importance of maintaining multi-purpose species for enhancing resilience to drought ( Reed et al., 2007 ). Particular reference was made to Boscia albitrunca, known as ‘Shepherd's Tree’ because it is evergreen and palatable, providing a valuable source of forage for livestock during drought ( Reed et al., 2007 ). For this reason, there is a local taboo preventing B. albitrunca being cut for timber or fuel- wood, which has led to a relative increase in the abundance of this species compared to other trees within the vicinity of settlements ( Reed et al., 2008 ). For these reasons, the hypothetical ‘ecosystem service optimisation ’ scenario in Table 4 considers cultivation of B. albitrunca as part of a silvopastoralism system after selective bush clearance, to provide shade and forage for livestock during dry seasons and drought. B. albitrunca is slow-growing, but by allowing bushes to persist in strips, it may still be possible to bene ﬁt from shade from quickly maturing bushes in the intervening period. Although this scenario has not been tried in practice, and many Kalahari trees are dif ﬁcult to cultivate, there is now evidence that cultivation of trees with mycorrhizal fungi (alone or in combination with organic amendments) and tree shelters is effective for restoring degraded drylands across the world ( Pinero et al., 2013 ). Although the multi-functionality of other tree species may not be as strong as for B. albitrunca, other trees could be used in this scenario, such as acacias. Deep-rooting trees such as these also have signif- icant carbon storage potential, and it may be possible to trade this on international voluntary carbon markets. Given the other ecosystem service bene ﬁts associated with such a mixed-landscape scenario, it may be possible to “bundle” the carbon storage beneﬁts with the bene ﬁts of a silvopastoral system for biodiversity and local people, so that it becomes possible to charge more for the carbon (e.g. Pagiola et al., 2007; Ibrahim et al., 2010; Root-Bernstein and Jaksic, 2013 ). In this way, it may be possible to pay for bush removal and the establishment of a silvopastoral system, regaining a productive system that can support livestock whilst potentially being eligible to receive ongoing payments for the climate change mitigation and other co-bene ﬁts of SLM.
By considering the shared, cultural and plural value of different SLM options through deliberation, landscape scale changes in landmanagement may occur, that are consistent with actual preferences and more deeply held values of local communities. However, given the complex tenure arrangements that exist in many rangeland areas (for example the three tenure types outlined in the Kalahari case), there remains a danger that economic policy instruments, for example PES schemes, may lead to unintended social justice con- cerns (Stringer et al., 2012a), in a similar way to the privatisation of communal land since the 1970s in Botswana (see also Dougill et al., 2012). Privatisation conceives that compared to historic communal ownership arrangements, private owners will be more highly motivated and able to prevent natural capital from crossing thresholds that may endanger the ﬂ ow of ecosystemservices from their land (principally provisioning services on which their liveli- hoods are based). However, in the same way that privatisation can focus on maximising one ecosystem service (cattle production), often at the expense of others (e.g. climate regulation, habitats for wildlife and water quality), mechanisms such as PES can favour the supply of services for which there are markets (e.g. climate regu- lation via carbon markets) over those for which there is no market (e.g. habitats for wildlife). In the same way that privatisation concentrated natural capital in the hands of the rich at the expense of poorer communal pastoralists, there is a danger that PES schemes will be more accessible with lower transaction costs for richer, landowning pastoralists, who may capture the market before it is possible for communal pastoralists to organise them- selves sufﬁciently to enter the market-place (Stringer et al., 2012b). It is therefore imperative that the creation of new markets for ecosystemservices is seen as one of a number of policy instruments available to governments (see ELD Initiative, 2013 for others), and that these markets are carefully regulated to prevent the provision of certain services at the expense of others. There may also be a role for government to promote social capital among groups of communal pastoralists, to enable them to access PES or agri- environment schemes and compete effectively with private landowners.
43 3.1 Introduction
Humans depend on the integrity of ecosystems to provide the ecosystemservices they need for survival (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2003). In many parts of the world, the limited availability of clean and fresh water is a major constraint to further social and economic development, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, such as Northern China Yan et al. 2014). Drought is a matter of vital importance to the grassland of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR), Northern China. A burgeoning population, pressing development needs and increasing household consumption are rapidly increasing the amount of water use (Yan et al. 2014). From previous research (Zhao et al. 2010), limited water resources and overuse of water for grazing/cultivation are the main reasons for grassland degradation in IMAR. To reverse the increasing tendency of water stress and grassland degradation, suitable water consumption in an efficient way needs to be put forward to alleviate anthropogenic stress at national level. Household water use is a combination of both direct water consumption (e.g. domestic water consumption for drinking, washing, flushing and cooking) and the indirect water consumption behind the food production system. Producing food involves large amounts of fresh water use in the processes of plant transpiration, interception loss from vegetation canopies, soil evaporation and channel evaporation in irrigated systems (Zhang et al. 2010). Therefore, humans‘ consumption of food items is coupled with intensive use of water resources in indirect ways. Increasingly, regions around the world face growing pressures on their water resources. Great concerns have been raised on this issue, especially in the agricultural sector, which accounts for about 70% of human water use (Molden et al. 2007). Several
A key challenge in any valuation is imperfect information. Individuals might, for example, place no value on an ecosystem service if they do not know the role that the service plays in their well-being. Here is an analogy. If a tree falls in the forest and there is no one around to hear it, does it make a sound? The answer to this age-old question obviously depends on how “sound” is defined. If sound is the perception of sound waves by people, then the answer is no. If sound is defined as the pattern of phys- ical energy in the air, the answer is yes. In the case of ecosystemservices, individuals’ actions and stated preferences would not reflect the true benefit of ecosystemservices as they do not real- ize the existence of the benefits being pro- vided. Another important challenge is accurately measuring the functioning of a system to cor- rectly quantify the amount of a given service derived from that system. 12
Consequently, an ‘uber’ integrated assessment modelling approach (uIAM) is required; IAMs that allow for the costs and benefits of an intervention at local scale to be balanced with those across the global market . Such an approach could help policy-makers understand trade-offs between land-based services at different scales; anticipate and manage problematic outcomes; and quantify the scale and nature of required demand-side interventions. In some sense, all models are wrong, but complex systems are beyond our cognitive ability to analyse without mod- els, and complex models of complex systems are often needed in order to simulate their future states . With climate models, the complexity (and realism) has increased over time (and continues to, see e.g. ), and an ensemble of models are used to reduce uncertainty due to model construction. Such models are highly com- plex, and highly useful, even with their limitations. The land economy is so important to planetary function, sustainable development and social well-being, that we should not avoid trying to develop suites of complex models in order to model its complexity.
SuDS schemes have the potential to support and enhance freshwater biodiversity in urban areas. For example, in Dunfermline, Scotland, research found that SuDS ponds can support up to 47 invertebrate species (Briers, 2014). Jackson & Boutle (2008) showed that colonisation by aquatic fauna occurred at newly constructed SuDS swales and ponds at Upton, Northampton, UK. Therefore, detached River Nene Valley aquatic and semi-aquatic species can use these new SuDS features as places of refuge (Jackson & Boutle, 2008). Viol et al. (2009) observed that similarly rich and varied aquatic macroinvertebrate communities (displaying comparable composition and structure at the family level) can be supported by highway stormwater ponds, despite their poor water quality due to their pollutant retention function, compared with surrounding natural ponds (Viol et al., 2009). This makes the highway stormwater ponds being studied ideal wildlife refuges and connections to fragmented aquatic habitats (Viol et al., 2009). Moore and Hunt (2012) examined the richness and diversity of vegetated and aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in stormwater wetlands and ponds in the US. They found more than 50 vegetation species and 31 macroinvertebrate families are present in the stormwater ponds and wetlands surveyed (Moore & Hunt, 2012). They also noted that emergent vegetation plays a vital role in attracting some insect families (Odonatae) and provide a link to the vegetation at the littoral zones (or fringed wetlands), so that more diverse groups of macroinvertebrates can colonise, which helps provide different trophic functions to the ecosystem (Moore & Hunt, 2012).
In South Korea, the U.S. military authorities and the new postwar go vernment also instituted a land-to-the-tiller reform. Prior to this, most farmland was cultivated by tenant farmers, who paid half or more of their crop to Japanese and Korean landlords. The reform transferred ownership rights to former tenants. The ceiling on land ownership was set at three hectares (about 7.5 acres). Korean landlords (but not their Japanese counterparts) received compensation, nominally equal to the ‘market price’ of the land. In practice, the market price already was deflated by landowne r fears of expropriation, and the value of the compensation was further curtailed by stretching payments over time, with no interest or inflation adjustments. The former tenants made in-kind payments (in rice) to the government in return for the land. The government used the income from sale of the rice not only to compensate landlords, but also to invest in rural water supply systems (Jang 2004).
The two different perspectives can only be resolved through a meaningful and ongoing discussion, consultation and sharing of information between the park and people. NCR entitlement means that holders have the right not only to stay in TSMP, but also to be involved in managing it, i.e. determining access and control over resource use. They should benefit from whatever opportunities the park has to offer. For example, there was strong support for the introduction of ecotourism development in TSMP if it is locally managed. Some respondents expressed interest in homestays, boat rentals, cruises and other sea-venture activities but most emphasized that they would only agree to such activities if the power and benefits are equally shared. This shows that the community was well aware of what was happening around them, but they were not sufficiently well informed and well educated to devise their own means of influencing the institutional arrangements and management actions effectively.
This paper presents the results of a case study in Malawi where farmers adopt a variety of SLM practices, including: Conservation agriculture (CA) – which cuts across all the three main principles minimum soil disturbance (MSD), permanent soil cover with live or dead plant material and crop association or rotation, particularly with legumes; mulching (crop residue management); herbaceous legume integration (crop association/rotation) and weed management (herbicide application). Adoption of MSD (ripping/zero-tillage or planting basins) and the practice of direct seeding involve growing crops without mechanical seedbed preparation and with minimal soil disturbance since the harvest of the previous crop. Other practices include: Agro forestry systems (AF), which include the use of fertilizer trees grown on cropland under different sequential arrangements (e.g. intercropping, relay cropping, boundary or strip cropping); Soil and water conservation (SWC), including physical structures such as box/tied ridges, infiltration trenches, weirs, swales and plot level Vetiver or Elephant
mentioned earlier, our empirical results are consistent with constant returns to scale technology, as are the results of many other studies of developing country agriculture (for example, Bardhan 1973; Berry and Cline 1979; Carter 1984). Thus, decreasing returns to scale does not explain our result. Omitted land quality characteristics also seems unlikely to explain our result, as we have controlled for many aspects of land quality at the plot level (slope, position on slope, soil depth, texture, color, perceived fertility, and distance to the homestead), al- though it is impossible to completely rule out omitted-variable bias in a cross-sectional study. Explanations based on labor market failure are not consistent with our findings that farm size has an insignificant effect on labor use at the plot level. Other market failures could be involved; for example, Barrett (1996) shows how imperfections in insurance and land (or credit) markets can cause small farmholds that are net food buyers to exert more labor to reduce food risks than do larger farms that are net sell- ers. However, Barrett’s theory also implies that small farms should use labor more in- tensively (as do the explanations based on labor market failures), which we do not find to be true. Measurement error will bias the coefficient of a variable toward zero (if measurement error occurs for only one vari- able) (Greene 1990), which can cause the coefficient of farm size to be less than 1 (in- dicating an inverse farm size–productivity relationship) in a farm-level regression of
One of the main communication tools of counter-narratives has been the concept of "Regreening the Sahel". It is related to recent findings showing a consistent trend of increasing vegetation “greenness” in much of the region during 1982-1999 and beyond (UNEP/FAO/UNCCD, 2003). This is echoed in several evaluations of environmental support in the region which attributed this to a combination of an overall increase in rainfall and the large scale adaptation of soil and water conservation techniques including the planting and protection of useful trees (Metameta-Management et al, 2008). The defenders of the counter-narratives think that this could challenge the narrative of Sahelian degradation, which has informed policy for the last few decades. The influence of past policies based on an equilibrium or recovery model may have done damage, and their influence in the recent greening and the earlier browning is questioned. For the proponents of these ideas, the solution to the environment and development challenges of the Sahel should be based in policies fostering participatory research and extension to harness local farmers’ skills and innovation capacity (UNEP/FAO/UNCCD, 2003). The study conducted in Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger and Senegal contributed to the “regreening” arguments (Botoni & Reij, 2009). It departed from the hypothesis that in spite of the pervasive perception of the Sahel as a zone in perpetual degradation, important investments in NRM and desertification fighting have been underestimated. It encompassed both public (governments, technical and financial partners) and private investments (NGOs and individual farmers). This study found that land restoration in the region contributed to increase agriculture yields, to improve food security, to recharge local phreatic water layers, to increase the number and productivity of trees and to slow down migration. The document highlighted the experience of natural assisted regeneration and agroforestry promoted by small farmers in Niger from 1985 in 5 million hectares. The study proposed to build on those successes in order to scale them up (Botoni & Reij, 2009). Similarly, long-term data sets (1960- 2000) collected in three Sahelian countries 7 , together with village-level field enquiries were used to construct profiles of change (UNEP/FAO/UNCCD, 2003). A simple theory of ‘desertification’ was found inadequate for understanding the complexity, diversity and flexibility of farmers’ responses to change.
tracks away from a borehole) (Perkins & Thomas, 1993). In the case of ranches the grazing pressure within the paddocks was subjectively determined through observing the magnitude to which the herbaceous layer was damaged and from the frequency of cattle tracks (Moleele & Mainah, 2003). From these observations the ‘best’ and ‘worst’ condition paddocks were selected and sampled, while also noting the recent management strategies (e.g. bush removal practiced or not). Where the sampling point was located in a dune field, sites on the dune crest and inter dune areas were sampled to capture the variation in plant diversity caused by this geomorphologically controlled habitat variation (Thomas, Knight & Wiggs, 2005). Vege- tation characteristics were assessed at two levels, focusing on woody and herbaceous layers. For woody vegetation (trees and shrubs), canopy cover, species composition, density and frequency were determined from a 30 9 30 m plot at each sampling point, an area shown to be suitable for vegetation surveys in the Kalahari ecosystem (Skarpe, 1986; Moleele & Mainah, 2003). For the herbaceous canopy cover (grasses and forbs), density, frequency, species composition and bare ground were recorded in nine systematically placed (10 m apart) 1 9 1 m quadrats within the 30 9 30 m plots at each sampling point.
This study aims at examining efforts at Asunafo forest area to use tree planting of different species to remedy landdegradation in a swamp area colonized by shrubs and grasses. Ghana is one of the seven countries found to be integrating with success agricultural productivity, food security of the population and halting and/or reversing deforestation(FAO, 2016). The West African country, vests naturally occurring trees in the President. However, forest are owned by chiefdoms and clans (public) but controlled by the government. The Forestry Commission manages forest reserves and national parks. Community Resource Management Areas abound under community supported by Non-Governmental Organizations and government arrangements. There is improvement in tree tenure in the off- forest reserves as regarding farmers’ ownership of trees planted in the farm. Commercial plantation is supported by Forest Plantation Development Fund. REDD+ programmes are underway in the forest zone such as climate smart agriculture funded by Rockefeller Foundation and climate smart cocoa working group funded by UK’s Department for International Development (DFID) geared towards reducing drivers of deforestation, forest degradation and carbon emissions (Asare, 2015). Yet, agriculture expansion contributing 50%, timber exploitation (35%), urban sprawl and infrastructure development (10%) and mining and mineral extraction (5%) continue to exacerbate landdegradation (MLNR, 2012, FAO, 2016). Ghana’s closed forest is being destroyed at a rate of 2% about 135,000 ha per annum (MLNR, 2012). In addition, the threat posed by savannazation is imminent in the forest areas of Ghana. Grasses of different kinds out-compete the mosaic of protected forest reserves, secondary forests and, biodiverse cocoa and food crop agroforestry. Such areas are described by farmers as degraded. Several measures are used to get rid of the grass in the forest mosaic. In some areas, such as Tanoso, oil palm was used initially but to no avail; now, afforestation is done as well as in the next door Dantano. The efforts require assessment after some years of implementation. Relevance of the study is drawn from the specific response to
Propensity scores matching (PSM) was employed to estimate the outcome variables in comparing participant and non-participant household in adoption of SLM practices. Thus, the estimated propensity scores of the logistic regression help to match the two groups of households i.e. adopter and non-adopter. Cognized this fact, the logistic estimation results, adopter and non-adopter were compared using outcome indicators: production outcome. To check how robust and sensitive our estimates four different matching algorithms have been estimated and results were found to be similar finding among them, which shows the robustness of the results. The three different matching algorithms have been used to estimate the impact of adoption of sustainablelandmanagement on rural livelihood using production as an outcome variable. The three matching algorism were; Nearest Neighbor, Radius and Kernel. The Average treatment effect on the treated (ATT) estimation results of each of the matching algorithms for production of the households are presented below in table 2.
Dharavi slum was founded in 1880s during the British colonial era. Popularly known as Asia’s largest slum (figure 3). Dharavi has an active informal economy in which numerous household enterprises employ many of the slum residents. It exports goods around the world. Leather, textiles and pottery products are among the goods made inside Dharavi by the slum residents. Dharavi has suffered through many incidences of epidemics and other disasters. Today Dharaviis home to over 600,000 people of all religions, castes and even economic strata, not just the 'poor'. Almost none of the people who live in Dharavi own the land, but a great many own their homes and businesses (some of which they rent out).
The best practices we are looking for have a City-wide approach to geographic information because we believe that this approach will in the long run be more sustainable and efficient. In what follows, we use the term ‘City-wide LIM’ to refer to the centralised management of spatial information that is needed to achieve sustainable development throughout a city. As such it includes the policies, organisational remits, data, technologies, standards, delivery mechanisms and financial and human resources that are relevant to the land information management of a city. Elements of these processes may be devolved to different agencies within the city - in both the public and private sectors. The key to City-wide LIM is that all these elements come together into a coherent and homogeneous whole. In so doing they should conform to national standards and norms and be capable of being integrated into the total national picture.