Top PDF Response of soil mineral weathering to elevated carbon dioxide

Response of soil mineral weathering to elevated carbon dioxide

Response of soil mineral weathering to elevated carbon dioxide

implications of the observed oxalate-enhanced dissolution are not as clear. Low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids in soils are excreted from plant roots, leached from litter and other organic material, and produced by bacteria and fungi, which are often associated with the rhizosphere, the root zone. Due to the death of the vegetation within the high-CO 2 areas and the consequent decrease in exudate production by living roots, lower concentrations of organic acids might be expected. However, the increased amount of decomposing organic material and the associated microbial activity in the high-CO 2 soils may provide additional sources of organic acids. It is not obvious, therefore, whether the soils within the anomalous area at Mammoth Mountain are exposed to higher or lower concentrations of LMW organic acids. The results of a comparative analysis of LMW organic acid composition, discussed in Chapter 3, did not show distinct differences in LMW organic acids compositions in the high-CO 2 and control site. However, since this analysis of LMW organic acids was performed on soil samples collected in June just after the snow-melt, the organic acid concentrations and their relative abundance in the high-CO 2 and control soils may not be entirely
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Genotype-specific response of a lycaenid herbivore to elevated carbon dioxide and phosphorus availability in calcareous grassland

Genotype-specific response of a lycaenid herbivore to elevated carbon dioxide and phosphorus availability in calcareous grassland

gain was found for CO 2 enrichment. However, we found genotype-specific responses in the development time of P. icarus to elevated CO 2 conditions. Larvae originating from different mothers developed better either under elevated CO 2 or under ambient CO 2 but some did not react to CO 2 elevation. As far as we know this is the first finding of a genotype-specific response of an insect herbivore to elevated CO 2 which suggests genetic shifts in insect life history traits in response to elevated CO 2 . Keywords Elevated carbon dioxide . Lotus corniculatus . Nutrient availability . Plant-insect interaction .
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Primary Productivity and Forage Quality of Gingko Biloba in Response to Elevated Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen - An Experimental Approach to Mid-mesozoic Paleoecology

Primary Productivity and Forage Quality of Gingko Biloba in Response to Elevated Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen - An Experimental Approach to Mid-mesozoic Paleoecology

treatments containing combinations of ambient carbon dioxide (370 ppm), ambient oxygen (210,000 ppm), elevated carbon dioxide (2000 ppm), and elevated oxygen (300,000 ppm) in order to elucidate the gas exchange and physiological responses of Ginkgo to these atmospheric conditions. Results differed according to the duration of exposure. Twenty-four-hour exposure to enriched carbon dioxide levels resulted in increased photosynthetic rates. Photosynthetic rate was not depressed in response to elevated oxygen regardless of whether it was accompanied by either ambient or elevated carbon dioxide. 35-day exposure to elevated carbon dioxide alone and with elevated oxygen resulted in a significant photosynthetic rate increase relative to ambient carbon dioxide. However, these increases were lower than those observed in response to 24- hour exposure, due to apparent photosynthetic down-regulation. There is some evidence that the treatment with elevated oxygen may not have experienced down-regulation to the same extent as the treatment with elevated carbon dioxide alone. Reduced down-
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Elevated Carbon Dioxide and Soil Moisture on Early Growth Response of Soybean

Elevated Carbon Dioxide and Soil Moisture on Early Growth Response of Soybean

2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Environment and Treatments The experiment was conducted at USDA-ARS National Laboratory for Agriculture and Environment (NLAE) in Ames, Iowa, USA under controlled environmental conditions in rhizotron chambers. The dimension of each soil monolith is 1 by 1 by 1.5 m deep and the soil type is Monona silt loam soil (fine-silty, mixed mesic Typic Hapludoll) from southwestern Iowa [35]. Each rhizotron growth chamber consists of three soil monoliths. Cham- bers are similar to a standard plant growth chamber and have microprocessor control of temperature, humidity, and lighting such that specific diurnal, weekly, and seasonal environmental patterns can be programmed. Soil water content of the monoliths also can be monitored and controlled.
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Long term exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not alter activity levels of a coral reef fish in response to predator chemical cues

Long term exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not alter activity levels of a coral reef fish in response to predator chemical cues

In sum, we found that long-term exposure to elevated CO 2 did not alter routine activity levels or the behavioral response to predator chemical cues in A. polyacanthus. This study thus adds to the growing literature reporting no behavioral effects in fishes following acclimation to elevated CO 2 (Browman 2016). Contrasting findings among studies using the same species demonstrate the importance of replication as a prereq- uisite to establishing a consensus on how fish behavior may be affected by ocean acidification. Achieving such replication will rely on transparency and the use of robust and standard- ized methods.
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Influence of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations on methane emission and its associated soil microflora in rice ecosystem

Influence of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations on methane emission and its associated soil microflora in rice ecosystem

17. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2018). Sum- mary for Policymakers. In: Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global green- house gas emission pathways, in the context of strength- ening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty (Eds. V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, H.O. Pörtner, D. Rob- erts, J. Skea, P.R. Shukla, A. Pirani, W. Moufouma-Okia, C. Péan, R. Pidcock, S. Connors, J.B.R. Matthews, Y.
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Morphological Response of Jack Pine to the Interactive Effects of Carbon Dioxide, Soil Temperature and Photoperiod

Morphological Response of Jack Pine to the Interactive Effects of Carbon Dioxide, Soil Temperature and Photoperiod

In: Karnosky, D.F., Ceulemans, R., Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.E. and Innes, J.L., Eds., The Impact of Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases on Forest Ecosystems, CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxford, 193- 235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/9780851995519.0193 [82] Slaney, M., Wallin, G., Medhurst, J. and Linder, S. (2007) Impact of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Temperature on Bud Burst and Shoot Growth of Boreal Norway Spruce. Tree Physiology, 27, 301-312.

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GROWTH AND YIELD OF CHICKPEA UNDER ELEVATED CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION

GROWTH AND YIELD OF CHICKPEA UNDER ELEVATED CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION

There have been a large number of publications focusing on the influence of elevated CO 2 concentration on the growth of several cereal (rice, wheat, maize) and pulse (soybean, mungbean) crops. However, information on the influence of elevated CO 2 concentration on growth of chickpea in India is rather meagre. In addition, chickpeas are capable of fixing N 2 symbiotically and also have great sink potential owing to its indeterminate growth habit. Hence, the present research study was planned to investigate the growth and photosynthetic response of chickpea to elevated CO 2 concentration.
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Increased mercury in forest soils under elevated carbon dioxide

Increased mercury in forest soils under elevated carbon dioxide

Our litter, throughfall and stemXow deposition data allow us to reject the hypothesis that higher soil Hg concen- trations in elevated-CO 2 soils were driven by increased deposition. These data support the hypothesis that CO 2 - mediated changes in soil properties are increasing the Hg storage capacity of forest soils. Future research e Vorts should focus on soil processes (i.e., root dynamics, SOM and Hg) under elevated CO 2 to gain a better understanding of potential changes in soil Hg cycling with increasing CO 2 . One challenge of conducting research at large-scale multi-user facilities such as the FACE sites is the restric- tions on sample size. The fact that a CO 2 eVect on soil Hg was detected, in spite of this limitation, suggests that the observed response is robust, but future studies at other FACE sites would strengthen these conclusions.
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The Carbon-Nitrogen Balance of the Nodule and Its Regulation
under Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration

The Carbon-Nitrogen Balance of the Nodule and Its Regulation under Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration

a (GmNMNa), initially characterized based on its strong and specific expression in root hair cell and nodules in response to B. japonicum inoculation [ 63 , 64 ], controls bacteroid number in the nodule infected cell as well as the density of PHB granules in bacteroides. The mitochondrial localization of GmNMNa protein and the limited accumulation of PHB in bacteroides upon silencing of GmNMNa support that GmNMNa influences carbon metabolism in infected soy- bean nodule cells. Previous reports clearly demonstrated the essential role of mitochondria in legume infected cells to presumably maintain plant cell function under microaerobic
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Elevated Carbon Dioxide Level Suppresses Nutritional Quality of Lettuce and Spinach

Elevated Carbon Dioxide Level Suppresses Nutritional Quality of Lettuce and Spinach

4. Conclusion Rising atmospheric CO 2 levels can have a negative impact on the nutritional quality of lettuce and spinach, two commonly consumed leafy vegetables. Elevated [CO 2 ] depresses the concentration of a number of nutrients which are important for human nutrition in the edible parts of these plants. It decreases the concentration of ni- trogen (protein), phosphorus and potassium along with many important micronutrients including copper, zinc, magnesium and sulfur in either lettuce, spinach or both. The significant decline in nutritional quality in leafy vegetables at high [CO 2 ] may portend a potential for a wide-spread dietary nutrient deficiency especially as fruits and vegetables are becoming a major part of our daily diet. However in response to high [CO 2 ], the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity which are linked to health-promoting qualities increase in lettuce but not in spinach. At elevated [CO 2 ]. Thus, there is a decrease in stomatal conductance and leaf area with no effect on carbon accumulation. The results indicate that rising CO 2 levels can compromise the general nutritional qual- ity by depressing the concentration of many essential nutrients in commonly consumed leafy vegetables such as lettuce and spinach.
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EFFECT OF ELEVATED CARBON DIOXIDE ON KINETICS OF NITRATE UPTAKE IN WHEAT ROOTS

EFFECT OF ELEVATED CARBON DIOXIDE ON KINETICS OF NITRATE UPTAKE IN WHEAT ROOTS

Crawford and Glass 1998). While nutrient uptake kinetics may have a regulatory role in plant nutrient budgets, changes in Vmax and Km in response to elevated CO 2 have rarely been examined. Elevated CO 2 may affect whole network of genes that regulate nitrate uptake and assimilation. Our objective was to study the effect of elevated CO 2 concentration on nitrate uptake kinetics and changes in expression of nitrate transporters in wheat.

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Responses of Flowering Time to Elevated Carbon Dioxide among Soybean Photoperiod Isolines

Responses of Flowering Time to Elevated Carbon Dioxide among Soybean Photoperiod Isolines

Abstract Changes in the phenology of flowering in soybeans caused by long-term growth at elevated CO 2 may be important to the responses of seed yield to elevated CO 2 . Here we utilized near-isogenic lines of soybeans differing in three genes influencing photoperiod sensitivity to determine wheth- er these genes affected the response of flowering time to elevated CO 2 . Six isolines of Harosoy 63 were grown at ambient (380 μmol∙mol −1 ) and elevated (560 μmol∙mol −1 ) CO 2 concentrations in the field using free-air CO 2 enrichment systems, in air-conditioned glasshouses with natural summer photoperiods, and in indoor chambers with day lengths of 11, 13, 15, and 17 hours. The effect of CO 2 concentration on flowering time varied with genotype, and there was also an interaction be- tween CO 2 and photoperiod in all genotypes, as indicated by ANOVA. Elevated CO 2 accelerated flo- wering in some cases, and delayed it in other cases. For all three of the isolines with single domi- nant genes, elevated CO 2 decreased the days to first open flower at the longest photoperiod. At the shortest photoperiod, elevated CO 2 delayed flowering in all but one isoline. The all-recessive iso- line had slower flowering at elevated CO 2 at both the shortest and the longest photoperiods, and also in the field and in the glasshouse. Delayed flowering at elevated CO 2 in the field and glass- house was associated with an increased final number of main stem nodes. It is concluded that the E1, E3, and E4 genes each influenced how the time to first flowering was affected by CO 2 concen- tration at long photoperiods.
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Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on locomotion and the repeatability of lateralization in a keystone marine mollusc

Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on locomotion and the repeatability of lateralization in a keystone marine mollusc

Huaquín and Garrido, 2000; Maldonado, 1965) and the shape of the shell with the umbo situated on the left. In C. concholepas, as in other gastropods, locomotion associated with predator – prey interactions involves bilateral pedal crawling by muscular contractions waves and the secretion of a mucous sheet (Denny, 1980). Previous studies based on Y-maze experiments have shown that juvenile C. concholepas use chemical cues originated from prey and predator to orientate their displacement (Manríquez et al., 2013). After long-term (5 months) exposure to elevated P CO 2 levels, small juveniles of this species lost the ability to avoid a predator cue, but maintained their capacity to perceive cues originated from prey items (Manríquez et al., 2014). Although the sensory response of C. concholepas to a prey is unaffected by elevated P CO 2 levels, it is not known if such levels affect the locomotion and behaviour (e.g. time to cover a given distance, route finding) associated with prey detection. Concholepas concholepas is an economically and ecologically important component of the rocky intertidal and subtidal communities along the Chilean coast (Castilla 1988, 1999). As a result, it is likely to be exposed to daily fluctuations of environmental conditions. Although this may make it relatively tolerant to short-term changes, its response to longer term changes would be more relevant for its potential response to climate change.
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Processes regulating progressive nitrogen limitation under elevated carbon dioxide: a meta-analysis

Processes regulating progressive nitrogen limitation under elevated carbon dioxide: a meta-analysis

Upward, downward, and horizontal arrows mean increase, decrease, and no change, respectively. strate for nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria (Keller et al., 1988; Stehfest and Bouwman, 2006; Russow et al., 2008). The strengthening trends of both nitrification and denitrifica- tion led to a shift of the response of N 2 O emission to CO 2 enrichment from neutral without N addition to significantly positive with N addition (Fig. 3e). Our results indicate that CO 2 enrichment significantly increases gaseous N loss when additional N is applied. This is consistent with a previous synthesis (van Groenigen et al., 2011). Increased N 2 O emis- sions can partially offset the mitigation of climate change by the stimulated plant CO 2 assimilation as the warming poten- tial of N 2 O is 296 times that of CO 2 . However, a recent mod- elling study by Zaehle et al. (2011) found an opposite result showing that CO 2 enrichment reduced emissions of N 2 O. In their model, elevated CO 2 enhanced plant N sequestration and consequently, decreased the N availability for nitrifica- tion and denitrification in soils, which led to the reduced N 2 O emissions. However, our synthesis shows that inorganic N does not decrease. Especially with additional N applica- tion, enhanced denitrification by CO 2 enrichment results in a greater N 2 O emission.
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Carbon dioxide exchange of a perennial bioenergy crop cultivation on a mineral soil

Carbon dioxide exchange of a perennial bioenergy crop cultivation on a mineral soil

The mineral soil site in the present study had stronger ca- pacity to withdraw atmospheric CO 2 than the same variety of RCG crop cultivated on a comparison site (a drained organic soil)[r]

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Laboratory analysis of the effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide on respiration in biological soil crusts

Laboratory analysis of the effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide on respiration in biological soil crusts

A = surface area of soil sample (6.793×10 -3 m 2 ); t = time between end of last flush and taking of gas sample (s); V s = volumetric scaling factor = 222,072; M C = molar mass of carbon (12.0107 g mol -1 ) and 3,600 is used to represent flux over one hour. Net carbon balances were based on the area under each carbon flux time series and were calculated separately for each chamber for each day using the integral function in EasyPlot™ software. In order to characterize significance of treatments (two levels of CO 2 and three levels of wetting), analysis of variance (ANOVA) was undertaken using statistical package SYSTAT 13 which determines the p-value for CO 2 , wetting and also whether or not these values are statistically significant.
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Laboratory analysis of the effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide on respiration in biological soil crusts

Laboratory analysis of the effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide on respiration in biological soil crusts

A = surface area of soil sample (6.793×10 -3 m 2 ); t = time between end of last flush and taking of gas sample (s); V s = volumetric scaling factor = 222,072; M C = molar mass of carbon (12.0107 g mol -1 ) and 3,600 is used to represent flux over one hour. Net carbon balances were based on the area under each carbon flux time series and were calculated separately for each chamber for each day using the integral function in EasyPlot™ software. In order to characterize significance of treatments (two levels of CO 2 and three levels of wetting), analysis of variance (ANOVA) was undertaken using statistical package SYSTAT 13 which determines the p-value for CO 2 , wetting and also whether or not these values are statistically significant.
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Mineral carbonation and industrial uses of carbon dioxide

Mineral carbonation and industrial uses of carbon dioxide

7.3.3 New processes for CO 2 abatement 7.3.3.1 Organic chemicals and polymers A number of possible new process routes for the production of chemicals and polymers have been considered in which CO 2 is used as a substitute for other C 1 building blocks, such as carbon monoxide, methane and methanol. The use of CO 2 , an inert gas whose carbon is in a highly oxidized state, requires development of efficient catalytic systems and, in general, the use of additional energy for CO 2 reduction. Chemicals that have been considered include polyurethanes and polycarbonates, where the motivation has primarily been to avoid the use of phosgene because of its extreme toxicity, rather than to find a sink for CO 2 . The proposed processes can have a lower overall energy consumption than the current phosgene-based routes leading to further CO 2 emission reductions. Current world consumption of polycarbonates is about 2.7 Mt yr –1 . If all polycarbonate production was converted to CO 2 -based processes the direct consumption of CO 2 would be about 0.6 MtCO 2 yr -1 . Some CO 2 table 7.2 Industrial applications of CO 2 (only products or applications at the Mtonne-scale): yearly market, amount of CO 2 used, its source, and product lifetime (Aresta and Tommasi, 1997; Hallman and Steinberg, 1999; Pelc et al., 2005). The figures in the table are associated with a large uncertainty.
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Responses of soil respiration to elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen addition in young subtropical forest ecosystems in China

Responses of soil respiration to elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen addition in young subtropical forest ecosystems in China

2.3 Experiment design We used a completely randomized design with four treat- ments considering two levels of CO 2 and two levels of N. Since we have ten open-top chambers, the replication num- ber for the treatments was not equal. For elevated [CO 2 ] and high N deposition (CN), and elevated [CO 2 ] and ambient N deposition (CC), 3 chambers were used, respectively. For ambient CO 2 and high N deposition (NN), and no treatment as a control (CK), 2 chambers were used, respectively. The elevated CO 2 treatments were achieved by supplying addi- tional CO 2 from a tank until reaching a CO 2 concentration of ca. 700 µmol mol −1 in the chambers. The N addition treat- ments were achieved by spraying seedlings once a week for a total amount of NH 4 NO 3 at 100 kg N ha −1 yr −1 . No other fertilizer was used. Since the walls of the chambers below- ground parts blocked lateral and vertical water fluxes, the seedlings were watered with tap water. All the chambers re- ceived the same amount of water as the CK chambers. These treatments started in April 2005.
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