1.2. Problem Statement
The ecological and socioeconomic impacts of fire have a potential to constrain sustainable development. In Zimbabwe, however, the current fire monitoring methods are limited. The firefrequency in the Mazowe districts a r e poorly documented which makes it very difficult to analyze the changes in fire extent over time. There is paucity of data on the spatial distribution or trends in burned areas annually to meet the needs of the responsible authorities. In Mazowedistrict the veld fires are impacting negatively to the people’s livelihoods who are mostly commercial farmers who specialize in crop production and animal husbandry. Frequently burning has implication in animal habitant and human life. In the district animal production is decreasing due to the continuous burning of pastures. In Zimbabwe veld fires are a single threat of to the economic recovery. Food security is now compromised as recorded in some years back where maize fields and wheat fields were destroyed. Mappingfirefrequency is useful to identify areas that f r e q u e n t l y b u r n . Satellite remotesensing provides practical ways to map biomass in extensive areas such as Zimbabwe (Roy et al., 2005) hence there is n e e d for this empirical study in fire prone district.
The study analyses the viability of winter wheat production in Zimbabwe’s A1 resettlement farming sector. This sector emerged from the implementation of the Fast Track Land Reform Programme (FTLRP), starting 2000, when a new farming structure with new farming communities emerged. In most sectors, and for the major crops grown, output seemed depressed as compared to pre 2000 levels. This study picked winter wheat, a strategic food crop in Zimbabwe and examined its production viability under the new dispensation and to understand the factors influencing its viability. A sample of 80 farmers from Mazowedistrict was used to assess viability over a season, typifying a single production cycle. The mean gross margin figure was calculated, and found to be – US$155.7, indicating qualified non-viability of the enterprise. Regression analyses identified fertiliser, working capital, area planted and education as the key factors affecting viability, with R 2 =0.725. The study recommended government to partner the private sector to address production side factors, key of which are input prices including water, energy, credit and extension; and then pricing on the marketing side to improve winter wheat viability.
Secondary data pertaining to smallholder crop production and marketing statistics were obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture. Primary data was gathered in the form of a household survey using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was pre-tested, modified and then used to collect data. Specifically, information on maize production and marketing constituted the bulk of the questionnaire. However, farmer characteristics (resources’ endowment and demographic characteristics etc.), costs and benefits incurred by farmers in the value chain, access to some institutional variables (such as credit, extension etc.) and some brief information relating maize and tobacco farming in the study area were also captured in the questionnaire. Face to face interviews were used to gather the data as the method was regarded as the one with a higher possibility of getting high rate of responses and to take less time than other interviewing methods. A sample of 120 randomly selected smallholder farmers was gathered from Mazowedistrict of Zimbabwe. Local agricultural extension officers in the district assisted in providing list of smallholder farmers in the study area from which 120 farmers were randomly selected from 5 randomly selected villages.
In Zimbabwe overall, not many women accessed land through fast track; the Utete Report (2003) claims that only eighteen percent of beneficiaries were women. The problem is that the discourse of land reform has almost totally ignored gender, as Kesby (1999:38) notes: ‗Unfortunately, debates about imminent land tenure reform are constructed around issues of race and economic efficiency, leaving those related to gender as a largely unanalysed set of assumptions.‘ At the same time, the resettlement programme has opened up a sanctuary for a class of women who had found it difficult to survive and possess land in their own right within the communal areas. Chaumba et al. (2003a:10) note that it is quite common for widows and divorcees to be accused of witchcraft and causing the death of husbands (particularly in AIDS cases), and they are sometimes even chased away by their in-laws. Resettlement provides an opportunity to start anew with the provision of new livelihoods opportunities. Though in Mazowe such stories are rare, there is a new breed of combatant women who not only partook in the initial land invasions but have carved out a niche for themselves. Selby Farm in Ward 21 offers examples of women who have benefited from the land reform programme. The farm committee is made up of women who were all part of the land invasions, and they have over the years worked very hard to ensure that women have equal access to inputs.
Tobacco leaf conditioning is a process that involves addition of a small amount of water to the cured tobacco. Tobacco leaves should not be removed from the curing barn until all the stems and midribs of the leaves have dried to a firm condition (Seebold et al., 2007). During the curing process the leaves become dry and as result most smallholder farmers use many ways of conditioning tobacco leaf including barn floor watering and drum steam methods. These processes allow the tobacco leaf to become more pliable for ease of handling and for market preparation (Musoni et al, 2013; Seebold, et al., 2007). However, barn water floor and drum steam methods are laborious and time consuming as they require drawing of water. However, the technology that was approved in Malawi that uses a micron ULVA + spinning disc player for conditioning tobacco took much less time compared to the use of green grass (Kaipa and Mvulaatera, 2010). Bailey (2006) also showed that tobacco conditioning should be used in moderation and overhead misting should be used with regard to improved leaf chemistry. In Zimbabwe most farmers use the steam method for conditioning tobacco leaf in barns (Musoni et al, 2013; Masvongo et al, 2013).
The focus group participants agreed that it was the men’s belief that literacy participation was meant for women, a view supported by the fact that a number of lessons in the primer seem to be women-oriented.
The participants argued that the belief emanated from the observation that all small-scale and community-based activities are meant for women, while men should have formal engagement exclusively as male groups. Another supporting factor from the focus group’s point of view, is that the literacy programme is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education and Culture, and yet the literacy projects in which the literacy participants were involved in were the responsibility of the Ministry of Community Development and Women’s Affairs. The focus group participants agreed that when community leaders mobilized for literacy, they often consciously or unconsciously spoke of “women’s literacy.” They also highlighted that the ZANU PF Women’s League was one of the most active groups that were organizing women for literacy. In other words, as noted by McGivney (2004:62), the functional literacy programme was another “affair for women”.
In Zimbabwe, Dube (2015a) contends that wildfires reached alarming proportions as stakeholders and government face challenges in trying to contain them. Mazowedistrict, has had the highest number of reported cases of wildfires in the province over the years and was regarded as falling within extreme wildfire hazard zones (EMA 2015) that could affect crops and other livelihoods in the high agricultural potential yield district (Maponga et al. 2017). The EMA responded to the runaway wildfire problem by introducing intervention measures such as firebreaks, fire awareness campaigns, reduction of fuel load by hay bailing, fines and institutional structures among others in 2009 (EMA 2015) but the fire problem persists as evidenced by an increase in burnt area, continued outbreaks and direct loss of human lives from fire events. Farmers in the study area, regardless of tenure, are highly vulnerable to frequent fires (Calkin et al. 2014) as most of them lack the capacity to contend with the damage inflicted to their high valued environmental resources and assets (Nyamadzawo et al. 2013; Calkin et al. 2014). The situation is compounded by the interwoven nature of tenure systems as a fire from one system is capable of moving across several systems and lack of scientifically demarcated hazard zones for target effort to contain the fires. The study used a fire risk model (Adab et al. 2011) to determine hazard zones in the multiple tenure district as a primary step offering opportunities for policy formulation or review of an integrated approach to the wildfire problem stemming from within and across tenure boundaries.
This thesis develops a framework for implementing radiometric modeling and visualization of wildland fire. The ability to accurately model physical and op- tical properties of wildfire and burn area in an infrared remotesensing system will assist efforts in phenomenology studies, algorithm development, and sensor evaluation. Synthetic scenes are also needed for a Wildland Fire Dynamic Data Driven Applications Systems (DDDAS) for model feedback and update. A fast approach is presented to predict 3D flame geometry based on real time measured heat flux, fuel loading, and wind speed. 3D flame geometry could realize more realistic radiometry simulation. A Coupled Atmosphere-Fire Model is used to de- rive the parameters of the motion field and simulate fire dynamics and evolution. Broad band target (fire, smoke, and burn scar) spectra are synthesized based on ground measurements and MODTRAN runs. Combining the temporal and spa- tial distribution of fire parameters, along with the target spectra, a physics based model is used to generate radiance scenes depicting what the target might look like as seen by the airborne sensor. Radiance scene rendering of the 3D flame
A number of UAV specific issues related to high spatial resolution imagery also contribute to misclassification of fire severity maps. Variation in solar azimuth and elevation result in canopy shadowing that potentially create large classification errors at the spatial scale of this study. In this study, the pre-fire capture was completed late morning (11am local time) and as a result the shadows fall to the south west, with a calculated shadow length of 80% of tree height (sun azimuth 25°, altitude 51°). The post-fire image was captured in mid- afternoon (3pm local time) and resulted in longer shadows that fall to the south east with a calculated shadow length of 200 % of tree height (sun azimuth of 314° and altitude 26°). Pre-fire canopy shadows result in underestimating final severity, while post-fire shadows have the potential to overestimate fire severity ( Figure 4-4 ) and errors associated with canopy shadowing are likely to misrepresent up to 10% of the total classified map area. This effect increases if long shadows darken already black ash, and if pre- and post-fire captures are at different times of the day. Ideally, image capture should occur during the middle of the day to minimise canopy shadow, and pre- and post-fire captures should take place under similar solar elevations in order to reduce canopy shadow error. Masking for canopy shadow increased classification accuracy for dEGI indicating the potential for canopy shadow to impact on map accuracy, but did not substantially increase
Landslide susceptibility maps are important for development planning and disaster management. The current synthesis of landslide susceptibility maps largely applies GIS and remotesensing techniques. One of the most critical stages on landslide susceptibility mapping is the selection of landslide causative factors and weighting of the selected causative factors, in accordance to their influence to slope instability. GIS is ideal when deriving static factors i.e. slope and aspect and most importantly in the synthesis of landslide susceptibility maps. The integration of landslide causative thematic maps requires the selection of the weighting method; in order to weight the causative thematic maps in accordance to their influence to slope instability. Landslide susceptibility mapping is based on the assumption that future landslides will occur under similar circumstances as historic landslides. The weight of evidence method is ideal for landslide susceptibility mapping, as it calculates the weights of the causative thematic maps using known landslides points. This method was applied in an area within the Western Cape province of South Africa, the area is known to be highly susceptible to landslide occurrences. A prediction rate of 80.37% was achieved. The map combination approach was also applied and achieved a prediction rate of 50.98%.
Integrating malaria data into a decision support system (DSS) using Geographic Information System (GIS) and remotesensing tool can provide timely information and decision makers get prepared to make better and faster decisions which can reduce the damage and minimize the loss caused. This paper attempted to asses and produce maps of malaria prone areas including the most important natural factors. The input data were based on the geospatial factors including climatic, social and Topographic aspects from secondary data. The objective of study is to prepare malaria hazard, Vulnerability, and element at risk map which give the final output, malaria risk map. The malaria hazard analyses were computed using multi criteria evaluation (MCE) using environmental factors such as topographic factors (elevation, slope and flow distance to stream), land use/ land cover and Breeding site were developed and weighted, then weighted overlay technique were computed in ArcGIS software to generate malaria hazard map. The resulting malaria hazard map depicts that 19.2%, 30.8%, 25.1%, 16.6% and 8.3% of the District were subjected to very high, high, moderate, low and very low malaria hazard areas respectively. For vulnerability analysis, health station location and speed constant in Spatial Analyst module were used to generate factor maps. For element at risk, land use land cover map were used to generate element at risk map. Finally malaria risk map of the District was generated. Land use land cover map which is the element at risk in the District, the vulnerability map and the hazard map were overlaid. The final output based on this approach is a malaria risk map, which is classified into 5 classes which is Very High-risk area, High-risk area, Moderate risk area, Low risk area and Very low risk area. The risk map produced from the overlay analysis showed that 20.5%, 11.6%, 23.8%, 34.1% and 26.4% of the District were subjected to very high, high, moderate, low and very low malaria risk respectively. This help to plan valuable measures to be taken in early warning, monitor, control and prevent malaria epidemics.
2005 was recorded due to the maximum vegetative growth of wheat crop during that period followed by mustard, which was on flowering stage. Inspire of that, the areas having less NDVI may be due to the low fer- tility and low moisture holding capacity of loamy sand soils of the district (Punia et al., 2009). In addition to this, maximum area of 30 th January imagery reported NDVI value 0.35, which means better health of wheat crop during last 15 days (15−30 th January 2005). As the middle period of the Rabi season, imagery of 30 th January showed the cropping pattern of the Rabi, in which wheat crop was distributed more in southern part of the district and occupied 1475.75 (‘00 h) area than the mustard and gram, which occupied 1312.35 and 683.21(‘00 h), respectively.
Timely monitoring and efficient mapping strategies have remained fundamental for assessing the abundance of native and exotic aquatic flora (Maceina et al. 1984; Lehmann and Lachavanne 1997; Hestir et al. 2008; Husson et al. 2016). Although several macrophyte surveying techniques are well documented (Ackleson and Klemas 1987; Schneider et al. 2004; Gunn et al. 2010), in situ fixed-point (point-intercept) sampling protocols have become widely accepted and utilized for accurately describing trends in macrophyte locale, coverage, and abundance (Madsen 1999). While point-intercept methods are conceivably proficient when coupled with robust statistical procedures (Bauer 1943; Valley et al. 2005; Gotelli and Ellison 2013), the level of ecological explanation for mapping and management is directly proportional to the accuracy, extent, and time spent appraising each sampled point. Since there is often some form of subjectivity between individual surveyors while estimating plant spread or abundance, we may often find this survey method inefficient as certain areas within the waterbody may need revisited. Unfortunately, anomalies found while post-processing data often go unresolved due to the inability to reprocess field records. Therefore, the underlying effectiveness of these binary surveys often remains dependent on the complete documentation of community dynamics and appropriate classification of aquatic plant species within the field recordings by the surveyor.
2.3 Expert Interpretation of Satellite Images
Landslide mapping conducted during field investigations has been extended by expert interpretation of satellite remotesensing data in combination with a DEM using the perspective visualization capabilities of a GIS (Roessner et al. 2005). As a result, landslide scarps and masses have been determined systematically for the whole area of interest (Fig. 4). The expert also includes information about geological structures and other landslide predisposing factors in the analysis. This method is especially suitable for mapping landslide-prone slopes which have experienced several phases of reactivation resulting in complex morphological structures. However, this integrative mapping method cannot provide differentiated information on the dates of slope failures. They have to be added from other sources when available. Furthermore, the method is labor-intensive and mostly used for initial landslide mapping.
Vegetation or forest patches within urban conurbation are essential in reducing surface temperature as cooling effect due to evapo-transpiration processes . The inverse relationship between forest cover and urban built-up in affecting LST has been significantly proven (Figure 10). Based on 20 ground control points collected randomly for within the LST map, it shows a different group of surface temperature based on land cover characteristics in the study area (Table 3). The differences between both land cover types, i.e. about 8.5 o Celsius shows the
The use of RemoteSensing  within the domain of natural hazards and disasters has become increasingly common, due in part to increased awareness of environmental issues such as climate change, but also to the increase in geospatial technologies and the ability to provide up-to-date imagery to the public through the media and internet. As technology is enhanced, demand and expectations increase for near-real-time monitoring and visual images to be relayed to emergency services and the public in the event of a natural disaster. For over ten years, also the European Space Agency has been supporting activities to increase the utilisation of satellite based EO in Disaster Risk Management (DRM) through different application development mechanisms. There are two fundamental DRM activities developed by ESA with other space agencies and organisations worldwide. Firstly the International Charter Space & Major Disasters (the Charter ), an International collaboration for the immediate disaster response phase, created in 2000, after UNISPACE III, and currently operating globally with 15 members – mainly with EO mission owners or operators - and providing basic operational services to Authorized Users. Secondly, the newly started Committee on Earth Observation Satellites  (CEOS) initiative on DRM looking at different phases of application development such as research, demonstrations of service capabilities, and pilot projects with strategic users to achieve acceptance of EO in the operational environment of end users. Under CEOS DRM, ESA has taken a lead role and coordinates the Study Team. ESA is involved in the definition of propositions for four (4) coordinated pilots started in 2014 in the themes of flooding, volcanoes and seismic hazards and a multi- thematic pilot that is a recovery observatory.
From the composite layer (S7), the delineation of ground- water prospect zones was made by grouping the polygons into different prospect zones: excellent, good, moderate and poor. Oh et al.  presented a probabilistic approach that used both satellite imagery and GIS to estimate an area’s potential groundwater resources. The adopted procedure involves select- ing the 15 most important variables that affect the groundwa- ter potential. The groundwater potential was then mapped using a frequency-ratio model, which represents the relation- ship between hydrologic data; speciﬁc capacity (derived from pumping tests) and the variables. In particular, 9 of the 15 factors showed a more positive inﬂuence than the remaining factors on groundwater potential mapping. In an increasing order of positive inﬂuence, these nine factors were soil texture, cumulative watershed area, distance from river, mean ground slope within watershed area, lineament length density weighted by its length, lineament length density, mean ground elevation within watershed area, topographic wetness index (TWI), and hydrological units.
Mapping of Ecosystems in Mount Bromo Using RemoteSensing Technology. Covered land analyses of Landsat image have been done to get ecosystem types and map in Mount Bromo region using remotesensing technology. There are nine types of ecosystems in Mount Bromo region, i.e. primary forest, secondary forest, lake, crater, sands, uncovered land, underbrush, dry-field and residence. Distribution of rock analysis has also been done by comparing the manual image interpretation with geological map. The results were coorelated with the digital image interpretation to find rock distribution map which can be useful to get the information about water reservation potencial in Mount Bromo region. The coorelation results together with slope, covered vegetation and rain falls can give description about absolute water reservation and buffer zone map in Mount Bromo region.
Application of RemoteSensing for Mapping Soil Organic Matter Content. Information organic content is important in monitoring and managing the environment as well as doing agricultural production activities. This research tried to map soil organic content in Malang using remotesensing technology. The research uses 6 bands of data captured by Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) satellite (band 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7). The research focuses on pixels having Normalized Difference Soil Index (NDSI) more than 0.3. Ground-truth data were collected by analysing organic content of soil samples using Black-Walkey method. The result of analysis shows that digital number of original satellite image can be used to predict soil organic matter content. The implementation of regression equation in predicting soil organic content shows that 63.18% of research area contains of organic in a moderate category.