Top PDF Review of policies and interventions for low-income families with young children : October 2014

Review of policies and interventions for low-income families with young children : October 2014

Review of policies and interventions for low-income families with young children : October 2014

Review of policies and interventions for low-income families with young children 82 responsible for delivering the programme with funding from public health grant. An evaluation of the implementation of NCMP (Statham et al, 2011) has found that there is generally strong support for the programme’s principal aim of monitoring childhood obesity levels, and local areas have worked hard to overcome initial problems with measuring and to achieve good coverage. However, funding and capacity have in many areas been a challenge and continue to be so. As a result, local areas differ in terms of whether they are providing routine feedback to parents of their child’s results and proactive follow-up. With the introduction of routine feedback, the NCMP has evolved to take on some characteristics of a screening programme, although the DH does not present it as such. The evaluation found that views about this change to the programme are divided. On the one hand, routine feedback and follow-up are seen by some as key parts of the programme, whilst on the other the NCMP is acknowledged as working well as a monitoring tool, but less well for screening purposes. The evaluation noted that it is difficult to know how the transition of public health to local authorities will affect the NCMP, but in the current financial climate, with many areas struggling to resource the NCMP, it is likely that the future will be challenging.
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Review of policies and interventions for low-income families with young children. Summary report : October 2014

Review of policies and interventions for low-income families with young children. Summary report : October 2014

Review of policies and interventions for low-income families with young children 29 health support, as well as providing and coordinating this support. There are other centrally supported initiatives focused on nutrition and life style, including: the Baby Friendly Initiative to increase breastfeeding; Change4Life, a promotion campaign to reduce childhood obesity and the Healthy Start Scheme to improve access to a healthy diet among low-income families (see Appendix A). Only the first of these initiatives is based on a large evidence base of what works in supporting breastfeeding. The effectiveness of the others has not been conclusively established. Evidence is weak in relation to the effectiveness of Change4Life.
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Review of policies and interventions for low income families with young children

Review of policies and interventions for low income families with young children

Review of policies and interventions for low-income families with young children 82 responsible for delivering the programme with funding from public health grant. An evaluation of the implementation of NCMP (Statham et al, 2011) has found that there is generally strong support for the programme’s principal aim of monitoring childhood obesity levels, and local areas have worked hard to overcome initial problems with measuring and to achieve good coverage. However, funding and capacity have in many areas been a challenge and continue to be so. As a result, local areas differ in terms of whether they are providing routine feedback to parents of their child’s results and proactive follow-up. With the introduction of routine feedback, the NCMP has evolved to take on some characteristics of a screening programme, although the DH does not present it as such. The evaluation found that views about this change to the programme are divided. On the one hand, routine feedback and follow-up are seen by some as key parts of the programme, whilst on the other the NCMP is acknowledged as working well as a monitoring tool, but less well for screening purposes. The evaluation noted that it is difficult to know how the transition of public health to local authorities will affect the NCMP, but in the current financial climate, with many areas struggling to resource the NCMP, it is likely that the future will be challenging.
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Review of policies and interventions for low income families with young children

Review of policies and interventions for low income families with young children

Review of policies and interventions for low-income families with young children 41 engaging the hard-to-reach population. Psychoanalytic psychotherapy with children under five years of age and their families referred to a CAMHS with a range of behavioural and emotional problems. The programme focused on the emotional forces that underpin the family’s here-and-now experiences and brought into the frame the child’s perspective, with the aim of shifting the parents’ states of mind from being less reactive to being more reflective, with a resulting positive impact on the child’s behaviour.
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Young children’s and families’ experiences of services aimed at reducing the impact of low-income: participation work with children and families

Young children’s and families’ experiences of services aimed at reducing the impact of low-income: participation work with children and families

Review housing strategy, policy and service provision to ensure that the needs of families of young children are addressed, as the system does not appear to be working to meet their needs currently. In particular, it may be helpful to consider any economic, market or other policy levers to address affordability of quality private housing, and the availability of quality social housing. There would also be benefit in reviewing national and local minimum standards regarding quality and space to ensure they take into account young children’s needs. For example, regulations on overcrowding find it acceptable for there to be multiple use rooms (e.g. a bedroom used as a dining room, and also a play and learning space), but does not take into account evidence that children need space to play, learn, and to sleep that is peaceful and quiet away from others in the household. Likewise, feedback from parents in this study highlights that housing decisions for families are not necessarily taking into account families’ needs for homes that are accessible for buggies, and that include, or are near to quality outdoor space, which is important for children’s health, play and development.
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Incidence of Obesity Among Young US Children Living in Low-Income Families, 2008–2011

Incidence of Obesity Among Young US Children Living in Low-Income Families, 2008–2011

and preventing obesity among infants and young children. Understanding the incidence and re- verse of obesity among low-income children is important for augmenting population-based obesity approaches with targeted intervention programs to prevent and reverse childhood obesity among this vulnerable group and to reduce health disparities. However, no recent national studies have provided incidence data among low-income infants and young children. In this study, we used the longitudinal data from PedNSS to examine the incidence and reverse of obesity in 2010 – 2011 and variations in risk of obesity across gender, baseline age, and racial/ethnic subgroups among US children living in low-income families who were aged 0 to 23 months in 2008.
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Supporting and including children from low income families

Supporting and including children from low income families

interesting to see if the gains made by the practice of early interventions in primary settings will carry over when this generation of children reach secondary schools. Key Aspects of good practice Improving the outcome of educational attainment for children from low income families has been on the political agenda of all main stream parties for decades. Successive educational policies and changes in curriculum provision have still not changed the status quo: children and young people from disadvantaged background are still lagging behind their peers. OECD (2012) report is clear and unequivocal about this issue, the reality is that children and young people from disadvantaged backgrounds are at higher risk of low performance.
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Housing policies and their relationship to residential moves for families with young children

Housing policies and their relationship to residential moves for families with young children

Fenton, 2011; Chartered Institute of Housing and Shelter, 2011). Many objections have been made to these policies. Some are on equity grounds, for example arguments about ‘rights to the city’ or the impacts on low income children of school moves and housing insecurity. Some are on efficiency grounds, for example that low paid workers need to be able to work close to jobs. However, the government has argued that this is an equitable measure, since it is correcting a situation in which people on benefits are able to live in properties unaffordable to many people in work. More generally, the policy is embedded in a wider suite of austerity and welfare reform policies, including the aforementioned ‘bedroom tax’ designed to reduce government debt and remove disincentives to paid work. To date, there is insufficient information to be able to evaluate actual policy effects, including their effects on children. Understanding how these effects unravel over the next decade will be extremely important in understanding whether and how policies which seem to be deliberately created to promote disadvantageous moves have negative effects in childhood and later life.
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WIC Data : A Report on Low-Income Families with Young Children in Los Angeles County. August 2010

WIC Data : A Report on Low-Income Families with Young Children in Los Angeles County. August 2010

The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is a food and nutrition education program for pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum women, infants and children under age five who are low-income (up to 185% of the Federal Poverty Level) and at nutritional risk. Funded by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), WIC provides nutrition education, breastfeeding promotion and support, medical and social service referrals, and supplemental foods tailored to eligible families. WIC is a short-term intervention program designed to influence lifetime nutrition and health behaviors in this targeted, high-risk population. Nationwide, approximately 25% of the individuals served are women, 25% are infants and the remaining 50% are children ages one to five. WIC services are available in every state and US territory, and currently WIC services are delivered to over 9 million participants each month.
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Cost-effective safe motherhood interventions in low-income countries: a review

Cost-effective safe motherhood interventions in low-income countries: a review

There are several economic arguments in favour of investing in safe motherhood interventions, many outlined by the World Bank [17]. Maternal mortality and morbidity have a direct negative impact on the welfare of infants and children. Evidence from Bangladesh shows that children under 10 years of age without mothers, are 3-10 times more likely to die within 2 years, than those with a mother [17]. The death or illness of a mother also leads to a reduction in household income given the important role commonly played by women, for example, in agricultural production and trading. Improving the health of women thus contributes directly to the health of children and more broadly to poverty reduction.
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Understanding interventions for improving routine immunization coverage in children in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review protocol

Understanding interventions for improving routine immunization coverage in children in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review protocol

Methods: We will conduct a systematic review that aims to assess the effectiveness of the full range of potential interventions to improve routine immunization coverage in children in low- and middle-income countries. We will include intervention studies, as well as observational studies. We will search the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, electronic databases for eligible studies published by 31 August 2013. At least two authors will independently screen search outputs, select studies, extract data and assess the risk of bias (using separate criteria for interventions and observational studies); resolving any disagreements by discussion and consensus. The use of logic models and the Cochrane Complexity Matrix will be explored in order to better understand and contextualize studies. We will express the result of each study as a risk ratio with its corresponding 95% confidence intervals for dichotomous data, or mean difference with its standard deviation for continuous data. We will conduct meta-analysis for the same type of participants, interventions, study designs, and outcome measures where homogeneity of data allows. Use of harvest plots may be explored as an alternative. Heterogeneity will be assessed using the χ 2 test of heterogeneity, and quantified using the I 2 statistic. This protocol has not been registered with PROSPERO.
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Child Care and Children With Special Needs: Challenges for Low Income Families [Report]

Child Care and Children With Special Needs: Challenges for Low Income Families [Report]

with a disability or chronic health condition. A variable (POORHLTH) identifying children who are currently in fair or poor health was computed based on the parent’’s answer to the following question: In general, would you say child’’s health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor. The variable was given a value of 1 if the parent stated that her child’’s health rated as fair or poor and zero otherwise.”” For children ages 6 to 17, parents are asked to assess their child’’s behavior and emotional state over the course of the past month. For children aged 6 to 11, a behavior problem scale (BEHAVIOR) was created by totaling the responses to the following: whether the child has felt worthless or inferior, has been nervous, high-strung or tense, whether the child acts too young for his/her age, has had trouble sleeping, regularly lies or cheats, and whether or not the child is doing poorly in school. The response categories include often true (assigned a value of 1), sometimes true (assigned a value of 2), and never true (assigned a value of 3). Responses are totaled, creating a scale score ranging from 6 to 18. A higher score indicates fewer behavior problems. For older children, aged 12 to 17, a behavior problem scale is created by totaling the responses to the following: whether the child has had trouble sleeping, regularly lies or cheats, is doing poorly in school, has been unhappy, sad or depressed, can't concentrate or pay attention for long, and doesn’’t get along with others. Again, responses are totaled, creating a scale score ranging from 6 to 18, with a higher score indicating fewer behavior problems. In addition to continuous variables (BEHAVIOR) based on the above described scale scores, two dichotomous variables were created identifying children with high levels of behavioral and emotional problems (PROBLEM) and children who exhibit no problematic behavior (NOPROBLEM). Children who scored 18 points on the behavior scale received a value of 1 for NOPROBLEM, indicating no evidence of behavioral problems. Children whose score was less than 18 points received a value of 0 for NOPROBLEM. Children whose behavior scale score was 12 points or less received a value of 1 on PROBLEM, indicating a high level of behavioral problems. Children whose score was greater than 12 points received a value of 0 on PROBLEM.
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Public Attitudes Toward Low- Income Families and Children RESEARCH REPORT No. 1

Public Attitudes Toward Low- Income Families and Children RESEARCH REPORT No. 1

Between April and October, 2002, NCCP surveyed a nationally representative sample of 1,570 adults using our innovative Vignette Study. For this research, we cre- ated a female subject whose description randomly var- ied 11 characteristics. In all cases, she was described as the mother of two children who faces difficulties providing basic necessities for her family. The research was funded by the Marguerite E. Casey Foundation. This report, Circumstances Dictate Public Views of Gov- ernment Assistance, examines how the public responds to specific characteristics of women who face economic struggles. Our subject’s characteristics are randomly varied to include her barriers to employment (such as physical disability, mental illness, living in an area with high unemployment, and trouble with reliable child care) and whether she works or receives welfare.
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Low-Income families in New Hampshire

Low-Income families in New Hampshire

Family Income Support Analyses presented in this issue brief underscore the impor- tance of full-time work for families’ well-being. One chal- lenge of full-time work for adults in low-income families is their level of workforce preparation. Another challenge is the nature of employment available to adults with less education and few skills. For many of these adults, the only option of- fered by employers is part-time work. When full-time work is available to these adults, there is often less flexibility in scheduling, fewer benefits (e.g., employee health insurance and paid leave), and less opportunity for promotion. These challenges highlight the necessity of work preparation poli- cies, considered above, and family income support policies. Low-income families’ ability to achieve economic stability and meet basic needs requires attention to policies that pro- vide income support for families in the state. For example, the federal Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is a federal tax credit available to low-income, working families. The most recent estimates indicate that 92 percent of individuals eligible for the federal EITC filed for the credit in 1996, one of the highest rates in the country. 27 Studies show that earn- ings supplements, including the EITC and others, can help low-income families stay intact and can improve children’s behavior and achievement in school. 28
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For One in Four Very Young, Low-Income Children, Parents Are Young Too, Jessica A. Carson

For One in Four Very Young, Low-Income Children, Parents Are Young Too, Jessica A. Carson

College affordability: One of the most important mechanisms gov- erning access to higher education is the Higher Education Act, last reauthorized in 2008. The act, which includes oversight for federal pro- grams including student loans and college accreditation processes, was set to expire in 2013 but has been extended while lawmakers work on a full reauthorization. 11 Such a reauthorization, called the College Affordability Act, was proposed in October 2019 and includes several elements relevant to families headed by young adult parents, including increasing the value of Pell grants, 12 a key mechanism for expanding college access 13 among lower-income popula- tions but that has not kept pace with inflation. 14 A reauthorization could also include better supports for col- lege persistence and completion—also especially relevant for low-income young adult families who have competing demands on their time.
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Moving beyond prevalence studies: screening and interventions for children with disabilities in low-income and middle-income countries

Moving beyond prevalence studies: screening and interventions for children with disabilities in low-income and middle-income countries

if relevant, the community. Box 1 describes the potential challenges when undertaking intervention research for CWD. Impact of caring for children with disabilities on caregivers Understanding the impact of caring for CWD on caregivers and the extent to which current services consider the role and the context of caregivers is critical. Seventeen studies were found that explored the impact of caring for CWD on caregivers (table 2). 64-80 A common set of themes were reported in qualitative studies, which highlight the need for interventions to raise awareness on childhood disability, reduce social stigma, build support networks, and support mothers who were often taking the greater caregiving responsbility. 64, 66, 74, 80 In all settings, families reported inadequate services and resources. In Pakistan, parents of children with intellectual disabilities reported the major barrier to care seeking was not availability of services, but lack of information or money. On average, there was a 2-4 year gap between the child initially being identified and contact with a health care provider. 74
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Psychosocial interventions for disruptive behavioural problems in children living in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of a systematic review

Psychosocial interventions for disruptive behavioural problems in children living in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of a systematic review

behavioural problems has been demonstrated across development, from early childhood 23 through adolescence. 25 However, interventions addressing additional risk pro- cesses in the development or maintenance of disruptive behavioural problems 26 have also been proposed. 27 There is some suggestion that interventions that target risk processes at various levels of social ecological caus- ation may be more effective than interventions targeting a single risk factor. 28–30 With regard to approaches in LMIC, a widely used strategy for addressing mental health problems is WHO ’ s mental health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP). 31 The mhGAP Intervention Guide 31 supports the use of a variety of psychosocial interventions for child behavioural problems, including:
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Psychological interventions for bipolar disorder in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review.

Psychological interventions for bipolar disorder in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review.

Participant recruitment and outcome measures The study participants were aged at least 18 years in all of the studies. Most of the participants were in remission during recruit- ment to the study and were recruited from the out-patient setting of a teaching or university hospital or from a public hospital. Most were receiving pharmacotherapy and follow-up from psychia- trists. In the majority of studies the Young Mania Rating Scale was used to measure manic symptom severity either as a categorical scale with an average cut-off of nine 22 – 25 , 30 , 32 , 34 – 37 or as a continu- ous scale. 20 , 21 Similarly, in the majority of the studies, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was used to measure depressive symptom severity either as a categorical scale with an average cut- off point of eight 22 , 24 , 25 , 30 – 32 , 34 , 35 or as a continuous measure. 20 , 21 Five studies included people with bipolar I or II disorder, three studies recruited only individuals with bipolar I disorder and two studies recruited only those with bipolar II disorder; the remaining eight studies did not specify the type of bipolar disorder. In 16 studies, the DSM-IV was used as the diagnostic tool, with psych- iatrist-confirmed diagnoses in 11 studies. Two studies did not describe who confirmed the diagnosis. 27 , 35 Details of other outcome measures are provided in supplementary file 1 available at https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2018.46 .
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2014 Data Indicate That Four in Ten Children Live in Low-Income Families

2014 Data Indicate That Four in Ten Children Live in Low-Income Families

than in more expensive places like California or New York, or in less-expensive rural places than in costlier urban centers. 8 Nonetheless, research suggests that, depending on geography, families need between 1.5 and 3.5 times the poverty line to meet their basic needs of housing, food, child care, health insurance, medical care, transportation, and taxes. That more than four in ten of the nation’s children live in low- income homes highlights the criti- cal importance of both improving access to opportunity and of making work pay for America’s most vulnerable families. Given dramatic differences in the cost of living across the nation, it may be worthwhile to consider making or increasing geographic adjustments to a host of safety net programs.
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Children from low-income families, in general, and

Children from low-income families, in general, and

Well-child care is a core service of pediatrics, but it receives little emphasis in pediatric training, reluc- tant consideration by insurers, and rare attention from researchers. Although it encompasses a variety of health-promoting and disease-preventing services, the desired outcomes of well-child care and quality standards for its provision have not been specified. It is not surprising, then, that preventive care services, as they are being provided currently, are not meeting the needs of many families, especially families with the most vulnerable children. The quality of child health supervision varies greatly among physician practices, and parents are signaling their dissatisfac- tion by failing to obtain approximately one half of recommended preventive care services. In addition, evidence of effectiveness is lacking for much of the content of well-child care, which may jeopardize both its place as a covered insurance benefit and its reim- bursement. It is time for major revision of well-child care, taking into account the varying needs of indi- vidual children and families, the operation of child health care practices, and the broad issues of access to primary care and payment for services within the US health care system.
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