MicrostripPatch Antenna (MPA) is commonly used because of its low profile, low cost and ease of manufacturing. A patch antenna is made by etching metal on one side of dielectric substrate where as on the opposite side there is continuous metal layer of the substrate which forms a ground plane . MPAs are inherently a narrowband antennas so; various bandwidth enhancement techniques are engaged while keeping its size as compact as possible to be perfectly used as a low profile antenna. Due to which many studies and researches are being done throughout the globe.
Today Communication devices support several applications which require higher bandwidth; such as mobile phones these days are getting thinner and smarter but many application supported by them require higher bandwidth, so microstrip antenna used for performing this operation should provide wider bandwidth as well as their size should be compact so that it should occupy less space while keeping the size of device as small as possible. In this paper a review of different techniques used for compact and broadbandmicrostrippatch antenna is given.
By using two stacked shorted patch and make both patches radiate equally as possible and making radiation quality factor as low as possible, one can achieve enhance impedance bandwidth for fixed antenna volume. The innovative technique of creating the defect in the ground plane. In this technique a slot is made on ground plane of microstrip antenna. By increasing the length of slot impedance bandwidth can be increased. As slotted patch increases the current path length same can be applied to the ground plane. Design of a compact and broadbandmicrostrippatch antenna with slotted ground was proposed by J. S. Kuo. Here three identical slots are made on ground plane aligned with equal spacing. Mitesh Purohit and Shailesh Khant have reviewed and surveyed various Bandwidth enhancement techniques of MicrostripPatch Antenna. If one of any above mentioning techniques Bandwidth of MicrostripPatch Antenna is used, it can be improved significantly which will overcome the limitation of MicrostripPatch Antenna such as narrow Bandwidth. Out of all the techniques Multilayered Technique yield maximum bandwidth. The authors have investigated four methods of improving the broad band performance of the antenna. 1. Multilayered configuration of Broadband MPA. 2. Stacked Multiresonator MPA. 3. Modified Shape PatchBroadband MPA. 4. Planar Multiresonator configuration of Broadband MPA. Out of all mentioned techniques Multilayered Technique yield maximum bandwidth. The success of this research lies in investigating the different configuration of the multi-layered antenna. The stacking is tested followed by changing the shape of the reonating patch. In the end the authors have
for high speed wireless networks like in WLAN applications in 5 to 6 GHz frequency band are proposed . The antennas were compatible to be included in PCMCIA card of 0.5 cm thickness. A broadband and high gain 2 x 2 array of E-shaped patches is reported . The individual E-shaped patches were fed using microstrip line fed equal power divider network. The reported E-shaped array yields impedance BW of more than 30% with gain of more than 10 dBi over most of the VSWR BW. For wireless applications, a wide-band circularly polarized E-shaped patch antenna is reported . An effective BW of 9% in 2500 MHz frequency band was realized. As against the equal lengths of pair of rectangular slots in E-shaped MSA, pair of unequal length slots were used. The BW of E-shaped MSA has been increased by stacking two dipole re-radiators above the E-shaped patch which yields stable gain of around 8.4 – 8.7 dBi . Using the circuit theory approach, an analysis of E-shaped MSA is reported . The equivalent circuit model for an E-shaped patch is proposed in which to model the surface current flow across pair of slots, an inductor is added to the equivalent circuit of equivalent RMSA. The return loss plots for variation in realized BW against pair of slots parameters were given. However, design formulation for the mode introduced by the slot is absent. For substrate thickness more than 0.08 0 ,
the right and left feed-lines generate two different resonances. Adding the resonance formed by the patch, the triple resonances are achieved. By carefully tuning the lengths of the L-shaped coplanar line, three near-degenerate orthogonal modes are excited while good impedance matching is obtained. The antenna is fed not only by the horizontal coplanar line but also by the vertical one, which results in two orthogonal currents of near equal amplitudes and 90 ◦ phase difference.
Dr. Komal Sharma received the Ph.D. degree in the field of Microstrip Antenna from the University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, in 2012. Currently, she is a Reader of the Department of Physics at Swami Keshvanand Institute of Technology Management & Gramothan, Jaipur. She has been working on the design and development of microstrippatch antenna of various shapes and has published more than Thirty Five Research Papers in the reputed International Journals, national journals and Conferences. Her research interest includes Microstrip antenna for wireless communication for various applications.
Fig. 1 (a) Top and (b) side views of RMSA, and its (c) edge extension plots against substrate thickness For larger substrate thickness edge extension length due to fringing fields reduces with the frequency. Using the above procedure, an edge extension length for different patch widths at given frequency is calculated and it is plotted in Fig. 2(b, c). For given patch length, with decrease in ‘W’, its resonance
H. M. Lee has suggested a modified planar antenna by designing a single unit cell of MTM using CRLH technique. Metal insulator metal (MIM) capacitor and microstrip stub inductors are used in this design as elements of CRLH. The design equations for design of micro strip stub inductor and capacitor are also explained in . J. D. Baena et al. studied the equivalents of SRR and CSRR . They have also extracted the parameters of these structures both analytically as well as experimentally, particularly for microstrip technologies.
While designing slot cut dual or broadband MSAs, it is a general understanding that slot introduces an additional mode near the fundamental patch mode when its length either equals half wave or quarter wave in length. However the recent study on the broadband or dual band slot cut MSAs shows that slot modifies/reduces the resonance frequencies of higher order orthogonal modes of the patch and along with fundamental patch mode, yields broadband or dual band response . The slot also modifies the surface current distribution at higher order orthogonal modes and aligns them in the same direction as that of the currents at fundamental patch mode. Thereby it yields broadside radiation pattern over the complete BW or at the dual frequencies, without any variations in the directions of principle planes. In most of the reported and studied slot (rectangular slot or U-slot) cut configurations, broadband or dual band response was realized with respect to fundamental patch mode. Recently by cutting rectangular slot or plus shaped slot on one of the edges of rectangular MSA (RMSA), a dual band or broadband RMSA has been realized . The said configurations were reported to be functioning around TM 11 mode frequency of equivalent RMSA and slots are
Broadbandmicrostrip antenna is more commonly realized by cutting slot inside the patch. While designing slot cut antennas at a given frequency, slot length is taken to be either quarter wave or half wave in length. However this simpler approximation does not give closer result. In this paper, an analysis to study the effect of slot like, half U-slot and rectangular slot on the broadband response of Semi-circular microstrip antenna is presented. It was observed that the slot does not introduce any additional mode but reduces the resonance frequency of second order TM 21 mode of the patch
Microstripantennas have become attractive candidates in a variety of commercial applications such as mobile and satellite communications. Traditionally, microstripantennas suﬀer from low bandwidth characteristic. Experimentally and theoretically, it has been shown that a coaxially fed patch antenna on a foam substrate of approximately 0.08 wavelength thick can enable an impedance bandwidth of about 33%, by cutting proper U-slot in the patch [1, 2]. Moreover, Lee and Lee  have experimentally demonstrated the characteristics of two-layer electro-magnetically coupled rectangular patch and reported that relatively large bandwidth could be obtained when the separation between the two layers was less than 0.15 wavelength. Therefore, in the present paper, a stacked U-slot microstrip antenna is presented for broadband operation. The modal expansion cavity model and circuit theory concept have been used to analyze the antenna characteristics. The details of theoretical investigations are given in the following sections.
ABSTRACT: In this work, a compact antenna is proposed for broadband navigation applications. The design of antennas mainly emphasizes miniaturization and compatibility. The widely used frequency for Geo-stationary satellite application that covers operating at an (12GHz–18GHz)bands has been developed with circular polarization operation. The simulated reflection loss less than -10dB and voltage standing wave ratio less than two. The certain results show that the proposed antenna implementation. Analysis and the design of microstrip antenna is achieves by adopting transmission line method. The simulation results of scattering parameter, VSWR, impedance matching, radiation pattern of the proposed antenna have been constructed. The Radiation pattern is achieved for various frequency conditions. Simulation results are presented, showing this compact antenna achieves the required satellite description in terms of frequency bandwidth, circular polarization bandwidth.
Abstract—In this paper, three different compact circular-ring microstrippatch antenna structures have been proposed. These antennas have been analyzed, investigated and optimized using the CST- MW-simulator. The proposed designs are mainly based on the concept of patch shape reconfiguration while its overall dimensions are kept constant. The objective is to design dual and/or triple broadbandantennas resonate within the fourth generation band (4G). The presented antennas are simulated and fabricated on cheaper and lossy FR-4 substrate, and their parameters are measured and compared. The obtained results show that the proposed antenna structures resonate within the 4G frequency band. The operating bandwidths have been varied between 270.0 MHz and 1000.0 MHz (about 4% up to 7% of center frequency). In addition, maximum VSWR value of less than 1.5 has been achieved. The obtained results verify the validity and the benefits of reconfiguring the patch shape. Finally, good agreement has been obtained between simulated and measured parameters.
The hasty development of the wireless communication system has requested the multi-band or broadband antenna in order to maintain the different technologies and standards. Wireless local area network has several standards i.e., IEEE 802.11 b/g operative frequency range from 2.4 GHz - 2.48 GHz, IEEE 802.11a/g operative frequency range from 5.15 GHz - 5.35 GHz or 5.725 GHz - 5.825 GHz. These WLAN standards are proposed for short range (100 - 200 meters) from the transmitter (Wi-Fi standards). An additional standard like IEEE 802.16 d/e is proposed to obtain wider coverage working at some other frequencies, and is known as Wi-Max technology. Wi-Max has several frequency allotments and varies from country to country. In Indonesia 2.3 GHz and 3.3 GHz frequency bands have been assigned to allow Wi-Max technology. Therefore, there is a requirement to designed antennas that can operate at different frequency bands to bear several technologies and standards . UWB have broad applications in short-range and high-speed wireless systems, such as ground penetrating radars, medical imaging system, high data rate WLAN, communication systems for military and short pulse radars for robotics and .
The advantages of microstrip antenna have made them a perfect candidate for use in the wireless local area network (WLAN) applications. Though bound by certain disadvantages microstrippatch antenna can be tailored so they can be used in the new high speed broadband WLAN system. This paper concentrates on manufacture of broadband micro strip patchantennas for 4.5 GHz bandwidth.
Abstract–An important challenge in communication industry is to reduce the total size of devices. Similarly array size reduction has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Placing elements of an antenna array close to each other is certainly one way to reduce the total size of an array antenna. However, one of the factor called mutual coupling depends on inter element separation and relative orientation, causes undesirable effects on antenna characteristics. Therefore, within a compact structure of an antenna, reduction in mutual coupling in microstripantennas is a major challenge.
Abstract— The advantages of microstripantennas have made them a perfect candidate for use in the wireless local area network (WLAN) applications. Though bound by certain disadvantages, microstrippatchantennas can be tailored so they can be used in the new high-speed broadband WLAN systems. This paper concentrates on manufacture of broadbandmicrostrippatchantennas for the 2.45 GHz ISM band and possible implementation using adhesive copper tape in research scenarios. In this paper, two broadbandmicrostrippatchantennas were manufactured to adequately cover the 2.4- 2.5 GHz frequency band. A test procedure was also devised to compare the area coverage mappings, in term of path loss, of the in- house built antennas to the commercial broadbandantennas. The testing show, the in-house antennas demonstrate larger bandwidth response compared to the commercial product but commercial product has a larger beam width and illustrate a better coverage. The presented paper is used to design efficient and reliable broadbandpatchantennas showing signs of directivity leading to adequate area coverage and sufficient bandwidth usage.
Due to rapid development of modern wireless communication technologies, low cost, light weight and small size wideband antennas are of great demand. Microstrippatchantennas are developed in response to this need. Their planer proﬁle conﬁgurations attract commercial, industrial and medical applications. However, the main limitation of the conventional microstrippatchantennas is narrow bandwidth that restricts its operation where wider bandwidth is required. To overcome their inherent limitation of narrow bandwidth, many techniques have been proposed and investigated such as by using lower value of dielectric substrate, increasing the thickness of substrate , utilizing an impedance matching networks and diﬀerent types of feeding techniques [2–5], use of stacked and coplanar structures , loading of slot and notch [7, 8]. These techniques have some limitations except loading of slot and notch, because it enhances bandwidth without increasing the volume of the geometry. For these reasons, several structures have been reported by the research groups such as E-shaped antenna [9–12], E and H-shaped antennas , C-shaped antenna , notched semi-disk antenna , E-shaped ground penetrating patch antenna , ψ -shaped antenna , V-shaped and half V shaped antennas , W-shaped antenna, etc.  in which they achieved broad bandwidth. These antennas are fabricated on thin microwave substrates having two or more adjacent resonant frequencies which are excited near the fundamental frequencies. These closely excited resonating frequencies are combined to provide enhanced bandwidth. The concept of the proposed antenna structure has been extracted from the above discussed antenna shapes.
Abstract—A conformal wideband antenna is investigated and compared with its planar counterpart. First, a planar U-slot patch with about 43% fractional impedance bandwidth is designed. Then, it is mounted on a conformal cylindrical structure. It is observed that the fractional impedance bandwidth of the resulting conformal antenna increases to 50%, when it is bent along the H -plane. It is also found that the cross polarization discrimination of the antenna is improved. The eﬀects of the arc angle and radius of the cylinder on the impedance bandwidth and radiation characteristics of the antenna are extensively studied. The conformal antenna was fabricated on a thin ﬁlm of Kapton and tested. The measured and simulated results closely resembled each other.
This project will cover the review on antenna like characteristic, application, previous work regarding antenna design. Design antenna and analyze the simulated result will be done by using software like CST simulation tools in terms of antenna properties such as return loss in 2.45 GHz frequency range, radiation pattern, gain and bandwidth. Design and simulation, do performance and characteristic analysis for the fabric materials and parameter of the antenna. Lastly, this project will cover the fabrication and measurement of the antenna and comparison between simulation and measurement.