A variety of studies have looked at the effects of bicycle infrastructure and bicycle safety. At first the conclusions were mixed, with most notably John Forester taking the position that bicycling was safer without infrastructure. Forester argued that cyclists were safer when they act and are treated like vehicle drivers. John Forester argued against separated bike lanes in Palo Alto saying it was safer for cyclists to behave as drivers. As Emily Badger from the Atlantic reports, “Research followed that seemed to reinforce Forester’s idea: Biking in traffic did appear to be safer than many of its alternatives. But the alternatives that researchers had to examine in North America were unpaved routes, sidewalks, off-road and even mountain bike trails. At the time, we had little of the dedicated commuter bike infrastructure many cities are just creating now.” But as more and more studies have been completed the consensus remains: bicycles are safer with bikeway infrastructure. The most notable of these researches is a paper by Harris and others (2009), who conducted a literature review based on 23 different studies. They came to the conclusion that bicycle infrastructure consistently improved safety for cyclists as compared to on-road cycling with traffic. They also concluded that class II and class III bicycle infrastructure were found to reduce injury by half as compared to roads without bicycle infrastructure (Harris, Teschke, Cripton, Winters, & Reynolds, 2009).
The effects of traffic congestion on trafficsafety, however, are less obvious. Rietveld & Shefer (1994) suggest that congestion might have a positive effect on safety by decreasing the number of fatalities as speeds decrease. Although this statement seems logical, when looking at the traffic conditions in more detail the effects of congestion on safety are less apparent. As traffic flow increases and density approaches its critical value, traffic flow is said to be unstable. Under these conditions, any small disturbance may lead to crashes. Once the traffic jam is formed, rear-end crashes may occur at the tail of the queue due to large differences in speed. Furthermore, motorways giving evidence of structural congestion (i.e. there where demand is almost always higher than capacity) cause roadusers to seek alternative routes - often perceived as faster routes - which are almost inevitably roads with a higher accident risk.
The estimated statistical models for the expected number of total and severe pedestrian crashes in census tracts are provided in Table 4. The estimated coefficients for the exposure variables indicate that the expected number of crashes does not increase proportionally with the increase in vehicular or pedestrian trips, and this effect will be discussed in one of the following sections. Pedestrian crashes are expected to increase as pedestrian accessibility increases as a function of the number of accessible destinations and travel time to destinations. The total number of destinations that pedestrians are able to reach within a fifteen-minute walk is associated with a decrease in pedestrian crashes. These two variables have different signs, indicating that the concentration of destinations in such a way that it decreases the length of pedestrian travel time could lead to pedestrian crash reduction. Further analyses of the relationships between the accessibility related measures, exposure, and crashes is required seeking to incorporate utility-based measures and match accessibility indicators with pedestrian exposure. Variables that represent functional classification, conflict points, and intersection traffic control are associated with an increase in pedestrian crashes. Street connectivity is associated with a reduction of pedestrian crashes. The presence of signalized intersections is associated with a higher number of pedestrian crashes, and appears to be the major driver of pedestrian crash occurrence among the variables in the pedestrian crash model. Similar effects of the presence of signalized intersections on pedestrian crashes have been reported in previous research (Ukkusuri et al., 2012; Elvik 2016). The product of DVMT and the number of
Abstract: Land transportation is an integral part of modern day life. It has bridged spatial activities, enhanced commerce and general developments across large areas of society. However, it has also resulted in series of untoward consequences that have negatively affected families as a result of different fatalities. It is obvious that the regulating authorities do not implement the provisions of the law especially as it relates to the periodic certification and recertification of commercial transport drivers and their conductors. It is also obvious that the will to confront security personnel/corporate security vehicles using by the enforcement agencies that grossly violate the provisions of the law is lacking. The law is silent on safety issues such as tire life and conditions, road markings or dressing and geometric design features of the roadways that influence driving. Therefore, the need to institute measures to regulate/control operations, use and behavior on public roads by pedestrians, drivers and other vehicle users became apparent in Nigeria. The 2012 National RoadTraffic Regulation was therefore prepared to guide all public roadusers in relation to their conduct and use of road infrastructure. The complete disregard by the public and enforcement agencies of the regulation has, therefore, necessitated highlighting of some salient safety issues in the regulation which will lead to a better use of our roads and highways when adhered to. These ranges from the registration of vehicles to the processes of the issuance of drivers licenses, parking speed and other personal conducts that could jeopardize the safety of persons and property of potential roadusers.
Lord et al. (2005) (2) investigated relationships between the accident and traffic flow that has been conducted in a traditional way. The traditional way to build a safety model has been mainly focused on the traffic volume in order to forecast future safety performance in entire road way segments even if the volume could be aggregated or disaggregated. However, this is not very clear to identify the traffic flow as a main factor affecting the crash frequency. Besides traffic volume, other traffic characteristics such as V/C ratio and density should affect the accident count over the targeted road segment. With this concern, the authors examined how traffic characteristics have impacts on roadway safety with two sections’ data: urban and rural that has already been used for a previous study. The crashes were divided into three categorizes in terms of number of vehicles involved in a crash. The authors investigated field data before developing statistical models. In the rural sector, the increase of density and V/C showed the decrease of single vehicle crashes. On the contrary, multi-vehicles have an opposite trend. Accident severity increased with V/C but not very related to density. For urban areas, the increase of density increased the total number of crashes. For predicting future safety performance over selected areas, safety models were developed using a negative binomial structure. To evaluate the developed model, traditional methods were not used due to several reasons that the models are not nested and a dispersion parameter is not fixed. Furthermore, the mean is very low in both datasets. The deviance estimation and cumulative residuals were applied to evaluate the model. The resulted models involving other characteristics as covariates yield a better fit than the model with only traffic flow.
One of the pillars of roadsafety strategies, in almost every country in the world, is training and education. Due to the diversity and different extents of evaluation methods, the influence of educational and training programs on trafficsafety is still limited. The aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of the Slovenian educational program “ I still drive, but I cannot walk ” . For this purpose 183 participants, divided into two groups: ones who participated in the program and others who did not, fulfilled the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) in order to identify their most common errors and violations. The results, based on the best model of multi-group moderator effect, indicate that the link between Violations and Accidents is significantly different between those who participated in the program and those who did not. This link is weaker among the respondents who participated in the program compared to others who did not. This may lead to the conclusion that the group of drivers who participated in the program has a “ weaker ” Violations resulting in accidents.
Previously to deploying Quiterian Analytics, users requested their daily analysis to the institution’s engineers, who created PL/SQL (Oracle) sentences that, when being executed, caused delays in the engine’s response timings and in the reports delivering. For this reason, users needed to get equipped with analytical software that could complement their prior BI, already installed and which was being used for daily matters. This new software should be, moreover, intuitive, dynamic, accessible and easy to deploy.
A nation’s development lies in the progress of its transportation infrastructure. Nowadays the population is increasing drastically it normally increases the number of vehicles on roads. VRUs are those roadusers, who have a high casualty rate because on road they do not have any outer protecting layer. Due to this reason the VRU groups are the majority victims of road accidents. Ensuring safety to the VRUs is a greatest challenge to the field of Transportation planning and designing. In order to understand fully the roadsafety problems experienced by VRUs, it is essential to view accidents as the effects of interactions betweenroadusers and their environment. To analyze these interactions, both the specifications of vulnerable roadusers and the characteristics of the traffic environment have to be known. VRUs are especially affected by underreporting of accidents and mis reporting of severity of injury (Olszewski et al., 2015). This work will help to provide us with the unidentified data regarding to the VRUs in Alappuzha roads. It will provide with the data on which group of VRU is contributing towards the road accidents and what all factors lead them to the crash, in what period of time the more VRU crashes are happening, what are parameters to be taken into account to ensure the safety of VRUs on Alappuzha road. Pedestrians,
To ensure safety among the cyclists, some regulations related with cycling have been issued by Swedish authorities including the obligation of bicyclists to use the lights for bicycle during darkness. Swedish RoadTraffic Act and Regulations ordered all vehicles, including bicycles, to have a lamp showing white or yellow light at the front and showing a red light at the back of the vehicles (Trafikförordning, 1998:1276, Chapter 3, Article 73). However, on the implementation of these regulations, there are still a lot of cyclists who do not use lights when cycling at night or even if they use the lights, only the front lights are used. This is, of course dangerous to the safety of the cyclists because other roadusers especially motorized-vehicle drivers are not aware of their presence.
The effect estimates per mechanism (from steps 3 and 4) were combined into an overall low and high estimate for each system, and subsequently applied to the EU-28 road accident data, so that the distribution of the main classifying variable (collision type) weighted the estimate i.e. it was assumed that the ITS under assessment was more effective e.g. on preventing the pedestrian than cyclists accidents. In weighting, the effect estimate which indicated in percent changes was multiplied with the share (%) of relevant accidents. The calculations to obtain the changes in number of accidents were carried out by an calculation tool which was applied from the tool reported by Kulmala (2010) for structuring the accident data and effect estimates. As the final result, the number of prevented roadtraffic fatalities and injuries concerning vulnerable roadusers per system in the EU-28 were calculated for 100% penetration rate (for relevant roadusers, vehicles and infrastructure) by taking into consideration the estimated non-usage of the systems (e.g. due to annoyance). The overall impact in percentages was calculated related to allroad fatalities or injuries.
Roadtrafficsafety refers to methods and measures for reducing the risk of a person using the road network being killed or seriously injured. The users of a road include pedestrians, cyclists, motorists, their passengers, and passengers on-road public transport, mainly buses and trams. Best practice of roadsafety strategies focus upon the prevention of serious injury and death crashes in spite of human fallibility. Safe road design is now about providing a road environment which ensures vehicle speeds will be within the human tolerances for serious injury and death wherever conflict points exist
Here in China, He  acquired the modification coeffi- cient of road capacity under this condition by analyzing the remaining quantity of lanes, width of lane and transverse width under curb parking conditions. Based on several kinds of parking behaviors, Liu  not only constructed the cel- lular automation traffic flow model, but also analyzed the time-space relationship of curb parking. Using the method of life time analysis method, Guo  constructed a model of the relationshipbetween crossing and the volume of non- motorized vehicle specifically focusing on the behavior of non-motorized vehicles occupying motor vehicle lanes with curb parking. He also analyzed the influence of curb parking on the traffic behavior of non-motorized vehicles. For the two kinds of vehicles arriving at a discrete flow and contin- uous flow, Mei  constructed and verified the delay mod- el and the following model, respectively, under the influence of curb parking. Mei  also constructed an effective mod- el showing the impact of curb parking on motor vehicle travelling speed under a mixed traffic condition. Based on the airflow analysis theory of hydromechanics and consider- ing the non-motorized vehicle travelling and compression characteristic, Chen  constructed the traffic wave model to explain non-motorized vehicle compression influenced by curb parking.
According to Stacks and Salwen (2009), a significance of media use that has received considerable attention by Uses and gratification theory scholar is media dependency. Media dependency refers to the propensity to rely heavily on a particular communication medium for the fulfillment of wants or needs. This theory is thus relevant to this study as a significant number of roadusers could possibly depend on Lagos Traffic Radio for information on how to avoid traffic. The Dependency theory on the other hand predicts that one depends on media information to meet certain need and achieve certain goals while Anaeto, Onabajo and Osifeso (2008) observe that “the relationshipbetween the content of the mass media, the nature of society, and the communications behaviour of audiences is called dependency theory and people are dependent on the media for their information needs”. They added that:
Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013 Page 55 21.5 and 19.5 per 1 lakh population respectively. In contrast, the RTFs in high income countries are 10.3 per 1 lakh. More than a third of the RTFs in low and middle income countries are among pedestrians and cyclists. RTFs are highest in the African region at 24.1 per 1 lakh population; in South Asian region, they vary from 1.9 in Maldives to 38.1 in Thailand, compared to 8.7 in high-income countries. In fact, in 87 countries mostly in Africa and South Asia, RTFs increased during 2007-10. Still, less than 35% of low and middle income countries have policies in place to protect the vulnerable roadusers. Only 7% of the world’s population (28 countries covering 449 million people) has comprehensive laws on the five key risk factors (excessive speed, drink-driving, non-use of helmets and seat-belts, and child restraints). If no concerted efforts are made by all stakeholders concerned, RTFs may go up to 1.9 million/annum by 2020, RTAs becoming the fifth leading cause of deaths.
The trees alongside the cycleway between 2400 m and 100 m, on the other hand, seem to have a stronger effect on the longitudinal than on the lateral accuracy. This might be due to the smartphone’s internal position filter. If the cyclist stops at the traffic light near 2400 m, he needs to accelerate within the tree-lined section of the track. In this section, the GPS signal strength is lower than usual and therefore, the position filter puts more weight to its constant velocity model than to the actual GPS updates. Given that the cyclist actually accelerates, this leads to negative longitudinal deviations as observed in the data.
In like fashion, Oyeyemi (2003) views RoadTraffic Accidents as a major cause of death and loss of property in Nigeria, depleting the workforce of the nation and rendering victims and their relatives to suffer severe psychological trauma. He further postulates that property worth Billions of naira belonging to the productive age group is consumed through automobile fire incidents on the roads including Abstract: This research seeks to study the impact of Federal RoadSafety Corps (FRSC) Public Enlightenment and traffic Law enforcement on roadusers in controlling traffic crashes in Maiduguri metropolis from 2013-2015. The methodology used for this study is simple random sampling technique. Data was collected from 150 respondents comprising drivers and passengers and analysed using percentage. The findings from the study reveal that FRSC RS12.2 Borno Sector Command has done well in its performance in the aspect of educating roadusers through various public enlightenment campaigns. It further observes that roadusers’ behaviours cannot be influenced or changed by education alone but by proper enforcement. The study shows that those who were at any point fined by FRSC never found wanting again for the same offence. It also highlights that drivers are uncomfortable whenever they are stopped by FRSC for routine safety checks; they therefore compromise their safety than to wait for the checks.
Through investigating 1570km on 17 roads in the Downs South West Region of Queensland, Australia, a collection of models have indicated that road roughness does effect traffic speed and roadsafety. Each project objective has contributed to the final conclusions describing the effect of road roughness on traffic speed and roadsafety. Roadsafety is of utmost important to alltraffic authorities, and therefore is a key component of this dissertation. From all the models completed, it is evident that increasing road roughness increases the risk of crashes for all types of crash severity. The overall conclusions are similar to both the Australian and International studies and standards which discuss roughness and safety. However, the results presented in this dissertation differ slightly from the few studies which have completed similar models. While the only Australian study, completed in Victoria, depicts an exponential relationship for rural roads, this model shows a linear relationshipbetween crash rate and roughness. This contradicts the Victorian result which shows that there is a substantial increase in crash rate after a particular roughness value has been exceeded. The model also shows a higher increase in accident rate with increasing roughness than the Swedish model in Figure 9, for similar AADT ranges. This suggests that Australian roads are more dangerous than the Swedish roads with the same roughness. This may be due to external contributing factors, such as longer road lengths between towns which may cause more fatigue related crashes and lower quality on rural roads for example narrower seal widths. Therefore, in Queensland the relationshipbetween roughness and crash rate is linear and more severe than the Swedish results.
high intensity of roadtraffic, and the imperfection of the roadtraffic organization (problems of existing infrastructure, poor information support for roadusers, etc.), which lead to many negative phenomena on the road, and, above all, to road injuries and deaths , -. As in any other area of regional and national politics and economy, innovations in the field of roadtrafficsafety are very important , . In general, innovations can be seen as a process of implementations of novelties in a particular activity of an economic entity. Innovations are qualitative changes in the types, forms, and methods of economic activity caused by external causes and internal capabilities. The main purpose, when implementing innovation, is directing them to improve the efficiency of achieving specific goals , , . In the field of roadtrafficsafety, innovations have certain specifics. Despite a large number of studies dealt with the theory of innovations, there is practically no unified theoretical understanding of science-based innovations in the roadtrafficsafety system.
A total of 447 vehicles were involved in the ORR expressway accidents examined. Figure 3 shows the percentage distribution of the types of vehicles involved in these accidents for the study to date. Findings show that the type of vehicles most often involved in accidents on the expressway is trucks (21.47%) and cars (51.67%) these are also the principal roadusers seen on the expressway.
To know and examine the problem of Hopes traffic congestion and its health affects, Consequences of roadtraffic congestion. Identify the ensured safety and convenience to commuters of public transport and pedestrians and offer valid suggestion and recommendations to solve the local traffic congestion.