Another study performed by Baer, Oldham and Cummings (2003) showed that extrinsic rewards were positive for employees occupying simple tasks and negative for employees facing jobs that were complicated and challenging. A survey also shows that the employees were satisfied with extrinsic factors, for instance, working environment, their co-workers and the professional work climate, benefits, job securities and work hours (Pawlowski et al., 2005). Reviewing previous studies on relationship between reward and motivation has lead to a conclusion that a positive relationship between reward and motivation do exist. Extrinsic and intrinsic reward are become crucial in motivate employees to do their work accordingly. However, there is a lack of study regarding reward and motivationamongadministrators in higher education institution in Malaysia (Choong et al., 2011). Reward and motivation of administrators should come together in develop, sustain and create high achievement of performance in order to attain university’s goals. Thus, this study intends to add up to the pool and close the gaps by investigate the effect of reward on motivationamongadministrators in a higher education institution.
emphasizes on learner centered preparation and presentation of lessons makes students’ interested in science subjects thereby leading to better performance. However, Murithi (2015) study did not quantify the amount Principals spent on SMASSE training programs, the focus of this study. Professional growth and development of teachers can also help overcome shortcomings and keep teachers abreast of new knowledge in the field (UNICEF, 2010) thereby having a direct impact on students’ achievement. In support Anderson (2000) as cited in Murithi (2015) study noted that teachers supported with In- service as well as external workshop trainings improved significantly in their abilities to use child centered teaching and learning behaviors. Collectively when teachers are sponsored for a trip to celebrate results they get motivated. Similarly, when specific teachers are offered monetary rewards for quality grades attained, they also get motivated besides instilling in them high levels of competition for such rewards. In this study amount of cash spent on quality grades between years 2013 – 2016 on average in Emuhaya and Vihiga Sub – Counties Secondary Schools was Kshs. 0.40 Million. Those who miss out on monetary rewards strive to obtain these awards next time, thereby creating healthy completion in the system. Likewise, there was evidence in the study showing teachers competing to teach extra lessons off the timetable because there is immediate cash payment of between Ksh. 100 and Ksh. 250 for every lesson taught. This has its origin in Johnson’s 1986 Expectancy Theory of Motivation which states that individuals are more likely to strive in their work if there is an anticipated reward that they value such as bonus or a promotion than if there is none (Omboto, 2013). Monetary rewards are major rationale for working (Gitonga, 2012). Teachers who are paid more stay longer in teaching, and essentially get motivated to enhance learners’ performance.
The application of modern technologies in educational fields thrills with a sudden shift in using of the internet from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0 in the early 21st century. In the time various technological tools and social media sites evolved for social, entertainment and educational purposes. The application of such technological tools in teaching and learning of a language is termed computer-assisted language learning. However, in Arabic language learning is not widely adopted. This study aims to determine the performance level of Malay undergraduate learners of Arabic as a foreign language at Malaysian public Islamic universities (UniversitiSultanZainalAbidin, International Islamic University Malaysia and Islamic Science University of Malaysia) in reading and listening skills according to the standards of United Certification Services Limited UNICERT, using the online tool "QuizCreator Online‖. The sample of the study comprises 156 final year Malay undergraduate students that are learning Arabic as a foreign language at these very three universities (UNISZA, IIUM and USIM). The data of the study were collected through test instrument designed and marked based on TOAFL (AL-ARABIA) marking scheme deployed into ―QuizCreator Online‖. The results indicated that 53.3% of the students achieved a score of less than 50% in the reading skill while 46.7% of the students achieved a score of 50% and above. The peak score attained in reading skill was 97.5%, and the lowest score was 7.5%. Furthermore, 32.3% of the students achieved a score of less than 50% in the listening skill, and 67.7% of the students achieved a score of 50% and above. The peak score attained in listening skill was 100%, and the lowest score was 5%. This result is supported by various empirical studies conducted at different levels. This study recommends the use of web 2.0 tools such as Blogs, Edmodo, Facebook and QuizCreator Online tools teaching and learning of Arabic language to Malay AFL learners.
Jalan Katamso, Jalan Perintis Kemerdekaan, Jalan Arif Rahman Hakim, Jalan H. Ridwan Rais, Jalan Hayam Wuruk, Jalan Dr.Susilo, Jalan Kapten Abdul Haq, Jalan Pramuka, Jalan Panglima Polim, Jalan Sam Ratulangi, Jalan Teuku Cik Ditiro, Jalan Imba Kusuma Ratu, Jalan RA.Maulana, Jalan M.Saleh Kramayudha, Jalan Mata Air, Jalan Padat Karya, Jalan Wan Abdurahman, Jalan Setia Budi, Jalan Dr.Warsito, Cut Mutia, Jalan Dr.Wahidin Sudiro Husodo, Jalan Inpres, Jalan Pangeran M.Noor, Jalan Cut Nyak Dien, Jalan Tamin, Jalan Agus Salim, Jalan Muhammad Ali, Jalan Sisingamaraja, Jalan Rasuna Said, Jalan KH. Ahmad Dahlan, Jalan Salim Btubara, Jalan Pulau Legundi, Jalan Pulau Tegal, Jalan Pulau Danar, Jalan WR.Supratman, Jalan Tirtayasa, Jalan Urip Sumoharjo, Jalan Letkol Endro Suratmin, Jalan Sultan Agung, Jalan Untung Surapati, Jalan Kimaja, Jalan Ratu Dibalau, Jalan RA.Basyid, Komaruddin,
Trustworthiness is about having the capabilities that match with the responsibility that one carries, and by not having trustworthiness, it could mean a disaster to ummah and the society. A disaster in the community system ruins individuals in general. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) often reminded his ummah on the disaster in life if trustworthiness is betrayed. A leadership post needs trustworthiness; a person is required to choose the person for and to have ownership of the post based on a person’s capabilities. If he or she does not do that, he or she is considered a traitor (ZainalAbidin, 2010). Hence, what is the fundamental for a person to choose and appoint a leader who is capable for a post? Based on Al Qasas Surah, Allah says:
The Role of Intravenous Nutrition in Low Birth Weight Infants Med J Malaysia Vo! 39 No 3 September 1984 THE ROLE OF INTRAVENOUS NUTRITION IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS ZAINAL ABIDIN N KUHAN SUMMARY Seve[.]
The performance of employees is a product of both their abilities (e.g. skills & experience) and motivation. There are a number of different views as to what motivate workers. The most commonly held views or theories have been developed over the last 100 years or so by great management gurus, Taylor, Elton Mayo, Maslow and Herzberg. This project explores the impact of rewards and recognition programs on the motivation of IT employees. A survey was conducted among IT employees in Hextar to know about the types of reward and recognition programs followed in their organization, their effectiveness in motivating employee to perform their best and suggestions for improvement.
fungus and inocula preparation. The fungus strain used in this study was A. flavus UPMC 89, a strong aflatoxin producing strain, obtained from Microbial Culture Collection Unit (UNiCC), UPM. The cultures were maintained on Czapek Dox agar(CDA) slant at 4°C. The fungus was grown on Czapek yeast agar (CYA: CDA+ 0.5% Yeast) at 28°C for 7 days. Spore suspensions were prepared in sterile distilled water containing 0.5% Tween 20 and adjusted to a concentration of 2-3 ×106 spores/ ml, corresponding to 0.11 to 0.13 absorbance when a Varian Cary Model 50 spectrophotometer set at 530 nm was used (18).
Some few years back, Citizens in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) had survived a simple life, as they were into many different PA by involving in consistent sports activities (Al-hazzaa, 2018). Sports promote active healthy living among them. The energetic healthiness can be realized with constant PA in the form of sports. Healthy living based on the simple life of KSA peoples were evident from support through government initiative and policies (Thompson, 2017). The KSA policy and plan target reduction of Saudi Arabia's dependence on oil, hence it diversifies their economy and develops public service sector towards good health care [3-4]. This is one, out of the many goals for vision 2030 plan. A study by (McWhannell, Triggs and Moss, 2017) acknowledged that “PA has a positive effect on academic performance for students in academic core subjects and executive function”. The participants from School B remarked that they engage in PA simply to become healthy and stronger than those from participants from School A. The study revealed participation in sports activity makes the students have more fun (McWhannell, Triggs and Moss, 2017). The qualitative data explained that participant’s perceptions of PA showed some similarities between schools A and B. It was concluded that participants have different reasons for taking part in PA, therefore, their perception to use the playground was given as an idea to improve PA (McWhannell, Triggs and Moss, 2017).
 Muhammad Firdaus ZainalAbidin, Dahaman Ishak and Anwar Hasni Abu Hassan, "A comparative study of PI, Fuzzy and Hybrid PI-Fuzzy controller for speed control of Brushless DC motor Drive"- IEEE International Conference on Computer Applications and Industrial Electronics, 2011.
“An appreciated employee is a happy employee”. One way to appreciate an employee‟s effort is by having a well thought out and effective Rewards & Recognition Program. The main objective of the R&R program is to reward and recognize an employee for a certain desired behavior and to motivate him/her (positive reinforcement) to further the behavior in future too. R&R also helps to motivate other employees to perform is a desired way. Even if the target is not achieved, the effort has to be appreciated. In the current competitive
Present study found 47 (78.3%) students suffers from stress. Similar study conducted in Saudi Arabia reported 63.8% suffers from all form of stress but 25.2% is severe stress (Abdulghani et al., 2011). Therefore current study finding is almost similar with Arabian study. Academic stress is much higher than other thing causing stress. Multiple similar studies also reported (Coles 1994; Guthrie et al., 1995; Kaufman et al., 1998). The stressor of current study includes teaching and learning, studying and personal problems. Based on teaching and learning source of stress, too many lectures become the main problem that
To find out the patterns of relationship that exists among data-groups, statistical tools used are Standard Deviation, Regression analysis, t-test, Z-test and Chi-square test and ANOVA. Data have been analyzed with the help of Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS). RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of HR practices on university teachers’ job motivation in Lahore, Pakistan. The study consists of three variables: Administrative Policies (AP), Rewards/Incentives (RI) and Teachers Motivation (TM) where administrative policies and incentives/rewards are considered independent variables whereas motivation level is used as a dependent variable. Five point Likert scale questionnaire was adopted to collect the data. The data was processed through SPSS 20 and correlation & linear regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The results of the study carry significance and elucidate that rewards/incentives and administrative policies affect the motivation level of university teachers in Lahore, Pakistan.
For this study, the researcher collected both primary and secondary data (Saunders et al, 2003). There are three main methods through which primary data can be collected, they include: survey method, interviews, focus interviews amongst others. The data will be gathered with care, this is to ensure that the sources are valid and reliable. According to Burns (2008) the selection of the method of research should be based on the relevance of the methodology and research sample that is applied. In order to collect primary data for this study questionnaire will be drafted in order for the research questions to be answered by the respondents, and the questionnaires will be self- administered to employees in Tesco. This implies that the researcher will administer the questionnaires to the respondents to fill or tick in the answers, and then collect the questionnaires from the respondents at a later date. The secondary data for this study as reflected in the literature review section was collected from both the library and internet. The journal articles that were used for this study were mainly retrieved from some online sources which includes; emerald Sage and Google amongst others. This is reflected in the adequate referencing of the study.
Deputy Higher Education Minister Datuk Dr Hou Kok Chung said that “reading is a good way of improving one's proficiency in a language” (The Star Online, 2012). He also urged that reading must be made as a habit especially English books as English language is known as one of the factor that can enhance a person’s employability. Pandian (2000) found that the majority of university students are “reluctant” readers in English language materials (as cited in Abidin et al., 2011).
ISSN: 2306-9007 Abdullah & Wan (2013) 1086 responsibilities (Deperi, Tortia and Capita, 2010). Recognition is the most common and powerful tool that is being used in the organization to drive employee engagement (Sun, 2013). Sun (2013) further identifies three conditions that are necessary for the effective use of recognition tool. First, recognition should be used frequently; recognition needs to be provided every one week to employees so that they can feel valued. Second, recognition should be specific, and identifying what is recognized makes it meaningful and critical. Third, rewards should be timely, that is, it should take place shortly after the employee action that deserves recognition occurs.
Introduction: Metacognition is the awareness of knowledge how one learns in addition to what one learns and to understand how a task will be performed. Metacognitive skill as self-assessment is recognised as an important contributor to the development of critical capacity, reflective attitude and autonomous life-long learning. Accurate, self-assessment of knowledge and skills is essential for students to maintain and improve through self-directed learning. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore, how well students’ evaluate their own level of understanding for lectures to reflect their metacognitive skill that can be used in educational strategy to promote students’ personal and professional growth. Methods: To assess the metacognition of the students, a questionnaire based on three items was designed. All 60 (17 male and 43 female) preclinical, first-year medical students were included in this study. The metacognition as planning, monitoring and evaluating the lecture was judged through students’ response on 33 lectures in terms of understanding of knowledge, clearing of misconceptions and presenting of a well prepared material respectively in the field of haematology and parasitology. Metacognition as reflected in the lecture understanding level (LUL) score, lectures preparation level (LPL) score and students question level (SQL) score was estimated for its correlation with student’ achievement score in pre-clinical phase of MBBS program. Results: The data was analysed for correlation between metacognition and overall students’ achievement scores and a statistically significant correlation between LUL and multiple true false (MTF) of 268 (p = .039), LPL and MTF of .282 (p = .029) as well as between SQL and MTF of .360 (p = .005) was compared to poor correlation between LUL, LPL and SQL and the other three assessment tools (short essay questions [SEQ], problem-based questions [PBQ] and objectively structured practical examination [OSPE]) was found. Conclusion: The significant correlation of students’ metacognition and their achievement score in classroom setting with MTF and poor correlation with SEQ, PBQ and OSPE is attributed to multiple factors discussed in this study, imperative to students’ personal and professional growth.
Taking into account the limitation of a cross-sectional study, this study was able to find the prevailing perception of respondents regarding antimicrobial prescribing and resis- tance. This research has evidently concluded that there is a gap between theoretical input and clinical practice. Students have demanded more educational intervention to face this potential threat of AR. Clinical competency regarding anti- biotic prescribing during their housemanship was mainly acquired by emulating senior colleagues, and this should be replaced by P-drug selection program in the MBBS cur- riculum and also during housemanship. Both national and local guidelines for antibiotic prescribing should be made available more easily, preferably as a free download from the university or hospital website. Moreover, care must be taken to update the guidelines regularly. In summary, AR is a multifactorial problem. Therefore, much integration and cooperation among all health professionals, including patients, is needed to eliminate and reduce the risk of bacte- rial resistance developing to antimicrobials.