Top PDF Review of arrangements for disagreement resolution (SEND)

Review of arrangements for disagreement resolution (SEND)

Review of arrangements for disagreement resolution (SEND)

We found that a relatively small proportion (7%) of the key LA decisions around EHC needs assessment and plan development that can be appealed to the Tribunal are, in fact, appealed. The volume of these decisions (for example, refusal to assess in our surveys: n= 12,856) means that the number of individual parents/young people who receive a ‘refusal’ decision with which they are likely to disagree runs into thousands of cases. By using local data to review the proportion and numbers of cases that receive these ‘refusal’ decisions, LA SEND managers and lead officers could perhaps work to reduce the incidence of these within the system. Our evidence suggests that this would require schools and other educational settings to be aware of their responsibilities, under the Children and Families Act, to provide SEN support and to use the resources provided to them to deliver the provision specified in every EHC plan. It will also require LA SEND staff to be trained and supported to conduct assessments efficiently and to write EHC plans effectively, whilst working in a person-centred way. Finally, it will require local, regional and possibly even national conversations to be had about strategic planning to ensure an appropriate range of SEND provision to meet the identified educational, health and social care needs of children and young people. These statistics offer an opportunity to reflect on the different stages of the EHC needs assessment and plan development process, when considering the current functioning of the system and possible actions for improvements.
Show more

331 Read more

Review of arrangements for disagreement resolution (SEND)

Review of arrangements for disagreement resolution (SEND)

We found that a relatively small proportion (7%) of the key LA decisions around EHC needs assessment and plan development that can be appealed to the Tribunal are, in fact, appealed. The volume of these decisions (for example, refusal to assess in our surveys: n= 12,856) means that the number of individual parents/young people who receive a ‘refusal’ decision with which they are likely to disagree runs into thousands of cases. By using local data to review the proportion and numbers of cases that receive these ‘refusal’ decisions, LA SEND managers and lead officers could perhaps work to reduce the incidence of these within the system. Our evidence suggests that this would require schools and other educational settings to be aware of their responsibilities, under the Children and Families Act, to provide SEN support and to use the resources provided to them to deliver the provision specified in every EHC plan. It will also require LA SEND staff to be trained and supported to conduct assessments efficiently and to write EHC plans effectively, whilst working in a person-centred way. Finally, it will require local, regional and possibly even national conversations to be had about strategic planning to ensure an appropriate range of SEND provision to meet the identified educational, health and social care needs of children and young people. These statistics offer an opportunity to reflect on the different stages of the EHC needs assessment and plan development process, when considering the current functioning of the system and possible actions for improvements.
Show more

332 Read more

The Review of Higher Education Funding and Student Finance Arrangements in Wales

The Review of Higher Education Funding and Student Finance Arrangements in Wales

9.1.4 We believe, in contrast to the system in England, in the principle of public support for maintenance with most support going to those with the greatest need. There is a strong consensus in the evidence received by the Review Panel, that the level of maintenance support available is inadequate to cover actual costs incurred by students, and that this is a bigger issue for students than the level of tuition fees and tuition fee support. There is also a view that students from middle-income households, in particular, are inadequately catered for under current arrangements, due to the expectation that, in the case of school leavers (who make up the vast majority of those studying full- time), students address any shortfall in income via contributions from parents, commercial loans, overdrafts and arrears. We recommend a simple system whereby the same level of support for living costs be made available to all students, but this is split between grant and loan and grant funding is progressively directed to those with the lowest household incomes. This will support widening access and retention of students from all backgrounds, including those from poorer backgrounds, ‘squeezed middle’ income families and those either estranged from their parents or whose parents choose not to contribute to their higher education.
Show more

84 Read more

Project TransmiT : Academic Review of Transmission Charging Arrangements

Project TransmiT : Academic Review of Transmission Charging Arrangements

While not precluding further work on more far reaching reforms such as a transition to locational marginal pricing and different arrangements for transmission access analogous to making the option of purchase of FTRs available, we would recommend work on development of a refinement of ICRP that, as well addressing what we believe to be its present shortcomings, includes an energy element. We have coined the term ICREP for that refinement of ICRP. That work should explore different options for incorporation of an energy element and provide quantified evidence of their effects for a number of different scenarios, both present day and for the possible future GB system. We believe that such a development can complement what we understand to be the timescales of DECC’s electricity market reform process and the wider industry’s desire for decisions to be made quite quickly. We note that ‘marginal’ or ‘peaking’ generation located in the same power export areas as wind farms have the potential to ‘share’ network capacity with them. This is because such marginal plant, certainly for off-peak conditions, would normally be expected to run only when the available wind power is low. This would give rise to a need for less transmission capacity than if the network had to be built to accommodate high simultaneous outputs from both classes of plant. This, in turn, would entail lower use of system charges for both than would have been the case. In other words, if such ‘sharing’ behaviour could be relied on to take place, low load factor generation might be expected to have lower use of system charges than high load factor plant in exporting areas. However, we note that rights granted to generators within current access arrangements do not give the necessary degree of confidence, nor does the current ICRP methodology take account of such effects of low load factor generation. Although access arrangements are outside the scope of review, we would recommend that both these issues are addressed.
Show more

93 Read more

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF EXISTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE FACILITATION OF PAPERLESS TRADE

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF EXISTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE FACILITATION OF PAPERLESS TRADE

This chapter attempts to review various initiatives taken at the individual country level as well as bilateral, regional and global levels to facilitate paperless trade. These initiatives range from putting single window systems in place to electronic exchanges of cross-border trade data and documentation for administration, trade and commerce. Such a review is important as it provides important lessons for formulating a viable regional arrangement for facilitating paperless trade. It should be noted that while several successful initiatives have been taken at the country level to establish single window systems, there are relatively few examples of such arrangements for cross-border exchanges of information in a paperless mode. Some international organizations, such as the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) group, have suggested a step-by-step move towards cross-border paperless trade in which the first step should be to develop a national Single Window. The next step should be to interlink these national Single Windows to facilitate cross-border paperless exchanges of information and documentation. However, in practice, several different models have been followed for cross-border paperless trade.
Show more

64 Read more

Review of arrangements for disagreement resolution (SEND)

Review of arrangements for disagreement resolution (SEND)

The LGO currently publishes decision statements, shares upheld decisions with Ofsted and sends annual letters to Chief Executives of LAs, giving them a useful insight to help identify weaknesses or areas that require review, and sometimes also recommends staff training or new procedures. The LGO is publishing a SEND thematic report later this year and produces annual reviews of local government complaints (the latest report covers 2015/16). If the LGO spots that other children or young people may be affected by the issues raised, then they are also able to investigate further. We will continue to ensure our team of SEND advisers challenge local areas around complaints raised via the Ombudsmen.
Show more

30 Read more

REVIEW OF TRAVEL ARRANGEMENTS WITHIN THE UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM

REVIEW OF TRAVEL ARRANGEMENTS WITHIN THE UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM

72. Some organizations surveyed do not issue tickets without security clearance, while others purchase but do not issue tickets to staff members until clearance has been given and some, in cases where the destination is prone to imposition of sudden security phases, purchase flexible tickets with few or no booking cancellation charges. According to the United Nations Department of Safety and Security (UNDSS), the risk of security clearance being denied is statistically low. In 2008, 286,056 security clearances were granted and 15,542 denied, equivalent to about 5 per cent. A review of a representational amount of denied cases indicate that the majority (99.6 per cent) were denied due to incomplete travel and related data, whereas only 0.39 per cent of cases were denied owing to the prevailing security situation. 36 73. While air travel is one of the safest forms of transportation, it nonetheless poses a significant risk, given the number of flights taken by staff. 37 The Inspectors were informed of the existence of guidelines offering guidance to United Nations system organization managers, who approve duty and entitlement travel, and to staff on aspects of commercial passenger air travel, in order to minimize exposure of staff to unnecessary risks. 38 They require organizations, inter alia, to establish and maintain documented procedures for the categorization of commercial passenger airlines, establish single-flight staff number restrictions and procedures for the reporting of aviation risk management concerns.
Show more

34 Read more

The Review of Higher Education Funding and Student Finance Arrangements in Wales

The Review of Higher Education Funding and Student Finance Arrangements in Wales

22. A similar dual support system is proposed by the Review Panel to support knowledge transfer. This investment is required to ensure that the research and knowledge generated in universities provides maximum benefit to the economy and society of Wales. The Welsh Government, through HEFCW, should first fund two knowledge transfer hubs; and second instigate an agile, flexible project-based funding stream aimed at projects that will impact on the Welsh economy. These should be administered, by HEFCW, with a minimum level of bureaucracy. In addition, the Welsh Institute for Social and Economic Research and Development should receive core funding from the Welsh Government to impact on social policy, on a five year basis, against the majority of its funding coming from projects.
Show more

8 Read more

Submission Review of the tax arrangements applying to managed investment trusts

Submission Review of the tax arrangements applying to managed investment trusts

The draft White Paper drew attention to the increasing use of trusts to avoid company tax. Although the reforms to the company tax arrangements, which I shall mention shortly, will reduce the incentive to use trusts, there would still be advantages for tax-exempt institutional investors in the trust form. The Government has therefore decided to extend company tax arrangements to public unit trusts but only those which operate a trade or business, as distinct from the great majority which are vehicles for investing in property, equities or securities. These latter public unit trusts, and all private trusts, will be unaffected by this measure. The new arrangements will apply to trusts established after today to operate a trade or business. There will be reasonable transitional arrangements to phase in the new treatment for existing trusts of that kind, with first company tax payments not required before 1988-89.
Show more

5 Read more

A Review of Institutional Frameworks & Financing Arrangements for Waste Management in Nigerian Cities

A Review of Institutional Frameworks & Financing Arrangements for Waste Management in Nigerian Cities

On the basis of field work throughout the project period, a summary of the key institutional and operational arrangements for MSWM in both cities is presented on Table 1 with further details in sub-sections 4.3.1 and 4.1.2. The main MSWM arrangements in operation within Nigerian cities are the private sector based and public sector based service provision (Uwadiegwu & Chukwu, 2013). The private system is a contractual arrangement between waste generator(s) and a person or group of persons who undertake carting away of solid waste as a business pursuit, while the public system involves a situation where government sets up a public Agency with the mandate to collect solid waste from generators and dispose them at designated urban dumpsites. In many Nigerian cities, both systems function side by side particularly where the public system becomes so inefficient that it has to be complimented by the private system. This hybrid arrangement exists in Kaduna, Port Harcourt, Lagos, Aba, Owerri, Ibadan and Kano (FMHE, 1998; NIAF, 2014a; NIAF, 2014b; NIAF, 2016). While the public system is under the control, funding and supervision of the State government, the private system prospers by striving to offer satisfactory services so as to win more customers and as such ensures that efficiency is maintained (Omuta, 1988).
Show more

48 Read more

Review of Student Support Arrangements in Other Countries

Review of Student Support Arrangements in Other Countries

Australia’s higher education funding system has recently undergone significant change in response to the recommendations of the independent Bradley Review (2008). 53 The motivation for this change was the need to position Australia to compete effectively in a globalised economy. In the group of OECD countries Australia has slipped from 7 th to 9 th place in terms of the proportion of 25-34 year olds with a degree-level qualification over the last decade. Further, there are predictions that from 2010 the demand for people with undergraduate qualifications will outstrip the supply in Australia. 54 In light of this, Australia has sought to increase the supply of future graduates by encouraging groups in the population that have historically been under-represented. This includes the indigenous population, low- socio-economic groups and people from regional and remote areas. The main new feature of the Australian system is the linking of the income support payments for students to the main social welfare system such that the income support can be targeted more effectively at those with low incomes or those that must travel significant distances/re-locate for their studies. Further, statutory grants are now only available to those who also qualify for income support. In the 2009 National Budget, the Government announced that it will provide an additional $5.4 billion (£2.98 billion) over 4 years to the higher education system. The additional funding is aimed at increasing the quality of teaching and learning, improving access and outcomes for students from low socio-economic backgrounds, building new links between universities and disadvantaged schools, rewarding institutions for meeting agreed quality and equity outcomes, improving resourcing for research and invest in world class tertiary education infrastructure.
Show more

186 Read more

Response to the Review of KiwiSaver Default Provider Arrangements

Response to the Review of KiwiSaver Default Provider Arrangements

While it is true that under NZ legislation these members have consented to KiwiSaver membership by their inactivity – I think it is drawing a long bow to interpret this as tacit permis[r]

12 Read more

SRA Compensation Arrangements Review. A snapshot of the current arrangements

SRA Compensation Arrangements Review. A snapshot of the current arrangements

7.1 The primary function of the SRA's Compensation Fund is to make payments to those who have suffered loss as a result of fraud or dishonesty or by a failure to account for client mo[r]

32 Read more

Dispute Avoidance and Resolution (literature review)

Dispute Avoidance and Resolution (literature review)

In summary, accepting Reid and Ellis’s argument that there is no universal definitive definition of ‘dispute’ there is clearly a need to agree an accepted working definition or meaning for the purposes of this project. Gebken, is critical of the definition suggested by Brown and Marriott [1993] cited in Yates [2003] that a dispute involves disagreement over issues capable of resolution by negotiation, mediation or third party adjudication because, he argues this introduces characteristics of both disputes and claims in the one definition. On the other hand, whilst Gebken’s adoption of Deikmann and Girard’s definition is justifiable in the context of his doctoral research, it would seem to be too narrow in the context of this project. (Although it could be argued that Deikamann and Girard and the CII’s definitions do not preclude ‘higher’ level disputes at an inter-firm level, say between client and principal contractor, or principal and sub-contractor.) In a legal context a dispute is identified once a notice of dispute has served under the contract conditions, however conditions of contract tend to be more concerned with what has given rise to a dispute than a definition of a dispute per se. Despite Gebken’s criticism, and in the absence of any telling argument against, it would appear that a definition along the lines proposed by Brown and Marriott would be the most apt for the purposes of this project viz. that a dispute is a disagreement that requires resolution. The omission of mechanisms for resolution from the definition provides a generic definition that is likely to fit most circumstances and is in the spirit and GC21 and similar types of conditions of contract.
Show more

63 Read more

Central bank’s role and involvement in bank regulation: Lender of last resort arrangements and the Special Resolution Regime (SRR)

Central bank’s role and involvement in bank regulation: Lender of last resort arrangements and the Special Resolution Regime (SRR)

In considering the importance of the central bank’s independence in prudential supervision and whether such importance necessitates the adoption of legal provisions which would ensure such independence, this paper will commence with a brief overview of developments which have highlighted the growing importance of liquidity. Section B will then consider resolution regimes, as well as existing central bank arrangements in selected jurisdictions and the central bank’s role in maintaining stability within the financial system. The next section will focus on developments which have lead to the introduction of the Special Resolution Regime in some jurisdictions whilst other jurisdictions are still deliberating on the matter. Central bank independence, with particular focus on central bank financial and operational independence, will then be elaborated on under scetion D. This section will also consider arguments in favour of and against central bank independence. The concluding sections comprise of discussions on measures which have been introduced in the aftermath of the recent Financial Crises and why such measures will serve as suitable and necessary complements to previous and present measures aimed at safeguarding central bank independence. In concluding this paper, one of its aims is to highlight the conflicts which exist between the central bank’s independence and the goal of maintaining and achieving stability within the financial system– particularly where adequate safeguards are not in place.
Show more

20 Read more

Asset prices, disagreement and trade volume

Asset prices, disagreement and trade volume

In this thesis, I discuss how asset prices are influenced by the decisions of heteroge- neous investors. Asset prices are conventionally explained through a representative- investor whose risk-aversion fluctuates or who faces fluctuating fundamental uncer- tainty. Much progress has been made in describing how such an investor influences prices. Yet, such work poses considerable difficulties. In particular, empirical stud- ies document that trade volume predicts asset prices and investors infer information from prices. Furthermore, the burgeoning household finance literature documents patterns in portfolio allocations across investors. While models with heterogeneous investors can address such shortcomings, more work is needed to understand them. In particular, little is known about how differentially informed investors learn in fi- nancial markets and how their opinions affect prices. I describe how disagreement affects volatility in my chapter one of my thesis. I also examine how asymmetrically informed investors learn from prices in chapter two. Finally, Joao Brogueira and I made a theoretical contribution in our published paper which is contained in chap- ter 3 of my thesis. I describe each chapter briefly.
Show more

88 Read more

Central bank’s role and involvement in bank regulation: Lender of last resort arrangements and the Special Resolution Regime (SRR)

Central bank’s role and involvement in bank regulation: Lender of last resort arrangements and the Special Resolution Regime (SRR)

Maintaining the close involvement of national central banks in prudential supervision has been highlighted by the European Central Bank (ECB) as a vital pre requisite, not only in facilitating the Euro system’s adequate contribution to monitoring risks to financial stability in the Euro zone, but also in ensuring smooth coordination between central bank functions which are carried out at supra national level and supervisory functions carried out at national level. 6 It has been observed that since the start of the Crisis, the ECB has complained of a lack of information on banks which have the potential to trigger systemic failures. 7 Further, the existence of legal impediments to the sharing of information between national regulators in the Euro zone and the ECB has been noted. 8 An approach whereby a European system of supervisory agencies consisting of national prudential agencies which would be aggregated within a single supervisory system with cross border structures – similar to the European System of Central Banks, has been proposed. 9 Further, a European prudential supervisory agency would not only be responsible for strategic supervisory decisions, but also the design of policies 10 . It would also assist in the resolution of disputes between home and country supervisors. 11 The task of harmonisation in the area of bank regulation and supervision in the Euro zone however, appears to be a daunting one. Given the diverse structures of regulation across Euro member states, it is not so difficult to understand why the ECB has no formal supervisory role. 12 The recommendations of the Report of the High Level Group on Financial Supervision in the EU, which are aimed at re building the structure of financial regulation and supervision in the EU, consist of three new elements. 13
Show more

12 Read more

Resolution Enhancement in Phase Microscopy: a Review

Resolution Enhancement in Phase Microscopy: a Review

illuminated with the white light source of a standard Olympus BX51 upright microscope, but a broad band interference filter (950 nm CWL, 50 nm FWHM, 25 mm Mounted Diameter, Edmund Optics, Tucson, AZ, USA) was previously inserted for experimental layout matching. According to the theoretical prediction, the resolution limit provided by the system is 475 nm, so the last resolved element is marked with a white rectangle at Figure 10(b) and corresponds to the bars having a pitch of 600 nm coming from a bar width of 350 nm and separated by a gap of 250 nm. Element S6 (with pitch equal to 471.3 nm) which is just in the limit of resolution but not resolved. Finally, Figure 10(c) depicts the superresolved image obtained by using the proposed approach. One may see that sub- resolution features corresponding with the elements labeled as S6-S5-S4, which cannot be seen in Figure 10(a), become now distinguishable in Figure 10(b). In order to further demonstrate the resolution improvement in the lower part of the Figure 10(a) as well as 10(b) we zoom in several demonstrative features of the obtained images. It is found that some bars of the superresolved image are resolved while the others are not (see for instance the vertical bars on Element S4). The reason is due to the random Brownian motion of the nanoparticles does not sweep enough such area.
Show more

39 Read more

Disagreement-Based Multi-System Tracking

Disagreement-Based Multi-System Tracking

Abstract. In this paper, we tackle the tracking problem from a fusion angle and propose a disagreement-based approach. While most existing fusion-based tracking algorithms work on different features or parts, our approach can be built on top of nearly any existing tracking systems by exploiting their disagreements. In contrast to assuming multi-view features or different training samples, we utilize existing well-developed tracking algorithms, which themselves demonstrate intrinsic variations due to their design differences. We present encouraging experimental results as well as theoretical justification of our approach. On a set of benchmark videos, large improvements (20% ∼ 40%) over the state-of- the-art techniques have been observed.
Show more

14 Read more

Fundamental Values and Fundamental Disagreement in Europe

Fundamental Values and Fundamental Disagreement in Europe

The resolution of 12 September 2018 has been criticised for being discretionary and inspired by questionable political wisdom. These critiques appear largely unfounded. The political nature of the resolution mirrors the political nature of the substantive goods that Art. 7 TEU is designed to protect, namely democracy and the rule of law, that, at least up to a certain threshold, seem to be immeasurable by predetermined, ob- jective and impartial standards (see D. K OCHENOV , The Missing EU Rule of Law? and J.H.H.

6 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...