At the Research Laboratory of Snow Avalanches and Debris Flows of Moscow State University, a methodology was de- veloped to assess risk and potential natural hazard damage on different scales in order to increase the safety of the local population and tourists, and to protect infrastructure (Seliv- erstov et al., 2008; Shnyparkov et al., 2012). The result of practical applications of this method is a large-scale risk zon- ing for the studied areas in terms of quantitative values for individual fatality and total social risk. The previous small- scale studies on avalanche risk in NorthCaucasus allowed us to receive some important data about risk distribution in the region. However, due to economic growth, more profound investigations of particular objects on large scales have be- come essential. In accordance with previous studies, there are three levels of individual fatality risk, which are “appropri- ate” (less than 1 × 10 −6 ), “acceptable” (up to 1 × 10 −4) ) and “unacceptable” (1 × 10 −4 ) (Seliverstov et al., 2008; Shny- parkov et al., 2012; Vorob’ev, 2005). Economic development of the territory should be carried out in accordance with such risk levels. We used the same risk categories for large-scale assessments.
Spanish Pyrenees are clearly the most strongly affected by climate change. Low elevated resorts with a higher Mediterranean influence and more south-oriented were identified as the most vulnerable (around 38% reduction of season length in +2°C scenario). Skiresorts with a higher Atlantic influence, located at higher elevations and more north oriented were identified as the more resilient ones (around 15% reduction of season length in +2°C scenario). The snowmaking analysis showed that in the +2°C scenario snowmaking can significantly enhance the ski season length in many of the Pyrenean skiresorts. In the +4°C scenario snowmaking capacity is significantly reduced because the increase of the minimum temperature, a constraining boundary to efficiently produce snow. Therefore, the effect of snowmaking systems is residual in this scenario. The results of this study can be used as the basis for a better characterization and understanding of the geographical differences of vulnerability to impacts due to future climate changes in the region. However, the results show the need of a better geographical characterization and a higher spatial resolution of the spatial variability of the snowpack in the area. The spatial distribution of snow in mountain areas is characterized by a high variability in very short distances. This variability is the consequence of the complex interaction between mesoscale meteorology and local topography and weather factors. Aspect, slope or the effects of wind-blown (Green and Pickering, 2009) are crucial factors affecting the spatial distribution of snow. For example, due to the complex topography of mountain areas, slope angle and aspect are also very likely to influence the sensitivity of snowpack to temperature change (Uhlmann et al., 2009). Thus, snowpack dynamics is strongly influenced by aspect (Hinckley, 2012), which affects snow accumulation and melting, especially in areas having a marginal snowpack (McNamara et al., 2005). In this line, it is found that as temperature increases the effect of aspect on accumulation and melting increases, and results in greater differences in the maximum snow accumulation and snowpack duration. (López- Moreno et al, 2013).Therefore the inclusion of the effects of local topography when analyzing future snowpack at skiresorts will be a key issue to achieve a better vulnerability assessment of the Pyrenean winter tourism industry. This information, could be complemented in a future research with snow cover models with higher spatial resolution, able to better capture the regional variability of the snow depth for each ski resort.
is participation of mediators, facilitators and other third-party actors. Their intervening into such conflicts is in most cases regarded by the parties involved in conflict as abetting.
The participants of identity-based conflicts cannot rational- ize the situation and often experience difficulty in explaining the reasons of their personal actions. Motives for participa- tion of individuals and groups in identity-based conflicts are very important for the assessment of the perspectives of con- flict resolution; in order to satisfy their material interests peo- ple are unlikely to risk their lives. But there are many cases where participation in a conflict is more or less pronounced as a sacrifice but not an imminent risk; sometimes willingness to make sacrifices for the sake of any lofty ideals is clearly rec- ognized or verbalized by the parties of identity-based conflicts. The growth of ethnic conflicts in Russia occurs when ethnic groups tend to perceive themselves as victims of value claims of other ethno-religious and ethno-political groups, i.e. in the situation of awareness of a threat to group security. In this aspect, an adequate identification of mechanisms of identity- based conflict initiation and the involvement of new members are the path for forecasting and early warning of conflicts. Identity-based conflicts do not always fit into the simple cogni- tive schemes. According to Rothman, one of the attributes of the identity-based conflict is its “elusiveness”. In other words, such a conflict is deeply subjective; rivals found in an identity- based conflict sometimes can hardly explain the nature of their rivalry. When the conflicting parties describe their controver- sial issues in terms of history, of events or significance, an out- side observer may hear very different stories. The fact that one side presents as a struggle for freedom, the other presents as a terrorism (Rothman, 1997).
Ah the challenge is to keep that harmony right, and not everybody can do that okay and so [slight pause] ah it’s a tight line ... well its politics right? But everybody has an inherent interest... ah [slight pause] economics, it always goes back to economics (Interview 10, personal communication, January 16, 2007). With regards to the guest experience strategy, this again is something that has come with the Intrawest merger. The resort is, however, currently experiencing a challenge in bringing this guest focus to the front lines. This challenge is illustrated in market research that reveals a low number o f consumers who intend to recommend the resort to others (Blue Mountain Resorts Limited, 2006). As a result o f this challenge, a new position of Director of Mountain Experience was created, with the hope that “what that does is it brings the focus the guest focus into the operations side and ah allows them to really drive the overall favourable number” (Interview 7, personal communication, December 4, 2006). This strategy has also impacted a variety o f organizational processes.
The explanatory power of the linear model measures around 93 percent. Overall, most of the attributes show the expected sign and are statistically significant at 1 percent level. While the length of the slopes (KM), the vertical drop of the slopes (VTDR), the length of the winter season (DAYS), and the quality of the slopes (RITAS) are all significant and have a positive impact on the weekend price, the quality of the lifts (SGAU) and the snowmaking equipment (INN) are only significant at 10 percent level and have a negative impact on weekday and on weekend prices. With the linear formulation the most important attribute is the length of the slopes, with small differences between weekday and weekend lift prices. On average, consumers will pay from 50 to 70 cents for a slope kilometer, according to the specification. Considering the differences between the resorts under study, with the largest (47.4 km) and the smallest (1 km), the consumers will value the ski pass around € 23 ‐ 32. The difference between Cimone (39,8 km) and Abetone, for example, is in the range of € 4 ‐ 5. A 10 percent increase of the share of intermediate slopes in total km slopes (RITAS) would increase the price, on average, by around 37 ‐ 72 cents on weekends and decrease the price by 39 ‐ 48 cents on weekdays. Instead, the hedonic price of ALT is significant only for the weekdays. Its value varies between 45 and 95 cents each 100 meters of altitude. This means that the difference in the altitude between the highest (1797 meters) and the lowest (1139 meters) winter sports resort is evaluated by consumers at from € 3 to € 6,20.
During 2003–2009, areas with mass balance management on Stubai Glacier, Pitztal Glacier, Kaunertal Glacier, and Sölden Glacier ski resort were monitored extensively, with at least two surveys per annum and a maximum of weekly surveys on Stubai Glacier. After finishing these projects, the sites were still monitored on an annual basis with some ablation stakes and a photographic documentation of the evolution of the glacier surface. Based on this documentation, areas with continuous mass balance measured within these ski re- sorts were selected for this study. Although not included in the initial research projects 2003–2009, sites in the Hinter- tux Glacier ski resort were added to this study, as these are the sites with the longest history of mass balance manage- ment by on-glacier snow production. Mass balance manage- ment takes place in areas where technical infrastructure lo- cated on solid ground is adjacent to ski pistes on glacier parts with high subsidence rates and at pylons on glacier or boarder parks with jumps and pipes. Three representative lo- cations with mass balance management are shown in Fig. 2. The middle station at Schaufelferner (Fig. 2a) is located on a rock, with the surrounding glacier showing high subsidence rates. Glacier covers have been applied since 2004 to allow access to and exit from the station. The steepening tongue of Rettenbachferner is kept in shape with a combination of snow production and covers to provide easy access to the val- ley station, where the photograph in Fig. 2b was taken. The subsidence of glacier surface is most extreme at the tongues but also takes place at highest elevations. The most disturb- ing effects are observed close to the cols and at the transi- tion to solid ground in highest elevations. The exit from the top station, where the photo in Fig. 2c was taken, crosses a steepening and subsiding slope, which is kept in shape and at the same altitude by covers. The upper left side of the photo shows covered snow/firn hills used as jumps for snow board- ers and free skiers. The lidar DEM hillshade of the site ST5 in Fig. 2a shows the location of the prominent glacier cov- ers, with clearly lower thickness losses than the surroundings (Fig. 3).
health effects resulting from the exposition to air pollution than the general population [WHO, 2006]. Studies prove that the exposed have higher risk of suffering from lower respi- ratory tract diseases, chronic obstructive air- way disease, stroke, coronary artery disease and lung cancer [WHO, 2016]. Therefore, par- ticularly in health resort treatment, the role of which is providing complex healthcare as well as reducing the incidence and premature mor- tality from cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases and detrimental health ef- fects caused by harmful factors in the work- ing and habitual environment [Team appointed by the Regulation of the Polish Minister of Health, 2017]. The adequate quality of envi- ronment, including the climatic conditions and atmospheric air quality, constitutes an essen- tial aspect. Therefore, improving the air qual- ity, especially in health resorts, should play a key role in the countrywide strategy of reduc- ing the atmospheric air pollution.
Th is paper examines mountain ski resort trail maps in North America. It starts with a survey of the complete set of maps in use today. For each map, the survey catalogs the point of view, creation method, style and artist where known. Th e main types of view used are: panoramas, proﬁ les, and planimetric maps. Creation methods include: paintings, illustrating, and computer modeling/rendering. A brief history of the artists in- volved in creating North American ski maps follows along with discussion of samples of work by several key artists and a brief analysis of map style.
even if some authors state that performance decreases with size [ 29 ]. In the same line, some studies have argued that small firms are more able to innovate because of their flexible structure and more risky behaviour [ 30 ]. Despite this, most studies in the literature find that large firms are more efficient than small firms on average, as a consequence of their greater market power, strategic grouping by firms, and economies of scale [ 31 ]. In the specific case of winter tourism, an investigation analysing the financial and economic sustainability of skiresorts in the Catalan Pyrenees found that only large ski areas are profitable and the rest are in most cases, not sustainable from a strictly economic point of view [ 32 ]. However, the study also revealed that most areas are sustained by the local authorities due to the income generated by their existence. Another work studied the effect of climate change on the economic sustainability of skiresorts based on adaptation costs [ 33 ]. The results showed that large investments can reduce the ability to respond to changes quickly, that small businesses are most affected by financial costs, and that seasonality affects the ability to absorb costs incurred adapting to the effects of climate change. Finally, the study also found that the benefits can be worth the costs. Thus, according to the literature, it would seem clear that size also plays an important role in the performance of skiresorts, encouraging more analysis on this aspect.
While most North Carolina ski areas do not own or operate lodging accommodations, the industry is responsible for many overnight stays in local commercial lodging and private
accommodations managed by property management firms. The benefit to the local economy is apparent from the gross lodging revenues generated in local municipalities like Boone, Blowing Rock, Maggie Valley, Beech Mountain, Banner Elk, and Sugar Mountain, as well as counties such as Madison County (Wolf Ridge ski area), Haywood County (Cataloochee ski area), and Watauga County. These revenue figures are calculated from Tourism Development Authority occupancy tax collections, and they corroborate the lodging expenditures from visitor spending (detailed in the Visitor expenditures section below).
Weather is directly related to the quality of snow in any location. Consider the Salt Lake City area resorts. The climates in Salt Lake City skiresorts have particularly low humidity as compared to other ski areas. 25 According to a study conducted by the University of Utah Climatology Department (2009), the low humidity levels in the mountain ranges surrounding Salt Lake City make for exceptionally good snow. 26 In the skiing community this type of snow is called “champagne powder” and is one of the most sought-after types. Going west from Salt Lake City into the Colorado Rocky Mountains humidity increases and so the quality of the snow is not exactly the same, but due to high altitude conditions it is considerably better than in most of the US. A report by SIA (2010) indicates that eight states account for a majority of total ski visits in the US namely; California, Colorado, Idaho, Wyoming, Montana, Utah, Vermont, Washington. 27 These eight states account for many of the skier visits, and most of them lie in the
The materials used of the study are the materials collected during expeditions in the north-eastern part of the Lesser Caucasus in 2014-2016 and herbariums stored in the herbariums of the Institute of Botany (BAK) and the Institute of Genetic Resources (AGRI) of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. The collected materials were analyzed in a cameral condition. In this study the comparative analysis of morphological, systematic and ecological methods were used. For clarification of nomencular issues was addressed to International Botanical Code (2009) and the book published by Asgarov (2016). Macrotaxons were identified on the basis of some important sources of classification of ferns (Pichi-Sermolli, 1977, Smith et al., 2006; Maarten et al., 2011).
The Lee Valley consists of a layer of gravels and silts deposited by the river within its natural flood plain that covers a layer of London Clay. Silts and gravels are also found in smaller quantities along the flood plains of other main rivers in the area, which include the River Brent, Dollis Brook, Silk Stream, Salmons Brook, Pymmes Brook and the River Ching. The Lee Valley is the lowest lying area within North London and is therefore susceptible to groundwater flooding. Groundwater levels in shallow deposits in the Lee Valley are hydraulically linked to the watercourses through the alluvium deposits and may be responsive to rainfall events and the corresponding increases in fluvial flows. However for the major aquifer, the chalk, this is not always true. During prolonged rainfall events the groundwater table may experience a relatively short term rise which could cause localised flooding incidents. Further to the west of the Lee Valley, within Enfield there are a number of drift
The paper summarizes scientiﬁ c approaches to researches in the ﬁ eld of destination choice, satisfaction and the loyalty of skiresorts customers. Information about existing models and trends from scientiﬁ c journals are analysed. Multiattribute models are widely used in researches dealing with satisfaction and loyalty. It can be presumed that tourist overall satisfaction is determined by destination image and attribute satisfaction. Tourist attribute satisfaction is also directly inﬂ uenced by destination image, and destination loyalty is in turn inﬂ uenced by overall satisfaction. The results will be useful for researchers and practitioners who deal with tourist satisfaction and loyalty in particular for skiresorts operators. This paper represents the initial phase of the project aimed at researching the topical factors with their relationships and links inﬂ uencing satisfaction and loyalty of ski resort customers in selected countries.
In the experiences carried out in the Lesser Caucasus there have been determined that in the gray-brown soils in the north-west slopes, the mineral and organic fertilizers considerably influence on the productivity of the hayfields. So, the highest amounts of the harvest were in the variants of N 90 P 90 K 60 and manure 10 t\ha +N 70 P 95 K 30 . In 3
In July, the grantee conducted project presentations for the target group, as well as other stakeholders. Separate meetings were held with hostel administrations and Grozny Central market administration to discuss cooperation and coordination issues. Hostel administrations supported the grantee in needs assessment process. Grozny Central market administration allocated premises for marketers’ donations collection and storage. Banners and leaflets were produced for information campaign and posted in public places. T-shirts with project visibility were produced for 6 volunteers engaged in the process.
impartiality and keeps at a distance from insurgents, who often portray it as state-controlled, in particular such elements of civil society as the religious establishments and charity groups. The NorthCaucasus conflict also resembles the conflict in Mindanao, Philippines, where peace- building efforts required not only inter-ethnic but also inter-confessional dedication. And similar to Afghan civil society, civil grass-roots in the NorthCaucasus are weak and in need assistance. In spite of the existing proximities and discrepancies of peace-building approaches around the world, it is necessary to consider the uniqueness of each case study and the difficulty present in attempting to replicate successes and avoid failures. The most significant lesson to be drawn at this point is that bottom-up peace-building can solve conflicts: it deals with local communities, mobilizes local peace-building potentials, requires the participation of civil society and welcomes the collaboration of national and international civil groups. A set of examples presented in this section also aims to illustrate that the bottom-up approach does not require NGOs, grass-roots movements and other elements of civil society to be highly developed and sophisticated. However, it does require civil society to be independent from the state and capable of acting as a “third” sector, balancing between the state and people or, in other words, capable of fulfilling its function as a civil society. Therefore, it might be useful to examine how successful the practice of empowering local actors has been in the NorthCaucasus thus far.
Fig. 3. Possible evolution of the hydrograph under the impact of artificial snow for basins 1) to 6) combined. The black line indicates the natural discharge and the red, green and blue curves show various other scenarios
The impacts of artificial snow on flood events vary significantly on an hourly basis depending on the type of torrent, the magnitude of discharge and its relation with the magnitude of flood discharge. Several years with extreme meteorological events were identified and the reaction of the basins was studied according to different extreme climatic scenarios. The impacts of artificial snow on the flood flow regime are most considerable for the torrents of Les Villards (5) and Saint Pantaleon (4), (Fig. 4) which coincidentally have the highest impermeable surfaces (more than 4% of the catchment) due to ski infrastructure. For the extreme flood of 12th June 2003, the natural discharge is shown in relation to the discharge modelled from the impacts of artificial snow melt. In June, it is assumed that all natural snow has already melted but that extensive surfaces covered by artificial snow still exist. The extreme precipitation event causes widespread and rapid melt of the artificial snow due to prevailing high temperatures (nearly 25°C). The discharge increases from 0.5 -0.7 m3/s due to the effects of artificial snowmelt and thus by approximately 18% for Les Villards and 15% for Saint Pantaleon.
The interaction of these factors has determines the structure of the urban territory pollution. However, there is a measure that helps to assess the quality of the urban environment in General. This is the state of the popula- tion health. Such an assessment solves two problems at once—the definition of luxury stay in a particular area, secondly—identification of the relationship morbidity with specific anthropogenic and natural features of the territory for development of measures on ecological situ- ation improvement.