Both Vink and Pons regard the peat stream ridges as the western continuations of the river courses. In the peat area the pattern of sedimentation changes its character. The greatest part of the sediment load, namely the coarse fraction, was already deposited in the river clay area upstream. More to the west, the natural levees become more and more clayey, and the basins more and more peaty. In the peat area it was only in the river bed itself that sand was deposited. At high water level the water flooded into the countless lateral creeks. This water was loaded only with fine silt, that could sink there. At extreme high water levels the whole surrounding peat was flooded and clay settled down at both sides outside the gully, forming the later "clay wedges". The narrow sand cores of our peat stream ridges may be interpreted as stream channel sediments, deposited in deeply-cut gullies, the counterparts of the meander- belt-deposits according to Havinga. The clay mantles and clay wedges are the high water deposits. At the end of the activity began the process of peat overgrowth 43 .
Before 1950 t h e western river area, t h e region between Tiel a n d Alblasserdam, was, from an archaeological point of view, terra incognita—a blank space on t h e distribution m a p s . I n subsequent years a few discoveries were made, particularly during t h e soil surveys, b u t it was t h e foundation in 1962 of t h e A W N work-group, " L e k en Merwestreek", t h a t marked t h e m o m e n t when systematic exploration began. U n d e r t h e inspiring leadership of Mr H . A. de K o k scores of archaeological terrains, d a t i n g from t h e Vlaardingen Culture t o t h e Middle Ages, were discovered. They lie on t h e deposits of former river courses and creek systems a n d on t h e t o p s of E a r l y Holocene dunes. An intensive correspondence on t h e subject of these finds took place with Professor Modderman.
The material is divided over four distribution maps. The time limits of the periods covered by the maps coincide as far as possible with divisions in the archaeological material, but they are primarily moments when large parts of the region appear to be relatively thinly inhabited. Considerations of classification have led us in each case to show groups of similar isolated finds on one map. The flint axes and battle axes have thus been shown on map II, the flint arrow-heads on map I I I and the hammer axes on map IV. A number of late battle axes certainly falls, however, in the period of map I I I ; flint axes were certainly in use as late as 1700 B.C. The Sögel arrow-heads fall in the beginning of the period of map IV and the dating of the hammer axes is still a considerable problem. As long as the above points are borne in mind, all this — certainly since we are concerned with isolated finds — has little influence on the interpretations and the conclusions. Stone axes of round or oval cross-section form a special problem, which will be discussed in its appropriate context.
densed section which corresponds on seismic profile to a maximum flooding surface (MFS, called D600). The age of the MFS varies along-strike between ca. 8 and 3 ka cal. BP, and reflects, at a given site, the duration of condensation and/or erosion (Fanget et al., 2014). After the stabilization of global sea level (ca. 7 ka cal. BP), the middle and late Holocene Rhône outlets shifted progressively eastward, un- der natural and/or anthropic influence. As a result, several deltaic lobes are formed (Fig. 1) (Arnaud-Fassetta, 1998; L’Homer et al., 1981; Provansal et al., 2003; Rey et al., 2005; Vella et al., 2005, 2008). Saint Ferréol, which is related to the “Rhône de Saint Ferréol” Channel, is the first and largest paleo-deltaic lobe. It started to prograde around 7 ka cal. BP (L’Homer et al., 1981). The Ulmet lobe, located to the east and linked to the “Rhône d’Ulmet” Channel formed simul- taneously to the Saint Ferréol lobe. To the west of the Saint Ferréol lobe, the Peccais lobe, related to the “Rhône de Pec- cais” Channel, appeared to be posterior to the erosion of the St Ferréol lobe (Rey et al., 2005; Vella et al., 2005). During the Little Ice Age, the Bras de Fer lobe, linked to the “Rhône de Bras de Fer” Channel, formed between AD 1587 and 1711 (Arnaud-Fassetta, 1998). Until AD 1650, the “Rhône de Bras de Fer” Channel is considered as synchronous to the “Rhône du Grand Passon” Channel (Arnaud-Fassetta, 1998). The “Rhône de Bras de Fer” Channel shifted to the east up to the present-day position of the Grand Rhône River after several severe floods that occurred in AD 1709–1711. The progra- dation of these lobes is primarily influenced by changes in sediment fluxes and thus by climate (Arnaud-Fassetta, 2002; Bruneton et al., 2001; Provansal et al., 2003).
Figure 3.8 Mainland river catchments that expel substantial amounts of meteoric runoff into the southern Gulf of Carpentaria during the wet season. .......................................................... 70 Figure 3.9 Modern boundaries claimed by the four Aboriginal language groups of the Wellesley Islands (redrawn from Rosendahl 2012:46 after National Native Title Tribunal 07/12/2004; www.nntt.gov.au). ...................................................................................................................... 73 Figure 3.10 The Kaiadilt concept of country as drawn by a Kaiadilt informant. Note the central positioning of the sea (redrawn from Tindale 1977:248). .......................................................... 74 Figure 3.11 A Kaiadilt fish trap complex located at the mouth of Catfish Story, Bentinck Island (Photograph: Sean Ulm, 2013). ................................................................................................... 76 Figure 3.12 Two tropical cycles coincide with the reported tidal surge in February 1948 (BOM 2015c). ......................................................................................................................................... 80 Figure 4.1 Distribution of G. pectinatum across the Indo-Pacific (after GBIF 2013a; SeaLifeBase 2012a). ........................................................................................................................................ 88 Figure 4.2 In situ live G. pectinatum specimen at Raft Point, Bentinck Island, South Wellesley Islands (Photograph: Daniel Rosendahl, 2014). .......................................................................... 89 Figure 4.3 A mixed shellfish scatter including G. pectinatum on Sweers Island (Photograph: Daniel Rosendahl, 2012). ............................................................................................................ 90 Figure 4.4 Section of a G. pectinatum live-collected from the South
Wachapreague Inlet bayshed (southern Cedar Island and northern Parramore Island; Figure DR1) at two different time periods (1957–1994 and 1994–2012). They found that barrier migration played an outsized role in marsh loss, accounting for 45% of loss between 1957 and 2012. Moreover, whereas burial and exposure were responsible for the large majority of loss within the section of the bayshed fronted by the Cedar Island, overwash played almost no role in marsh loss within the section of the bayshed fronted by Parramore Island, which has historically been stable to erosional along its northern end. Marsh loss in this southern half of the bayshed was caused primarily by wind-driven waves and tidal currents.
From the beginning of the crisis and the occupation of their zone, the views of at least some French officials on population questions were based heavily on ethno-cultural, almost racialising, assumptions, which crop up repeatedly in their analyses and contributed to French problematisation of the issues. This stance was linked to their ambitions for greater autonomy in the westernmost regions of Germany, which they sought to foster through the development of local or regional ‘particularism’. Particularism was the policy of supporting the development of strong regional identities, as a counterweight to any centralising tendencies - without, however, necessarily overtly pushing for separatist movements to arise. In the French zone, this meant both bolstering the Catholic character of the zone (Catholics were the majority in many - though not all - FZO districts) and countering ‘Prussian’ influence from the North and North-East, which was seen as a ‘centralising force’. A note by Administrator General Laffon is typical of these common racialising views. ‘Ethnically,’ he claimed, the Sudeten Germans ‘differ entirely’ from the Germans of the French Zone. ‘They are “Border Germans”, like Silesians or Bavarii who, by their race as by their civilisation, have nothing in common with Badeners, Württembergers or Rhinelanders.’ Views could shift; a few years later 37
In the coalition, three out of four councillors were convinced that they should explain the output more than they currently do. Moreover, within the council-majority, two councillors believed that they spend more time on explaining political outcomes than on listening to citizens’ input. A third councillor thinks the opposite and the fourth equals input and output time. As for the opposition, one councillor also puts both “input and output time” on one level, while a second interviewee was convinced that input time is far greater than output time. The third councillor did not express any clear opinion on this issue. From this type of clear distinction with which councillors were able to speak, it can be deduced that they are able to separate both undertakings even in practice. It however has to be reminded that most councillors also stated they immediately explain their reasons for disagreeing with a citizen’s proposal and its transmission to the council which can be considered as output explaining. Even though councillors were thus able to consider input and output as separate tasks for the question, they seem to mix and combine them in their daily council work. There is thus no clearly visible pattern in terms of the time and importance attached to either output or input. Again, one could assume a methodological difficulty in that the English terminology could not be effectively transposed into the French questions.
The USACE is by far the dominant federal presence as concerns flood management across the US, and especially the lower Mississippi because of its continued implemen- tation of the 1928 MR&TP and the 1965 Lake Pontchatrain and Vicinity Project. The USACE is mandated to cooperate with other federal entities for issues related to its flood man- agement infrastructure and the lands they influence (USACE 2000). This includes, for example, the US Fish and Wildlife (USFWS) in regard to the Endangered Species Act and the Clean Water Act (i.e. Section 7 and 404 of the ESA and CWA, respectively). An important role of the USACE is its authority to issue permits for modifying wetlands for projects authorized by the US Congress, which includes both removal and restoration of riparian wetland habitat. This can seem a somewhat curious responsibility considering the competition between agricultural and environmental stakeholders across lowland floodplains, and because the USACE is often the agency directly involved in the actual engineering (e.g. drain- ing, diking, ditching, etc.) of floodplain wetlands for develop- ment and flood management. The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) can ultimately rule against the USACE if it is deemed to not be in compliance with section 404c of the Clean Water Act regarding the physical and eco- logical health of the nation’s surface waters. The US FWS holds similar veto authority as regards the ESA, leverage especially vital to the sustenance of riparian ecosystems in the case of proposed floodplain drainage projects. Unfortu- nately, because the ultimate decision to invoke either the CWA or the ESA is by a politically appointed director, the
A paleo-lacustrine delta in Kyoto, Japan was reconstructed on the basis of subsurface geological and geomorphological analysis, and paleo-lake level changes were estimated from the structure of the delta. These analyses of the study region, i.e., the Oguraike reclaimed land area provided evidence that Lake Ogura existed until about 60 years ago in southern Kyoto, Japan. The Uji river delta was provided influents to this lake until ca. 400 years ago, as is indicated by an up- ward-coarsening delta succession of about 2 - 4 m thickness. The lake level could also have changed in the past as a result of a change in altitude of the delta-front (foreset) and delta-plain boundary, which probably reflects the lake sur- face elevation. About 400 years ago, the Paleo-Uji River was separated from Ogura Lake because a levee was con- structed along the river for building a castle and for constructing a waterway for transportation. As a result of this con- struction, the lake level that was more than 13.0 m in elevation was reduced by 1.5 m. In a more ancient times, the lake level experienced two stages—one in which the elevation was more than 13.5 m, and one in which the elevation was reduced to less than 10 m. These changes in the lake level are represented by a flat surface with four steps and small cliff of height ca. 0.5 - 2 m (relative elevation) separating them, recognized at the southern lakeshore. The observation of strata along with the archaeological survey in the north of Ogura Lake reveals that the lake level was decreased ca. 800 - 680 years ago. The lake level was at its highest during two periods, the first from before the 8th century to the end of the 8th century and the second from the 14 th century to 400 years ago.
The ReCAP (REnland ice CAP project) ice core, drilled from the coastal Renland ice cap, in east Greenland (Fig. 1) constitutes the only Greenland ice core with a complete Holocene climate stratigraphy largely undisturbed by glacio- logical “brittle ice” effects (Vinther et al., 2009). The Ren- land ice cap is an ideal location for investigating ocean trace gas emissions since air masses feeding this region are mostly sourced from the North Atlantic Ocean, from 50 ◦ N up to the Fram Strait (Maffezzoli et al., 2018). From the analysis of the upper 130 m of the ReCAP ice core (1750–2011 CE), Cuevas et al. (2018) have shown that a 3-fold increase in the North Atlantic iodine concentration has occurred during the last 6 decades. This increase is mainly driven by anthropogenic ozone pollution and enhanced sub-ice phytoplankton pro- duction associated with the recent thinning of Arctic sea ice (Cuevas et al., 2018). This 3-fold increase has also been recorded in an alpine ice core (Col du Dome ice core), which likely records iodine emissions from the Mediterranean Sea (Legrand et al., 2018). The recent increase in anthropogenic ozone in the troposphere and its subsequent deposition onto the ocean surface favor the tropospheric ozone reaction with iodide ions, accelerating the release of HOI and I 2 to the
The seven sub-basins of the Rhine area have different regimes. The regimes are seen in Figure 3 where they are characterized as the median discharges per day at the outflow locations of the sub-basins. In the Alps more often precipitation falls as snow, due to the low temperatures at high altitudes. The snow builds up and stays in the mountains during the winter season. When temperatures rise, a lot of the snow melts and flows to the Rhine. In summer months the contribution of flow from the Alpine basins is the highest, but also in the winter the median discharge of the alpine basins is about the same as the other tributaries. The tributaries Moselle, Main and Neckar are rain fed rivers and have the largest discharges in winter and low discharges in summer and autumn, although the differences in median discharge in the Neckar basin between seasons are quite limited. In the Middle Rhine basin the discharges from the upstream sub-basins join. The discharge regime at Andernach is quite similar to that of Lobith. In the Lower Rhine basin the Ruhr, Lippe, Sieg and Erft discharge on the Rhine.
Chloroacetyl chlor ide reacts with polystyrene N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2'- hydroxybenzylideneimine-3'-carboxylate, PSCH 2 – LH 2 , in presence of triethylamine in dioxane and forms polystyrene N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-[(22 - hydroxy-32 -carboxybenzylidene)]-2-azetidinone, PSCH 2 –L2 H 2 (I). A DMF suspension of I reacts with Cu(II), Co(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zr(IV), MoO 2 (VI) and UO 2 (VI) ions in 1:2 molar ratio to form the corresponding coordination compounds. The percent reaction conversion (PRC) of polystyrene- anchored coordination compound is 49.0–88.5 (Table-1). The metal binding capacity (MBC) of I is between 0.34–0.63 mmol per gram of resin. The formation of the polystyrene-anchored azetidinone (I) and its coordination compounds takes place as per the Schemes I and II:
is explained why only the police co-operation between the Netherlands and Germany is looked at. With the same participating parties, there was the expectation that it will be possible to explain the differences. After comparing the data from the EUREGIO and the Euregion Meuse-Rhine, it could be that the additional party in the Euregion Meuse-Rhine could influence the police co-operation. There are a few possible explanations for the differences in the cross-border police co-operation. The first one is that each Euregion has its own way of working on the police co-operation. Where one Euregion uses several Euregional organisations, the other Euregion has a cross-border police team as an important component of the cross-border police co-operation. The second explanation is that the level of knowledge is insufficient. Both Euregions work on this problem by organizing meetings and training days. Then there are differences in the institutional factors. The Euregions cope with the same problems, but these problems could be an explanation for the differences. Another explanation could be that there is an additional party in the Euregion Meuse-Rhine. Furthermore, both Euregions acknowledge that not all possibilities of the police co-operation are used.
changes allowing people within reach of such resources to survive any potential climatic forcing on their habitats. Jones and Richter (2011) showed that the springs feeding the Azraq Oasis were active during the LGM and early Holocene with probable standing water or lake environments in existence prior to the LGM. No sedimentary evidence is preserved through the LGIT but people were certainly living around the oasis through this time period. The findings show, that independent of any regional palaeoclimate debate water was available to people for much of this time period.
Chloride concentrations within the estuary are affected by many processes, which can be summarized in three main factors; the inflow of salt water due to tides; the inflow of fresh water due to river discharge and the mixing processes between these inflows. Previous research indicated that deepening of the New Waterway and Botlek may lead to increased chloride concentrations in the Rhine-Meusedelta. In this research daily averaged values were used. Due to the dependence of the inflow of salt water on the tidal water movement, however, this analysis is best performed at the time scale of the in- and outflow of the tidal wave. The inflow of fresh water in the Rhine-Meusedelta originates from the Waal, Meuse and Lek rivers, of which the discharge volumes are measured upstream of the estuary. These discharges take a certain amount of time to reach the measurement locations for chloride concentrations in the estuary. Similarly, the inflow of salt water with the tidal wave, measured as the water level at the mouth of the estuary, takes time to propagate into the estuary and reach the chloride concentration measurement locations. These time lags are determined, with the use of a cross-correlation analysis between the observed boundary conditions and the chloride concentrations, at four different locations in the estuary. Resulting time lags vary from 110 minutes to 280 minutes regarding the tide and 750 minutes to 1900 minutes regarding the discharges of the Waal, Meuse and Lek.
Flooding due to ice damming may be considered as a spe- cial case. During a long period of very low temperatures, es- pecially river reaches with small flow velocities can be cov- ered by ice. This condition is fulfilled in the generally slowly dropping Rhine branches, especially in the transition regions to the tide. From there on, the ice cover could subsequently be extended upstream. A sudden warming, in Central Eu- ropean winters often combined with precipitation from At- lantic air masses, could then lead to the piling up of ice clods at baffles in the river, such as sand banks.