Programmable control panels allow adjusting the speed of travel multiple times during an irrigation event. This is accomplished by entering the field position in a 360 o circle where the speed will be changed to apply more, less or no irrigation water. This approach could be used where portions of the field were planted with a different crop, but it lacked the flexibility necessary to supply water at rates required to meet management objectives of relatively small field areas with irregular shaped boundaries [97-99] . The individual sprinkler control of water application depth can be accomplished by using a series of on-off time cycles or as it has become known as ‘pulsing’ the sprinkler through on-off cycles [100,101] . Reducing the on-time is effective at reducing both the application depth and the water application rate. Later efforts in Washington State involved equipping a center pivot with a custom built electronic controller to activate water operated solenoid valves in groups of 2-4 nozzles [102-104] . Normally open solenoids allowed system control with the assurance that irrigation water was applied even if the control system failed. Chávez et al. [105,106] reported that a remoteirrigation monitoring and control system installed on two different linear move irrigation systems performed well. The systems proved to be highly flexible and capable of precision irrigation using a series of in-field and on-board wireless monitoring spread spectrum radios/sensors networks. Individual nozzle/solenoid valves were pulsed according to prescription maps. Deviations related to positioning of nozzles when irrigating were on average (2.5±1.5) m due mainly to inherent DGPS inaccuracy. A variable flow sprinkler was developed for controlling irrigation water application by King
This chapter will describe the literature review which related with development of the Intelligent Agricultural SprinklerSystem. It consists of three literature review namely Water-saving Irrigation Automatic Control System by Plant, Remote Sensing and Control of an IrrigationSystem Using a Distributed Wireless Sensor Network Efficient and Solar Power Automatic IrrigationSystem.
AGV is a programmable, self-controlled device consisting of electronic, electrical, or mechanical units. More generally, it is a machine that functions in place of a living agent . AGVs are especially desirable for certain work functions because, unlike humans, they never get tired; they can endure physical conditions that are uncomfortable or even dangerous; they can operate in airless conditions; they do not get bored by repetition; and they cannot be distracted from the task at hand. Developed agriculture needs to find new ways to improve efficiency. One approach is to utilize available information technologies in the form of more intelligent machines to reduce and target energy inputs in more effective ways than in the past. The advent of autonomoussystem architectures gives us the opportunity to develop a complete new range of agricultural equipment based on small smart machines that can do the right thing, in the right place, at the right time in the right way. Advantages of AGV are as follow :
The development of sprinklerirrigationsystem in places and periods of insufficient rainfall has made the production of food crops, citrus and vegetables possible throughout the year on small, medium and large scale basis at an affordable cost. Therefore, the system makes provision for all season farming. The system was not only developed to improve the standard of education and exhibition but also for the production and availability of food crops, citrus and vegetables in order to reduce high cost or scarcity of these farm produce during their known off- season. The field area of 1260 m 2 was properly cleared, stumped, ploughed and harrowed. The topography of the land used was flat with a suitable soil structure, texture, water retention capacity and loam clay soil. The major components are pump, suction line, main line, sub main line, lateral, risers and sprinkler heads. A most suitable pump was designed and selected to be 4.12Kw. The sprinklerirrigationsystem was installed and the static tests carried out showed the coverage diameter and performance efficiency of 26.00 m and 98.59% respectively. The total cost of development was estimated to be N41, 760.00.
slightly higher yields and a greater number of small tubers. Wayman (1969) investigated planting potatoes in beds 152 cm and 172 cm wide with four equally spaced rows. He abandoned the use of four row beds after the first year due to potato harvester draft requirement being too large for available equipment. He continued to study semi-bed configurations with two potato rows per semi-bed spaced 76 cm apart. He concluded that mechanized harvest was possible but when compared to conventional ridged-row planting, the slight yield increase might not compensate for higher seed rates and increased harvest difficulties. Thompson et al. (1974) investigated flat bed and conventional ridged- row planting with various plant arrangements and popula- tions for canning potatoes. Flat beds 1.5 m wide were compared with ridged-row planted potatoes spaced 60 and 90 cm apart with two crop rows per ridge. They concluded that using ridged-row planting 90 cm apart with two crop rows per ridge provided the most consistent yield and had certain cultural advantages. Prestt and Carr (1984) summa- rized research results of bed versus ridged-row planting system for potatoes. They found that the advantages of bed planting systems included more uniform water distribution in the potato root zone, significantly less rainfall runoff, faster emergence and significantly greater yield. McKeown (1987) investigated bed planting using 1.5 m wide beds for seed potato production of Yukon Gold potatoes. One to three rows were planted on the beds at equal spacing between rows that were ridged as they developed. Based on yield data and net return estimates, the triple row planted bed resulted it the highest net return. Fisher et al. (1993) evaluated yield response of ridged-row planting and two rows per bed under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. They found a significant increase in yield associated with the use of beds in several experiments. They concluded that increased water use efficiency
Abstract. The marked reduction in infiltration rate caused by formation of a soil surface seal due to water droplet impact on bare soil is a well known phenomenon but is rarely considered in infiltration models, especially under center pivot irrigation. The objective of this study was to develop a soil infiltration model for center pivot sprinklerirrigation that incorporates the transient reduction in soil surface seal hydraulic conductivity as affected by soil and sprinkler characteristics. A sealing soil infiltration model was developed using an explicit finite difference solution scheme with a transient soil seal formation model, which is unique from other studies in that it explicitly uses droplet specific power as the driving factor for formation of a soil surface seal. The model was calibrated to a specific soil using published runoff data from a rainfall simulation study with varying droplet kinetic energies and application rates. The model was then applied to center pivot irrigation for five common sprinklers to evaluate the effect sprinkler selection has on infiltration. Due to the high susceptibility of the soil to surface sealing from water drop impact and low satiated hydraulic conductivity, the
Legged robots are appropriate to walk on troublesome territories to the detriment of requiring complex control frameworks to walk even on level surfaces. Be that as it may, essentially walking on a level surface is not worth utilizing a legged robot. It ought to be accepted that walking on sudden territory is the typical circumstance for a legged robot. In view of this introduce, we have built up a powerful controller for a six- legged robot that enables it to walk over troublesome landscapes in an autonomous route; with a restricted utilization of tactile data (no vision is included). This walk controller can be driven by an upper level which require not be worried about the subtle elements of foot placement or leg movements, taking consideration just of abnormal state perspectives, for example, worldwide speed and heading.
In their later work , they modified the method by adding disparity information from images captured with a stereo camera. The stereo camera captures a pair of images which contain a shift between parts of an image that is proportional to the distance of the lens. This enables the depth of a point to be determined. Figure 2.4 shows the canonical system of a camera with two lenses. Referring to point 𝑝𝑝 in left image and point 𝑝𝑝′ in right image. Disparity is the distance between these two points, which will calculated with match algorithm. The calculation of disparity solves misclassification of near obstacles with similar colours. Other extra features used are taken from YCrCb colour channel in addition to RGB and HSV. Y is the luma component and CB and CR are the blue-difference and red-difference chroma components. These features will be used as input of the ANN to identify the road region.
Compared to conventional fleet, the standard deviations of supplies are higher during modular fleet operation, which can be explained by the extra echelon level brought by fleet modularization (Liao and Chang, 2010). According to the analogy in Fig. 4.2, conventional fleet operates as a single-tier supply chain, where the supplier offers all the required vehicles (products) to the base(retailer) directly. For modu- lar fleet, workshop (manufacturer) is required to convert modules to vehicles, which makes the system become more vulnerable to the stochastic damage and maintenance. Based on the plot, modular fleet managed by different approaches exhibits total distinct performances: the fleet controlled by heuristic rules even requires more resup- plies than the conventional fleet; the fleet controlled by optimization shows a much lower needs in resources. Similar results exist in fleet readiness comparison which is shown in Fig. 4.7. Dramatically high backorders occur in the operation managed by Empiricist, in term of both mean value and standard deviation. The results show a considerable impact from operation strategy on modular fleet performance. With improper operation strategies, modular fleet may acquire more resources and suffer a much higher insufficiency.
New communication technologies integrated into modern vehicles offer an opportunity for better assistance to people injured in traffic accidents. Recent studies show how communication capabilities should be supported by artificial intelligence systems capable of automating many of the decisions to be taken by emergency services, thereby adapting the resc resources to the severity of the accident and reducing assistance time. To improve the overall rescue process, a fast and accurate estimation of the severity of the accident represent a key point to help emergency services better estimate the required reso This paper proposes a novel intelligentsystem which is able to automatically detect road accidents, notify them through vehicular networks, and estimate their severity based on the concept of data mining and knowledge inference. Our system considers the most relevant variables that can characterize the severity of the accidents (variables such as the vehicle speed, the impact speed, and the status of the airbag). Results show that a complete Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) process, with an adequate selection of relevant features, allows generating estimation models that can predict the severity of new accidents. We develop a prototype of our system based on off-the-shelf devices and validate it at the Applus+ IDIADA Automotive Research Corporation facilities, showing that our system can notably reduce the time needed to alert and deploy emergency services after an accident takes place.
A typical center pivot irrigationsystem consists of a pump system and laterals, emitting devices (sprinklers and end-guns) and accessories such as control switches, pressure gauges, a water meter, and safety valves. In this system, the lateral is fixed at one end (the center of the field) and rotated around the field at some specified rotational speed . Water is generally supplied to the lateral through a buried pipe (Mainline). Pivots are available as low, medium and high- pressure units based on sprinkler or Spray nozzle operating pressure . There are many advantages of the center-pivot irrigationsystem such as less land-leveling, low labor cost, andhigh-water application efficiency. The system has some limitations such as high initial cost, unsuitability for very odd shape fields, maintenance cost, and non-uniformity due to wind speed. Many technological improvements have been made since the invention of the pivot system to minimize the limitations in its adoption as well as to save the water, energy and time. Many early center pivots (spray nozzle and gun) operated at high pressure (550-690 kPa)with lower application efficiency have been replaced with more efficient, low pressure (70-105 kPa) systems in the last six decades . The other technological advancements accomplished so far include: ensuring uniform dischargewith varying pressure, turning end-guns on and off based upon field positions, adjusting the speed of travel multiple times during an irrigation event, using computer control and automation over the system .
In this research SPSS 19.0 is used for the statistical analysis and significant difference testing (Duncan method, α=0.05). As an influence illustration of sprinklerirrigation effectiveness on planting yields and water usage efficiency, Table 10 gives us a statistical schematic concerning with the remarkable productivity and quality developments during the whole experimental period, in such subjects as the planting yield, total amount of water consumption, irrigation quota, average efficiency of water usage, and the average efficiency of irrigation water, based on the influence analysis of sprinklerirrigation effectiveness achieved and the advantages of ANFIS evaluation confirmed. This table demonstrates that network III and IV show relatively lower water consumption than alternative does, especially an obviously decreased water consumption by 25.0%-25.5% in initial growth stage but steady in the following stages could be found, thus a more effective IFR and AWIE would be expected, which prevent the
Production agriculture utilizes two major irrigation practices: furrow and sprinkler. Sprinklerirrigation has been shown to improve irrigation use efficiency as compared to furrow irrigation (Al-Jamal et al., 2001), making sprinklerirrigation an attractive water conservation practice. Conservation efforts also suggest that increasing sprinkler and reducing furrow irrigation will reduce sediment and thus P loss. For example, the 200,000 ac Twin Falls irrigation tract in south central Idaho realized a decrease in suspended sediment losses from 400 lbs/acre in the early 1970s to 9 lbs/acre in the mid 2000s by implementing several management techniques which included replacing furrow with sprinklerirrigation (Bjorneberg et al., 2008). Changes in soil P dynamics may also occur due to the difference is soil water status between the two irrigation methods. Thus, we investigated how irrigation practices alter soil P chemistry.
Abstract: The study area is located in the desert region west of the road to Karbala-Najaf cities. The unconfined Al-Dibdibba aquifer in this area is considered as a source of water. Recently, the project of the city of Al-Imam Al-Hussein farm has been established in this area which depends on the groundwater for irrigation. The general direction of ground water in the aquifer is from the west and the south west towards the east and the northeast. The storage of the aquifer is about 46.8 Million m 3 . Two different sites were selected; the first site is the front field which includes 4 wells, while the second site is the back field which includes 20 wells. Basins have been suggested to be constructed with a volume of 3000 m 3 for each one of farms A and B in the back field and a volume of 1500 m 3 for farm C in the front field. The results of electrical conductivity-EC of ground water-GW samples indicate that are suitable for wheat, barley, maize, and sugar beet. Simulation models have been used at two phases in this research with an area of 51 donums for the back field and 33 donums for farm C in the front field. The first phase is to find crop water requirement and irrigation requirements for wheat and barley as a winter crops and maize and sugarbeet as a summer crops using CROPWAT8.0 simulation model, while the second phase includes irrigation network design using EPANET2.0 simulation model. This study has revealed that the final designed semi-permanent sprinklersystem capacity in this research is 321m 3 /hr to irrigate area of 51 donum, within 4 days of 7 hours per day for the back field. Thus, the application of sprinklerirrigation will assist in the increase of cultivation by about 2.5 times. Also, results from simulation showed that the operation time of wells has been reduced about 40%. Crop yield produced by donum for each crop was increased by about 50%.
Effects of furrow or sprinklerirrigation were studied from a soil quality standpoint. Soil chemical, biological, nutrient, and overall soil quality were greater within the bottom as compared with the top of furrow irrigated fields, suggesting erosional ef- fects, top of field soil degradation, and bottom of field soil deposi- tion. Under sprinklerirrigation, soil quality was similar between field tops and bottoms, suggesting that previously long-term top- of-field furrow irrigation degradation may be beneficially altered after conversion to sprinklerirrigation. Soil quality comparisons between sprinkler and furrow irrigation suggested that sprinklerirrigation had greater soil physical, chemical, nutrient, and over- all soil quality indices as compared with furrow irrigation within field tops, while soil chemical, biological, nutrient, and overall soil quality indices were greater under furrow irrigation within field bottoms. These findings support the above conclusions re- garding soil erosion, deposition, and beneficial alterations based on irrigation type. Our findings suggest that soil quality can be improved after switching from furrow to sprinklerirrigation, yet understanding the direct and indirect effects of soil management and sampling location are paramount to enhanced understand- ing of soil quality changes under varying irrigation methods.
Nowadays agricultural field is facing lot of problems due to lack of water resources. In order to help the farmers to overcome the difficulties, smart irrigationsystem has been used. In this system, various sensors such as DHT11, soil moisture sensor, DS18B20 are connected to the input pins of ESP8266 microcontroller. The sensed values from the sensors are displayed in Oled as well as on mobile and web application. If the sensed value goes beyond the threshold values set in the program, the pump will be automatically switched ON/OFF by the relay circuit and it is connected to the driver circuit which helps to switch the voltage. The farmer will be intimated about the current field condition through GSM module and also updated in the web page. By using this system, the farmer can access the details about the condition of the field anywhere at any time.