed options. Overall, the investigators found significant differences on a number of the measures. Early Head Start children scored significantly higher than control children on cognitive measures, language development and several aspects of social emotional
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