the distinctions of these forms of commitment (affective, continuance and normative occupationalcommitment) and factors associated with each of them in order to focus on whether they want to establish a policy of teachers’ commitment to their occupation. The practitioners should make clear which form of commitmentteachers lack most and which form exists abundantly
Sharan (1968) explained that formal structure, objectives and environment are the parameters on which climate of an organization is based. Menon (1971) investigated that commitment and responsiveness of employees is the outcome of their satisfaction by learning new things and providing different type of work in a supportive organizationalclimate. Lawler et.al (1974) explained that perceived climate share a considerable relationship with performance and satisfaction level of employees. Personal factors such as age of employees, education level, professional training and experience at work place do not affect perception of employees towards climate. When a manager having need for achievement gets an achievement oriented climate his performance will be high. Wiener (1988) was of the opinion that shared values of employees in an organization contribute to organization climate. Uthayasuriyan (2005) found that perception of artisans, supervisors and executives about organizationalclimate was different in respect attitude of worker’s, characteristics of job, value system, structure of management, and performance and reward relationship.
When we perform above and beyond expectations by helping others at work, our efforts aggregate over time, which benefits our organization’s effectiveness and often helps us receive more favourable performance evaluations (Bret L. Simmons 2013). The performance of extra ‐ role, non ‐ obligatory, and unrewarded tasks and activities in teaching is perceived by teachers who perform these tasks to have some influence upon themselves, their students and the whole school (Izhar Oplatka, 2009). It is with this view as to understand the role of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour as presented by the teachers in relation to the organizationalclimate, this study has been undertaken. The following text gives us a clear picture of the same. The present study focuses on Organizational Citizenship Behaviours demonstrated by SecondarySchoolTeachers in relation to their OrganizationalClimate. The authors wanted to understand the correlation of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour and OrganizationalClimate amongst English Medium SecondarySchoolTeachers across various boards. In all, 528 secondaryschoolteachers, both male and female from secondary schools across Greater Mumbai, Thane and Navi Mumbai were selected for the study. The findings reveal that there is no significant relation between the Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) of SecondarySchoolTeachers (SST) and the OrganizationalClimate of their schools.
A Study of OrganizationalCommitment and Academic Achievement of SecondarySchool students has been dealt with in this paper. The sample consisted of 174 secondaryschoolteachers of different High schools in Bangalore city. Research tools used in the study was Teacher OrganizationalCommitment Scale developed by Dr.Sajid Jamal and Dr. AbdualRaheem Quality of Work Life Scale developed by Dr.SantoshDhar and Dr.UpinderDhar. Coefficient of correlation technique was adopted for data analysis. There is positive relationshipbetweenOrganizationalCommitment and work life balance of secondaryschoolteachers.
The stereotyped idea that men were more superior to women in leadership positions (Celikten, 2010) might cause H2, H3 and H8 to be accepted. Gender expectations fostered throughout life experiences might influence the attitudes used to evaluate positive or negative feelings toward school principals. Research was not clear whether teachers experience higher levels of organizationalcommitment was moderated by the principal gender. Likewise, to this study, not all the hypotheses were accepted. Evident was the need for further research to fill in the gaps of how a gendered society influences leadership in education, especially considering the increased presence of women in leadership positions (Eckman, 2004). The result of this present study did not totally congruence with research done by Reynolds (2002) who reported women leaders are not recognized or respected in school systems. The results of Reynolds‟ (2002) study were surprising in a field that was dominated by females. The profession of teaching had been traditionally viewed as “feminine,” and the managing practices of education have been largely “masculine” (Lawson, 2008) was not proven in this study. A profession considered predominately female was largely led by males which characterized by the “good old boys‟ club” as described by Eckman (2004) again is not totally signlificantly proven. As a result, the administrative path in Malaysian school was not often ascended more quickly to male leaders than female leaders.
A sizeable number of researches evince that there is a close association among organizationalcommitment, job satisfaction and work motivation. Pedro (1992) found that the most powerful predictor of organizationalcommitment was teachers’ motivation and females tend to have higher commitment than males. Singh, Husain and. Pathak (1994) reported that that the work motivation was influenced by occupational level and job involvement and work motivation were positively and significantly correlated in the organization. Fresko, Kfir and Nasser (1997) conducted a study which indicated that only job satisfaction could directly predict commitment. Mathew (2003) found that teachers having high work values were more committed to the organization. Kumar and Patnaik (2004) found a moderate correlation betweenorganizationalcommitment and job satisfaction, organizationalcommitment and attitude towards work. Chen (2007) reported that the external rewards and commendations were also effective in stimulating the teachers’ work motivation. Kumar and Giri (2009) observed that the job satisfaction and organizationalcommitment differed significantly based on work experience of employees such that higher the work experience of employees, higher was their job satisfaction and organizationalcommitment. Sharma (2010) reported a positive and significant correlation between job satisfaction and organizationalcommitment. Bal and Visser (2011) reported that organizational support and change of work role were positively related to work motivation of the teachers. Nagar (2012) concluded that greater job satisfaction among teachers also leads to increased organizationalcommitment.
Abstract In this research, it is aimed to determine the level of organizational forgiveness and organizationalcommitment of teachers and their relation. Descriptive method was used in the research. The working population of the research: Teachers who work in primary schools and high schools in the Battalgazi and Yeşilyurt district centers in Malatya province during the 2017-2018 academic year. A total of 450 teachers from 6 primary schools and 6 high schools selected by means of population sampling were included in the study. Two scales, "organizational forgiveness" and "organizationalcommitment", were used to collect the data of the study. In the analysis of the data, arithmetic mean standard deviation calculation, t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed. According to the findings obtained as a result of the research, it was seen that there was a significant difference betweenschool type, education status and occupational seniority variables while there was no significant difference betweenteachers' organizational forgiveness and gender, marital status, number of children and field of study. Participants' organizationalcommitment levels were low at both overall sum and dimensions. There was a low level of positive relationshipbetweenorganizational forgiveness and organizationalcommitment. Based on these findings, teachers' awareness about organizational forgiveness and the necessity of providing jobs in order to increase schoolcommitment and suggestions such as personal rights, profession promotion, purchasing power and working conditions can be improved.
the levels of trust, distributive justice is not. Interestingly Konovsky (2000) found that in the presence of strong leader member exchanges with the supervisor, employees demonstrated high trust whether perceived distributive justice was high or low. The variable supervisor support had relatively a low mean and standard deviation values (M = 17.9, SD = 3.11) than other predictors showing that majority of the secondaryschoolteachers in this sample were perceiving low support from their superiors. The researchers, therefore, concluded that individuals in this sample did not have satisfactory relationships with their superiors that caused them to be more intolerant of distributive injustice and demonstrating low levels of OCBs.
. This means that Ethical leadership EL styles had no significant effect on teachers’ organisational commitment COC in the schools that were the focus of the current study. Similarly, the current findings agreed with the findings of Cmberci, Civelek, & Gunel (2016), which tested the mediator role of the ethical climate on the relationshipbetween Ethical leadership EL and organisation commitment in different Turkish companies. The study showed that ethical actions by a leader are not sufficient to generate organisational commitment unless the leader first creates an ethical climate. Furthermore, the findings were supported by Siegel’s (2013) results, in which he found that the perception of Ethical leadership EL was positively interrelated with employees’ affective and normative commitment and was not correlated with employees’ continuance commitment. Although the results of current study contradicted the findings of Eslamieh & Davoudi (2016), they did verify that a positive bond of Ethical leadership EL has been formatted with organizationalcommitment COC. When testing the impact of Ethical leadership EL on teachers’ loyalty TL, the current study has shown this to be important, as there is a statistically significant correlation and impact between Ethical leadership EL
Since Greenleaf (1972) did not make a clear definition of servant leadership and did not set out a conceptual framework, subsequent scientists tried to explain his ideas and show how the ideal servant leader should behave (Akdöl, 2015: 24). The first studies in this area focused on the definition and distinguishing features of servant leadership. Spears defines ten characteristics of servant leadership: listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to the growth of people and building community, all based on Greenleaf's ideas (2005: 3-4). These ten features are the among first models or conceptualized versions of the concept of servant leadership (Northouse, 2013: 221-222). Six key concepts of servant leadership are to value people, to develop people, to build community, to display authenticity, to provide leadership and to share leadership (Laub (1999: 9).) In another conceptual study, servant leadership was conceptualized in a different model as character, relationship, leadership task, leadership process, leadership role model (Page and Wong, 2000: 4). Patterson's (2003: 2) servant leadership model consists of seven virtuous structures: (a) agapao love, (b) humility, (c) altruism, (d) vision, (e) trust, (f) empowerment, and (g) service. Dennis and Bocernea (2005: 610-611) developed an assessment and evaluation instrument based on Patterson's servant leadership model, in which the servant leadership was described by a five-factor structure as such: empowerment, humility, love, trust and vision. According to Barbuto and Wheeler (2006: 318-319), servant leadership consists of five dimensions: altruistic calling, emotional healing, persuasive mapping, wisdom, and organizational stewardship. Van Dierendonck and Nuijten (2011: 251-252) define servant leadership in eight dimensions: standing back, forgiveness, courage, empowerment, accountability, authenticity, humility, and stewardship.
In the study, it was determined that there was a moderate and negative relationshipbetweenschool administrators’ favouritism behaviours and teachers’ organizationalcommitment (r= -.359, p < .01). It was also determined that teachers’ organizationalcommitment behaviour decreased as school administrators’ favouritism behaviours increased. However, in a study conducted by Sezici and Yıldız (2017), it was found out that organizational cronyism had a negative and significant relationship with organizationalcommitment. In a study conducted by Okcu and Ucar (2016), based on teachers’ perceptions, it was determined that there was a negative and moderate relationshipbetween the administrators’ favouritism attitudes and behaviours and teachers’ organizationalcommitment. In the study of Salcı (2015) called, “the effect of nepotism on organizationalcommitment; a field research in tourism businesses of Mersin province”, it was concluded that the loyalty of the employees to their organization decreased as the behaviour of favouritism increased. In another study conducted by Karakan and Yılmaz (2014), it was concluded that there was a decrease in the loyalty levels of the employees to the organization as the frequency of exposure to nepotism practices increased. The findings of these studies show parallelism with the present study findings. In the favouritism, when the employees feel different treatment, they can quit the work. This results in cost and human resources loss stem from staff change (Milgram and Roberts, 1988; extracted by Prendergast and Topel, 1996: 959). Working under the orders of an incompetent person for an employee who is subject to favouritism is a very annoying situation, and in particular when the wage system is injustice, this leads to the employees to break out of the organization (Bute, 2009: 737). The majority
Even the physical needs of the first step of the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs are not met by the schools, and also the external awards provided by the management are not enough to provide satisfaction. Even though teachers are thought to be addressed by meeting their primary needs by lowering their living standards and secondly, the need for security can only be achieved by the retirement, teachers are looking for the higher need for love and belonging, the need for respect and the need for self-fulfillment. Therefore, teachers have an important place in addressing the need for social acceptance, love, respect and support in both work and private life [2, 28]. Teachers who spend a great majority of their daily lives in school are in contact with administrators, other teachers, assistant staff, students and parents who make up the social environment in the schools. In this sense, Civilidag  classified the sources that teachers are influenced and receive social support; as work place friends, friends outside the workplace, spouse, parents and students. How teachers are perceived in these intensive communication networks; value, respect and support they take; the peacefulness level of their environment, make their relationships healthy and high quality, and affect their creativity, their productivity, their attitudes towards the school and their absenteeism.
Research with teachers and other workers has suggested that turnover (attrition) and turnover intentions are negatively related to the concept of occupationalcommitment (Ciftcioglu, 2011; Klassen & Chiu, 2011; Lee, Carswell & Allen, 2000; Nogueras, 2006; Weng & McElroy, 2012). In the present study occupationalcommitment was defined "as a psychological link between a person and his or her occupation" (Lee et al., 2000, p. 800). Occupationalcommitment of teachers has been measured and compared to multiple variables, including burnout (Brown & Roloff, 2011), efficacy (Canrinus, Helms-Lorenz, Beijaard, Buitink, & Hofman, 2012; Ware & Kitsantas, 2011), job satisfaction (Billingsley & Cross, 1992; Canrinus et al., 2012), participation in decision making and organizational citizenship behavior (Somech & Bogler, 2002), schoolclimate and social-emotional learning (Collie, Shapka, & Perry, 2011), and stress (Billingsley & Cross, 1992; Jepson & Forrest, 2006). Additionally, Huang and Waxman (2009) examined the relationshipbetweenschool environment and the commitment to teaching of student teachers. The present study focused on the connection between ethical orientation and occupationalcommitment, which has received little attention in the literature (Elias, 2006; Shaub Finn, & Munter, 1993). The potential connection between ethics and occupationalcommitment was determined to be significant because of the acknowledged importance of ethics in education and the relationship of occupationalcommitment to teacher attrition.
Some recommendations for practitioners and researchers are as follow: (1) According to the research results, it is essential to establish a proper environment for educational and training activities and to take into account teachers’ demands in the occupational and organizational fields. Within this context, teachers’ expectations related to their occupations should be determined and criteria preventing teachers’ alienation concerning these expectations should be developed. (2) The empowerment of communication within the organization, democratic leader, transparent management style, open communication channels, and teachers’ value judgments should be borne in mind in order to prevent alienation.(3) School administrators should establish a working environment in which less alienation is experienced and more citizenship behaviors are encouraged by providing teachers with humanitarian working conditions. (4) School administrators should involve teachers, educational employees, in making and applying decisions related to them by acting responsibly. Furthermore, school administrators should avoid the applications that weaken or disregard teachers’ value judgments and should establish open schoolclimate. (5) Powerlessness (the dimension of organizational alienation) was detected to be the highest in the research. Thus, school administrators should endeavor to enable teachers to collaborate by inhibiting every application that will damage their perceptions of justice and equality by preventing teachers’ alienation and estrangement. (6) A mid-level, significant and negative oriented correlation was detected betweenteachers’ organizational alienation and
3. Continuous commitment: this view considers benefits of the job and costs resulting from turnover. In other words, in this kind of a commitment, person remains committed to the organization because of the high costs of leaving the organization. Person’s attachment in this perspective is not based on emotion or feeling towards the organization (e.g., emotional commitment), or on normative beliefs about the tasks, duties and responsibilities (normative commitment), but the third concept of commitment is based solely on economic and practical considerations. Although all three types of organizationalcommitment refers to the probability of remaining individuals in their organizations, but the nature of belonging and attachment to the organization is quite different, and it depends on the type of organizationalcommitment. Now, according to the fact that in academic resources one of the variables that can affect the level of commitment is organizational justice, the aim of this study is to know whether this variable can affect the level of organizationalcommitment of physical education teachers in West Azerbaijan province? Essentially what is status of teachers’ understand of justice? So, with the understanding of relationshipbetween justice and organizationalcommitment among physical education teachers in West Azerbaijan province, we offer strategies for improving organizationalcommitment of physical education teachers.
The findings confirmed that work involvement was significantly and positively correlated with organizational citizenship behavior. To explain this result, it can be stated that teachers who are involved with their work and their interests are in line with the goals of their work, feel respected when they do their job well and as a result they display better organizational citizenship behavior. More involvement with the work is accompanied with greater conscientiousness in the organization and people who are so obsessed with their work voluntarily devote a lot of time to the activities related to work (Snir & Harpaz, 2004). In fact, work involvement improves em- ployees’ cognitive engagement with their work and enhances their mental health, so that it encourages the em- ployees to participate more in the organization (Burke, 2004). Some researchers believe that workaholics have a great authority in decision-making and have high control over their jobs. These are considered as important fac- tors aiding to decrease work pressure and increase job satisfaction, organizationalcommitment and finally orga- nizational citizenship behavior (Karasek & Theorell, 1990). These studies indicated that having control over the job can moderate the impacts of workaholism. In fact, these studies considered having control over the job as a significant factor in the relationshipbetween workaholism and health symptoms which increases employees’ level of participation, aids the organization to achieve its goals and improves employees’ attachment and com- mitment to the organization. In addition, Karasek (1979) demonstrated that if employees are allowed to control their work and the variable of control on the job is considered, employees will experience less stress and feel more committed to their job and organization.
Emotional Intelligence as defined by Daniel Goleman is ability to identify, assess, and control one’s own emotions, the emotions of others, and that of group. Job satisfaction has been described in multiple ways by various authors. A comprehensive definition of job satisfaction includes employee’s attitude, including monetary pay of the employee, promotion and recognition, supervision and team relations, fringe benefits other than pay received,and nature of work. What makes a teacher successful and satisfied has been a study for decades. A successful and satisfied teacher will perform his/her duties better and deliver bright future makers to the world. This paper attempts to study the level of emotional intelligence and job satisfaction and organizationalcommitment in a teacher. The paper also studies relationshipbetween emotional intelligence, job satisfaction and organizationalcommitment in a teacher.
job satisfaction level of the teachers are also moderate. This establishes that the teachers working in colleges of UG and PG level are satisfied on their pay, promotion, communication, fringe benefits etc. The organizationalcommitment of the teachers has also been established as moderate which means that the teachers do not wish to leave their organization either because they don’t want to or because they feel they have to oblige to the organization or simply because they do not have better options.
To collect the data related to the variables under study, Podsakoff’s Organizational Citizenship Behavior Ques- tionnaire (2000) and Estrone’s Equity Perception Inventory (1996) were used. Podsakoff’s Organizational Citi- zenship Behavior Questionnaire has 20 items, assessing managers’ organizational citizenship behavior, using a 5-point Likert type scale (5 = strongly agree, 4 = agree, 3 = I have no idea, 2 = disagree, 1 = strongly disagree). Equity Perception Inventory has 21, 5-point Likert type scale items (5 = strongly agree, 4 = agree, 3 = I have no idea, 2 = disagree, 1 = strongly disagree) developed by Estrone. To measure organizationalcommitment, a ques- tionnaire developed by Steers and Porter (1998) including 15 questions was applied. This questionnaire has 7 options (1 = strongly disagree, 2 = somehow disagree, 3 = slightly disagree, 4 = neither agree nor disagree, 3 = slightly agree, 4 = somehow agree, strongly agree). Questions 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13, and 14 are scored based on the mentioned points and questions 3, 7, 9, 11, 12, and 15 are reversely scored. The minimum possible score is 15 and the maximum score is 105. Higher scores indicate an individual’s greater commitment to the organiza- tion.
Education process is related to national income and national development. Education process plays a vital role to increase the rate of national income and the graph of the national progress. But this process depends on the dedicated teachers. If teachers are not honest with their profession, there is always an absolute in the national development. If teacher does work effectively and excellently, definitely the