“OrganizationalSilence Scale” (OSS), which was developed by Kahveci and Demirtaş  was used to determine the level of organizationalsilence after obtaining the necessary permissions. Organizationalsilence scale included eight items. According to exploratory factor analysis, the scale was composed of five factors. These factors were called (1) School Environment, (2) Feeling, (3) Source of Silence, (4) Manager and (5) Isolation. The results of the confirmative factor analysis made to determine the structure of five factors showed that first-level confirmative factor analysis result/df value is 3,07; GFI value is .912; CFI value is .920; and RMSEA value is 0,70. Based on the values obtained, the model may claim to have convenient adaptive values. Item loadings of the scale were observed to vary from .48 to .78. Items of OSS which were prepared based on five-point likert scale were (1) “Strongly Disagree”, (2) “Disagree”, (3) “Somewhat disagree”, (4) “Agree” and (5) “Strongly Agree”. Cronbach Alpha coefficients of the scale were found to be .74 for school environment; .81 for feeling; .80 for source of silence; .79 for manager and .83 for isolation, respectively. The reliability coefficient calculated for the whole scale in general was .89. In this study, which covers 625 primary and secondary school teachers, Cronbach Alpha coefficients were determined as .71 for school environment; .74 for feeling; .75 for source of silence; .82 for manager and .87 for isolation, respectively. The reliability coefficient calculated for the whole scale in general was .90.
interactionaljustice and their managertrust. Kamile, D. (2016) suggested that, organizationaljustice positive correlated with job satisfaction. According to Shrivastav, U. M. (2015) among the four dimensions of justice, only procedural justice and relational justice significantly positively predicted job satisfaction of employees and informational justice was the only dimension that had significantly and positively predicted organizational commitment. After reviewing the relevant literature the researcher observed that there were no studies done on perceived social functioning in relation with interactionaljustice. Therefore there was a need to conduct a study of this kind.
In the study conducted by Fitzgerald , it was stated that individuals who had high perceptions of injustice towards the employing organizations would have more cynical attitudes towards their organizations. In the research conducted by Bernerth et al. , it was determined that a negative correlation existed between the organizational cynicism and distributive justice/interactionaljustice. In the same manner, in another research conducted by Kutanis and Çetinel  in order to reveal if there was a correlation between the employees’ perceptions of injustice towards the organization and organizational cynicism, it was concluded that the academics who had negative perceptions of justice in general exhibited more cynical attitudes. The employees tend to pay more attention to decisions and matters about these dimensions, which have significant effects financially and socio-culturally, and react negatively when they perceive that those decisions and matters are not fair. When the practices in the organization are considered fair, improvement of the employees’ positive attitudes will be possible. However, in a setting, where injustice is perceived, a climate of silence may be created in the organization since fear and anxiety of the employees arise and the opinions and concerns are not expressed easily, . In this context, in case the employees perceive that prejudice and injustice exist at the organizational decisions and managerial activities, they may have negative feelings such as anger and disappointment [28,46].
the levels of trust, distributive justice is not. Interestingly Konovsky (2000) found that in the presence of strong leader member exchanges with the supervisor, employees demonstrated high trust whether perceived distributive justice was high or low. The variable supervisor support had relatively a low mean and standard deviation values (M = 17.9, SD = 3.11) than other predictors showing that majority of the secondary school teachers in this sample were perceiving low support from their superiors. The researchers, therefore, concluded that individuals in this sample did not have satisfactory relationships with their superiors that caused them to be more intolerant of distributive injustice and demonstrating low levels of OCBs.
The important point is that the managers and staff should know how to promote the importance of trust and also to consider their role in creating trust. Managers as supervisors play a major role in satisfying the employees’ needs, provide appropriate mental space and psychological atmosphere of trust. It is not difficult to collect skilled workers, resourceful and efficient, but the maintenance and creation of a favorable environment for activities is more difficult. Since the implementation of new ideas, new approaches and systems improvement in the shadows security, trust and professional respect and human dignity with respect to values and social conventions is systematically possible. As a role of success, creating an atmosphere of trust and loyalty, less staff turnover, effectiveness and efficiency of the organization seems to be important.
As long as managers seek to develop and improve their organization, they should be able to ingrain perceived justice in their employees . Perceived organizationaljustice is an essential requirement for effective employee performance, which plays a significant role in shaping their attitudes and behaviors . The earliest studies on organizationaljustice date back to the 1960s. In early 1990s, a new trend of empirical research on organizationaljustice began, which delineated three components of organizationaljustice including distributive justice, procedural justice and interactionaljustice (Shayan Jahromi, 2010). Distributive Justice refers to the fairness of outcomes that employees receive. This type of organizationaljustice originated from Adams equity theory (1965). It focuses on the employees’ responses to unfair management intervention in distributing facilities and rewards throughout the organization .
The issue of organizationaltrust has been a point of focus with regard to workers behavior, team cooperation and employer-employee relationship success. This study examines using empirical methods the association between organizationaljustice and organizationaltrust in the banking industry in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research design and data was collected from a sample of 257 participants through the random sampling technique. The reliability of the instrument was achieved by the use of the Cronbach Alpha coefficient with all the items scoring above 0.70. The hypotheses were tested using the Spearman Rank Order Correlation with the aid of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. The findings support a significant and positive association between the dimensions of organizationaljustice namely; procedural justice and interactionaljustice; and the criterion variable, organizationaltrust measures, namely; openness and concern for employees. In conclusion the study proposes the usage of organizationaljustice system that recognizes organizational procedures and work relations as tools that enhances openness and cooperation. The study recommends that Deposit Money Banks should provide for procedural justice for all its employees. This is because employees who perceive unfairness in the workplace may exhibit varying degrees of negative behavior and may lack trust for the organization. It is therefore important for employers to provide employees with procedural justice in order reap the positive outcomes of highly committed employees.
Organ  has proposed that distributive justice concerns may influence citizenship according to predictions derived from equity theory [Adams, 1965; Greenberg, 1990b]. If employees perceive unfair compensation, then they may be less likely to perform, produce, and commit to the organization. Organ  suggested that perceived procedural unfairness alters an employee's relationship with the organization from one of social exchange (i.e., diffuse obligations based on reciprocal trust), in which citizenship behaviors are likely to be one of economic exchange (i.e., contractual obligations and precise terms of exchange), to one in which the employee does only what is required. Aquino  has proposed that interactionaljustice is in action when the supervisor gives an accurate performance rating. The justice literature showed that, if the workers perceived that they had received fair treatment in the organization, that perception gives them a feeling of job security [Brett, 1986]. Greenberg  proposed that the employees’ view toward justice is correlated with turnover. Aquino  found that interactionaljustice has an effect on trust in management, organizational commitment, and withdrawal behaviors.
Organization is a social system whose sustainability and survival depends on a strong link between its constituent elements. Perceived injustice has devastating effects on the collective spirit, since it overshadows dedication and motivation of human resources and staff. Injustice and unfair distribution of outcomes and outputs of the organization undermines staff morale and reduces their spirit of endeavor. Therefore, establishing justice is a key of survival and sustainability of the development flow of organization and employees. Thus, a main task of management is maintaining and developing fair practices in managers, and sense of justice in staff. Considering justice, particularly in staff management practices (distribution of rewards, political relations, promotions, and appointment) is important for personnel. In development of fair treatment process, and more important, in shaping sense of justice in employees, it is important to recognize how behavior based on justice influences organizationalbehavior, including organizational commitment, job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, etc. studying justice in the workplace has dramatically increased in recent years. Studies have shown that justice processes play an important role in the organization and how to deal with people may influence their beliefs, feelings and attitudes. Due to the extent of the consequences of justice, examining perceptions of justice in organizations is interesting for many researchers of human resources, organizationalbehavior and organizational / industrial psychology. Organizationaljustice is related to the employee's perspective that whether the organization deal with them with justice or not? The overall organizationaljustice theories and research are detectable in
Organizationaljustice represent administrators' and management' concern for employees And provides a bridge of trust which finally leads to increase and strength in employees' commitment to organization. (Bahari-fard et al, 2011).Fair treatment by the organizations usually leads to higher commitment towards the organization and those who feel injustice it is more likely for them to leave the organization or demonstrate some misconducted behaviors in the organization (Fani et al, 2013). Also the effect of organizationalsilence on organizational commitment is remarkable. Organizationalsilence is a phenomenon that organizations consider it as a threat for themselves and it is due to the fact that organizations struggle to prevent organizationalsilence. (Sayğan, 2011) Vakola and Bouradas (2005) argue that organizationalsilence causes a sense of worthlessness, lack of control and cognitive dissonance which leads to low motivation and low commitment (Vakola and Bouradas, 2005). Researchers have recently considered the variable “ organizationalsilence ” in their researches but organizationaljustice is a variable that have been studied for a long time ; however, on the relationship between organizationalsilence it can be claimed that this is a very important issue that recently has got the consideration of organizations and it is because of the fact that this phenomenon causes a feeling of worthlessness, lack of control and cognitive dissonancement and ultimately leads to lower motivation and commitment (Sharifi and Islamieh, 2013). The research on relationship between organizational commitment and organizationalsilence indicates that there is a negative correlation between these two variables (Nikmaram et al, 2012).
Chen et al. (1998) conceptualized levels of OCB performance as a behavioral predictor of employee turnover and empirically examined the strength of this relationship. Our findings are inconsistent with Chen’s. We found that the highest level of OCB and organizationaljustice perception was in the workers who were working in this hospital for four years maximum. Sahin and Taskaya (2010) found that procedural and distributional justice levels were lower than the levels of other subdomains of justice in health professionals. They also found that organizationaljustice perception was significantly related to educational status, duration of work in this institution, number of night shifts per month, having managerial tasks and the number of patients seen per day. Our findings are consistent with this study. The study of Moorman (1991) showed that the workers perceiving fair practices of managers provide more OCB. According to Ortiz (2006), the consciousness of OCB depends primarily on the organizationaljustice perception. Konovsky and Pugh (1994) conclude that the trust toward managers strengthen the relationship between procedural justice and OCB. The interactionaljustice perception is an important tool to forecast the practices of citizenship behaviors (2005). Our finding suggests that organizationaljustice perception has a meaningful correlation with OCB and this agrees with Cropanzano’s study (2007). Williams and others (2002) determined positive and significant relationship between formal procedural justice, distributive justice and interactionaljustice and OCB intent of workers in various sectors including manufacturing, finance, ICT, banking in a city at the southwest of USA. In another survey, Blakely and others (2005) asserted that there is a positive relationship between organizationaljustice perception and OCB among full time personnel in different organizations. Chiaburu and Lim (2008) found out that there is a positive relationship between procedural justice and OCB among employees in a firm in USA. Chegini (2009) determined high correlation between
Social exchange theory is applicable to trust and can be used by organizations to explain trustbehavior be- tween leaders and their employees or between an organization and its employees. Organizationaltrust can be considered an informal agreement between em- ployees and their organizations or managers . Trust is defined as the belief that a trustee will consider the interest of the trustor even if the trustor is not in a pos- ition to assess or obstruct negative actions by the trustee. Definitions of trust typically touch on the ex- pectation or belief that other people will act predictably and not be entirely in their own interests . There- fore, trust is defined as the belief by a trustor that others will consider the interests of the trustor even in situa- tions where the trustor is incapable of a potentially nega- tive response such as misunderstanding, incorrectly evaluating, or obstructing the situation. Trust is a psy- chological state resulting from the willingness to accept harm due to positive expectations about the intentions or behavior or others . Trust is a positive expectation resulting from roles, relationships, experiences, and interdependence with others . Organizationaltrust is a dimension that includes both horizontal and vertical factors. Horizontal trust is a relationship between peers in similar working environments. Vertical trust is the re- lationship that an individual employee forms with a supervisor, senior managers, or with the overall organization. Horizontal relationshiptrust is the willing- ness of an employee to accept negative consequences of organizational activities. This trustrelationship is based on the expectation that the organization should not be required to monitor its employees constantly . Verti- cal trust also includes systematic trust, which occurs
The Social Exchange Theory states that an organization is the place where exchanges between leaders (directors) and employees take place. There are two dimensions to this exchange: economic and social. Its economic dimension deals with the existence of a definite clear agreement between the two parties (directors and employees). By this agreement, both sides commit to accomplishing a special task to receive benefits from the other side. The social dimension is usually unwritten and unclear and is mostly focused on individual perceptions. It is more of a psychological nature. According to this social agreement, when people feel the other side is treating them justly and morally, they also somehow try to gratify the other side. In the case of employees, this is achieved with enhancement of citizenship behavior as well as an increase in the extra-role performance (Niehoffand Moorman, 1993; quoted by Lavelle, Rupp, and Brockner, 2007).
The objective of this research is to reveal the effects of vocational school teachers’ perceived organizationaltrust on organizationalsilence. For this purpose, at first teachers’ perception on sub-dimensions of organizationalsilence and organizationaltrust, which are respectively “acquiescent silence”, “defensive silence”, “prosocial silence” and “sensibility to employees”, “trust to administrator”, “openness to modernity”, “communication climate”, is tried to be identified. Then, the relationshipamong the sub-dimensions of organizationalsilence and organizationaltrust is determined. The research is conducted in correlational survey model. The research population consists of 293 teachers working in five vocational and technical high schools located in central Uşak province. Since the study is limited to vocational and technical high school teachers and sample size is not so large, no sampling is done and the scale is applied to all teachers. 160 (54.6%) out of 183 (62.4%) returned scales are evaluated after eliminating 23 incorrectly filled scales. During the study two different scales is used to gather data. One of them is “OrganizationalTrust Scale”, developed by Daboval, et al. (1994), adopted to Turkish by Kamer (2001) and adopted to educational institutions by Yılmaz (2005) and, the other one is “OrganizationalSilence Scale”, developed by Dyne, Ang & Botero (2003) and adopted to Turkish by Erdoğan (2011). The findings are revealed that vocational high school teachers’ perception about organizationaltrust is at high level, while their organizationalsilencebehavior is at medium level. Moreover, a significant and two-way relationship between organizationaltrust and organizationalsilence is found.
individuals, organizational structure and time. Some behaviors that are innocent for some can be political for some (Eryilmaz & Gulova, 2017). The political atmosphere within an organization is very important for shaping business attitudes such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, work anxiety, absenteeism and labor turnover (Vigoda-Gadot, Vinarski-Peretz & Ben-Zion, 2003). The higher employees’ perception of organizational politics, the lower their perception of equality, rights and justice will be (Vigoda-Gadot, 2007). When an employee feels that he/she is deprived of some opportunities or that he/she has been treated unfairly for political reasons, a decrease arises in his/her gratefulness towards the organization and then he/she tends to react to the organization. These spontaneous attitudes and reactions can not be directly controlled by organizations. The topic that is most studied about this is organizational commitment (as cited in: Yuksel & Bolat, 2016: 181; Vigoda, 2000).
As a result of testing the first structural regression model with YEM it was determined that organizational identification has positive significant effect on distributive justice, procedural justice and interactionaljustice dimensions of organizationaljustice. In other words, it is possible to state that among the employees who embrace their organizations a perception of fair distribution of gains, fairness of the methods used for determining the gains and fairness of the communication they establish with the individuals who realize distribution of the gains is formed. In brief, organizational identification increases the perception of organizationaljustice. This result is in parallel with some studies present in the literature (De Cremer and Blader, 2006; Blader, 2007). Literature review has shown that the impact of organizationaljustice perception on organizationaljustice was searched for more frequently. Therefore, this study is deemed to contribute to the literature with its different and rarely handled approach.
. The distributive justice demandsallocation rules of equity, equality, and need (Deutsch, 2012). Equity issue of distributive justice examines an input and output ratio, where an individual examines referent others’ inputs to outputs to determine if they are satisfactory. On the other hand, equality issue of distributive justice demands that resources should be distributed equally and need based means outcomes should be allocated in regards to the needs of each individual. So, equity, equality and need issues of distributive justice are be ensured in the organization so that counterproductive work behavior can be avoided. In this study, distributive justice was found to a significant factor that could negatively influence counterproductive work behavior. Therefore, organizations have to ensure distributive justice to reduce counterproductive work behavior. The most recent development of the organizationaljustice construct has been theintroduction of interactionaljustice (Bies&Moag, 1986). Interactionaljustice drawsattention to the social side of justice and the importance of the interpersonal treatment ofemployees when procedures are enacted.It describes the fairness of treatment one receives during the realization of procedures. If individuals get respect from peers in the organizations, they get motivated to work and it lessens the chances of getting involved in counterproductive work behavior. The present study also found that interactionaljustice is negatively correlated with counterproductive work behavior which indicates that organizations have to practice interactionaljustice to avoid counterproductive work behavioramong the employees. Finally the findings of this study suggest that interactionaljustice is the most important organizationaljustice to safeguard against the counterproductive work behavior followed by procedural justice and distributive justice.
Prior to the above condition, Ministry of health has addressed severe issues in order to perform the vision of medical tourism hub and Malacca’s Hospital shows increasingly number of health tourist which mostly from neighbour from Singapore and Indonesia since 2008. Ministry of Health found that country’s healthcare system are facing increasingly two major problems, first shortage of health manpower, particularly doctors and nurses in government sector and second a mal-distribution of the manpower, resulting from the reluctance of some health staff to serve in certain area of the country (Utusan Malaysia, July 2008). According to Borda and Norman (1997) there are many factors that influenced employee to have intention to leave the organization concluded that job satisfaction is widely regarded as the major contributor to intention to quit employees. Besides that organizationaljustice also a factor why they want to leave. For them if employer treated them fairly and this encourages them to stay.
Procedural justice has been define as the fairness of procedure used to make decision with regard to outcomes (Susanna Baldwin 2006). Job satisfaction of employees is highly affected by the procedural justice (Demir, 2016). Procedural justice being used to find employee satisfaction with benefits, raises and pay structure and administration.( Jawahar and Stone, 2011). It is found that Perception of procedural justice were significantly affects the employee turnover intention and organization commitment (Flint, Haley and McNally 2013; Bakhshi ,Kumar and Rani, 2009). Procedural justice is predictor of organizational citizenship behavior. Because once employees perceive higher level of procedural justice they express higher level of organization citizenship behavior. (Jafari and Bidarian, 2012).
Presence of justice in an organization plays a crucial role on employees' well-being and remarkable success of the organization itself. This fair environment may be an important factor in lower levels of stress, which is associated with balancing demands between work and family domains among employees at university. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between distributive, procedural, and interactional dimensions of organizationaljustice and job stress, between work-family conflict and job stress, and whether the perception of organizationaljustice elements do influence work-family conflict. In sum, drawing upon 146 non-academic employees at 5 state universities in Iran, our result indicated that interactionaljustice had the strongest negative relationship with stress at work and work-family conflict. Moreover, the reciprocal correlation was found between job stress and work-family conflict. Hence, in order to decrease level of stress and to better manage the work and family lives, organizations need to promote justice in workplace.