Top PDF Risks, Vulnerability and Adaptation in Bangladesh

Risks, Vulnerability and Adaptation in Bangladesh

Risks, Vulnerability and Adaptation in Bangladesh

5.2 Submission of National Adaptation Programme of Action National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) for Bangladesh has been prepared by the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MOEF), as a response to the decision of the Seventh Session of the Conference of the Parties (CoP7) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The preparation process has followed the generic guiding principles outlined in the annotated guideline prepared by LDC Expert Group (LEG). Involvement of different stakeholders was an integral part of the preparation process for assessing impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation measures keeping urgency and immediacy principle of the NAPA. Policy makers of Government, local representatives of the Government (Union Parishad Chairman and Members), scientific community members of the various research institutes, researchers, academicians, teachers (ranging from primary to tertiary levels), lawyers, doctors, ethnic groups, media, NGO and CBO representatives and indigenous women contributed to the development of the NAPA for Bangladesh. The six Sectoral Working Groups (SWG) are a) Agriculture, Fisheries and Livestock coordinated by Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC), b) Forestry, Biodiversity and Land-use coordinated by IUCN, Bangladesh, c) Water, Coastal Zone, Natural Disaster and Health coordinated by Water Resources Planning organization (WARPO), d) Livelihood, Gender, Local Governance and Food Security coordinated by Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS), e) Industry and Infrastructure coordinated by Department of Environment (DoE), and f) Policies and Institutes coordinated by Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies (BCAS). It is anticipated that participation of key stakeholder in the preparation process will help in mainstreaming adaptation to climate change into national and sectoral development policies and plans as well as implementation of adaptation projects in future. Members of the project steering committee, sectoral working group and experts attended the inception workshop, regional stakeholder consultation workshops, and national stakeholder consultation workshop.
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Pro-poor urban adaptation to climate change in Bangladesh : a study of urban extreme poverty, vulnerability and asset adaption

Pro-poor urban adaptation to climate change in Bangladesh : a study of urban extreme poverty, vulnerability and asset adaption

While climate has always been risky, ongoing climate changes are changing the risk profile and shifting it toward the poor in many ways such as increasing direct and indirect risks, higher frequency and irreversibility of climate events, slow-onset impacts and covariate risks becoming idiosyncratic (Heltberg et al., 2009). This research adopts integrative approach to vulnerability in order to conceptualise climate change vulnerability. This approach sees vulnerability as the extent to which a natural or social system is susceptible to sustaining damage from climate change (Adelekan, 2010; Romero Lankao and Qin, 2011 & Wilbanks et al., 2007). Vulnerability is a function of the sensitivity of a system to changes in climate and the system’s ability to adapt to these changes. These factors are considered to be largely determined by the development context, which has a strong influence on households’ income and assets, and access to information, on people’s exposure to environmental hazards in their living environment and workplaces, and on the quality and extent of provision for infrastructure and services (Adelekan, 2010). In urban areas, vulnerability is also greatly influenced by the extent and quality of infrastructure and public services, especially for vulnerable populations (Wilbanks et al., 2007). Therefore, vulnerability to climate change represents the conditions determined by physical, social, economic, political and environmental factors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a household or community to the impact of hazards. All of these factors reflect the extreme poor households’ characteristics and the context where they live. These are closely related to the three types of vulnerabilities, physical, socio-economic and politico-legal, experienced by extremely poor people in different contexts with differing consequences. This research analyses these factors in the Bangladesh context in relation to ‘vulnerability from something’ and ‘vulnerability to something’ (Chapter Five) (Roy et al., 2013, p.4). The former highlights exposure to (whatever) risk and the latter is concerned with susceptibility to particular outcomes, e.g. malnutrition, homelessness (ibid.).
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Vulnerability and adaptation of fishing communities to the impacts of climate variability and change: insights from coastal Bangladesh

Vulnerability and adaptation of fishing communities to the impacts of climate variability and change: insights from coastal Bangladesh

Limits and barriers to adaptation restrict people’s ability to address the negative impacts of climate change or manage risks in a way that maximises their wellbeing. There is a lack of evidence of this on small-scale fishing communities in developing countries. This chapter identifies and characterises limits and barriers to adaptation of fishing activities to cyclones and examines interactions between them in two fishing communities in Bangladesh, using household questionnaires, oral history interviews, vulnerability matrices and focus group discussions. The limits include physical characteristics of climate and sea such as higher frequency and duration of cyclones, and hidden sandbars. Barriers include technologically poor boats, inaccurate weather forecasts, poor radio signals, lack of access to credit, low incomes, underestimation of cyclone occurrence, coercion of fishermen by the boat owners and captains, lack of education, skills and livelihood alternatives, unfavourable credit schemes, lack of enforcement of fishing regulations and maritime laws, and lack of access to fish markets. These local and wider scale factors interact in complex ways and constrain completion of fishing trips, coping with cyclones at sea, safe return of boats from sea, timely responses to cyclones and livelihood diversification. The findings indicate a need for further detailed research into the determinants and implications of such limits and barriers, in order to move towards an improved characterisation of adaptation and to identify most suitable means to overcome the limits and barriers.
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Vulnerability of bangladesh to cyclones in a changing climate : potential damages and adaptation cost

Vulnerability of bangladesh to cyclones in a changing climate : potential damages and adaptation cost

Policy Research Working Paper 5280 This paper integrates information on climate change, hydrodynamic models, and geographic overlays to assess the vulnerability of coastal areas in Bangladesh to larger storm surges and sea-level rise by 2050. The approach identifies polders (diked areas), coastal populations, settlements, infrastructure, and economic activity at risk of inundation, and estimates the cost of damage versus the cost of several adaptation measures. A 27-centimeter sea-level rise and 10 percent intensification of wind speed from global warming suggests the vulnerable zone increases in size by 69 percent given a +3-meter inundation depth and by 14 percent given a +1-meter inundation depth. At present, Bangladesh has 123 polders, an early warning and evacuation system, and more than 2,400 emergency shelters to protect coastal
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Differential climate change vulnerability among different poverty groups in southwestern Bangladesh: lessons for adaptation planning

Differential climate change vulnerability among different poverty groups in southwestern Bangladesh: lessons for adaptation planning

This article draws on research findings from fieldwork undertaken in Mongla Upazila of Southwest Bangladesh from 2018 to 2019 to analyse how climate-related vulnerability and adaptation is differentiated among different poverty groups. The principal aim of this research is to investigate complex relationship between vulnerability, poverty, and adaptation in a case study carried out in two rural cyclone-prone areas of southwest Bangladesh, focusing on household level vulnerability and adaptive responses to climate change. The quantitative research strategy was adopted in this research. Specific methods utilized for the data collection process included in-depth questionnaire survey of 98 households. The significance of the results was in the differences of poverty and adaptation choices of the households with differential climate change vulnerability which revealed a complex relationship within vulnerability, poverty and adaptation. This research also highlighted that the poor households with high vulnerability could highly be adaptive through adopting a significant number of adaptations to deal with sudden and gradual changes in climate, but the results also suggest that households who are not poor who have usually low vulnerability, likely to have less adaptive responses than households who have high vulnerability. Moreover, this research is an attempt to reveal the complex relationship among vulnerability, poverty and adaptation that may help to develop more effective adaptation framework than before to deal with climate variability and change.
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Adaptation of the Urban Structure Type Approach for Vulnerability Assessment of Climate Change Risks in Ho Chi Minh City

Adaptation of the Urban Structure Type Approach for Vulnerability Assessment of Climate Change Risks in Ho Chi Minh City

Different discipline-specific methodological approaches to assess the vulnerability of the "urban environment" to climate change risks require a commonly accepted spatial working basis, which can ensure that the resulting heterogeneous investigations can be trans- disciplinarily integrated by using an adequate spatially explicit classification. Therefore an 'urban typology' concept was developed and will be used as a practicable method to structure the spatial order of the sensitivity of settlement areas in HCMC. The Housing- related 'urban typology' provides a uniform methodological and spatial framework for the different tasks within the interdisciplinary network of the research project to aid the development of future climate change resilience- Building and thus resilience- Urban Structure.
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Bamboo beating bandits: conflict, inequality, and vulnerability in the political ecology of climate change adaptation in Bangladesh

Bamboo beating bandits: conflict, inequality, and vulnerability in the political ecology of climate change adaptation in Bangladesh

Bangladesh contributes little to global greenhouse gas emissions, yet it is one of the countries most vul- nerable to climate change. Based on semi-structured research interviews as a conduit to a literature review, this paper shows how the processes of enclosure, exclusion, encroachment, and entrenchment impede the vitality of its climate change adaptation efforts. Enclosure refers to when adaptation projects transfer public assets into private hands or expand the roles of private actors into the public sphere. Exclusion refers to when adaptation projects limit access to resources or marginalize particular stake- holders in decision-making activities. Encroachment refers to when adaptation projects intrude on bio- diversity areas or contribute to other forms of environmental degradation. Entrenchment refers to when adaptation projects aggravate the disempowerment of women and minorities, or worsen concen- trations of wealth and income inequality within a community. In the case of Bangladeshi, climate change policies implemented under the country’s National Adaptation Program of Action have enabled elites to capture land through public servants, the military, and even gangs carrying bamboo sticks. Exclusionary forms of adaptation planning exist at both the national and local scales. Climate protection measures have encroached upon village property, char (public) land, forests, farms, and other public commons. Most egregiously, community coping strategies for climate change have entrenched class and ethnic hier- archies ultimately trapping the poor, powerless, and displaced into a predatory patronage system that can aggravate human insecurity and intensify violent conflict. Planners and practitioners of adaptation need to become more cognizant of the potential for projects to harm others, or admit complicity in the processes of enclosure, exclusion, encroachment, and entrenchment, if they are ever to be eliminated. Ó 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ).
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Livelihood Adaptation, Risks and Vulnerability in Rural Wolaita, Ethiopia

Livelihood Adaptation, Risks and Vulnerability in Rural Wolaita, Ethiopia

Rainfall variability, declining farm size, lack of draught power and institutional deficiencies in credit and input delivery were the major constraints to livelihood endeavours. Rainfall variability in rural Wolaita was by far the key source of risk and vulnerability. In the lowlands, the rainfall regime was characterised by frequent failures, inadequate amounts, and poor distribution over the growing seasons. Even though the highlands received relatively higher rainfall, irregularity of occurrence, poor distribution over the growing seasons and frequent downpours were key problems. Although policy support for water harvesting and other minor irrigation projects in areas facing moisture stress were proposed in the Agricultural Development-Led Industrialisation (ADLI) strategy of the government, there was an evident lack of public investment in infrastructure to reduce the risk of rainfed agriculture. In both locations, farmers identified five ‘bad years’ from 1998 to 2007 in which productions were wholly or partially lost due to rainfall variability. Analysis of rainfall data also showed a high coefficient of variation for the growing months over several years, for both altitudinal zones. Oxen ownership was low: about 21% of the total sample households owned no ox and 46% owned only a single ox. Access to agricultural land has become a critical problem, especially in the highlands, where the average holding has declined to 0.73 hectare.
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Vulnerability to Climate Change: Adaptation Strategies and Layers of Resilience – Quantifying Vulnerability to Climate Change in Bangladesh

Vulnerability to Climate Change: Adaptation Strategies and Layers of Resilience – Quantifying Vulnerability to Climate Change in Bangladesh

The low flood prone zone has constantly been ranked the lowest occupational vulnerable zone. On the other hand, ‘not flood prone zone’ remains quite vulnerable to climate change, ranking second in 2001. Moreover, this zone consists of Chittagong Hill Tracts, the least developed part of the country mainly due to lack of accessibility and conflicts. The vulnerability index of the drought-prone zone showed a significant improvement, from highly vulnerable zone to vulnerable between 1991 and 2001. Changes in infrastructural development smoothened the way for business and other employment generating activities in this zone. Besides this, irrigation facilities were also expanded by utilizing surface water. Moreover, excavation and re-excavation of irrigation canal, construction and re-construction of irrigation infrastructures were developed by the government. On the other hand, the mixed zone showed quite a fighting spirit against the occupational vulnerability over the years. Although the zone was ranked highly vulnerable in 2001, it managed to become a less vulnerable zone in five years (in 2006). Table 16 presents the ranking of ecological zones based on climatic vulnerability for the period of 1974 to 2006 while Table 17 indicates the changes in climatic vulnerability of the ecological regions over the period. Figure 7 and Map 4 show the trends in occupational vulnerability index for all six ecological zones while Figure 8 displays the same for the study areas.
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Vulnerability Assessment of Cyclonic Hazards in Coastal Region of Bangladesh

Vulnerability Assessment of Cyclonic Hazards in Coastal Region of Bangladesh

Abstract: The aim of this study is to identify the hazards that are associated with cyclone and to prepare hazard maps with various intensity (low, medium and high) through questionnaire survey and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) method in Paikgacha Upazilla of Khulna District is a major cyclone prone area of Bangladesh. The collected data reveals that salinity, water logging, embankment erosion, tidal surge and storm surge are the major cyclonic hazards and have adverse effects on agriculture, structure, occupational pattern, consumption pattern and service facilities of that area. As a result, vulnerability assessment has done to identify the most vulnerable sector by the impacts of multi-hazard using Weighted Index method. The analysis of the data shows that structural sector (24%) is more vulnerable compared to other sectors. Because, the housing condition is not much better condition in terms of construction material and technology. During cyclone period heavy wind speed and storm sure damage and destroy the housing roof and wall. On the other side, occupational pattern (23%) reflects as second rank vulnerable sector in the study area. This research helps to mitigate risks by hazard mapping and plays an important role in recovery strategies against multi-hazards risks of cyclone.
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Wheat yield vulnerability: relation to rainfall and suggestions for adaptation

Wheat yield vulnerability: relation to rainfall and suggestions for adaptation

Considering all of the above, it is clear that January to March is the critical period to the determination of yield. Period of which the rainfall volume in every month must be over its median. As described in this study, the rainfall is highly variable with greater uncertainly. Therefore, the farmers are at high risk of crop failure. Below we suggest six points to minimize or mitigate the risks of these rainfall anomalies on crop of wheat and achieving yield success: 1. Research and developments of drought

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Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change: Key Strategies for Nigeria

Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change: Key Strategies for Nigeria

Also, by 2070, over 400 million people in Nigeria is projected be at risk of malaria due to climate change (WHO, 2015). It is important to know that some of the world’s infections are highly sensitive to temperature, rainfall and humidity. These climate and weather events however in many ways influence their life-cycles. Also, when a largely depending natural resources such as land, water and food is affected by climate change, the health of millions that depend on these resources are affected as well. Hence, the anticipated rise in sea levels, droughts, food shortages are likely to increase the vulnerability of the poor to disease risks.
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Measuring Households' Vulnerability to Idiosyncratic and Covariate Shocks – the case of Bangladesh

Measuring Households' Vulnerability to Idiosyncratic and Covariate Shocks – the case of Bangladesh

Vulnerability, on the other hand, may be broadly construed as an ex-ante measure of well- being, reflecting not so much on how well off a household currently is, but what their future prospects are (Chaudhuri, 2003). We can understand it as the impact of risk in the “threat of poverty, measured ex ante, before ‘the veil of uncertainty has been lifted’ (Calvo and Dercon, 2005). Risks may emanate from two broad sources: idiosyncratic shocks; or covariate shocks. Household’s idiosyncratic shocks, that is, household-specific shocks such as death of the principal income earner, injury, chronic illness or unemployment/underemployment etc, are fairly common in developing countries mainly due to ‘the absence of easy access to medical care, drinking water, unhygienic living conditions, and limited opportunities for diversifying income sources. These difficulties are compounded by lack of financial intermediation and formal insurance, credit market imperfections, and weak infrastructure (e.g. physical isolation because of limited transportation facilities) (Gaiha and Imai, 2004). Covariate shocks i.e., community level shocks, are typically natural disasters like floods, cyclones, draughts or epidemics etc. All these can potentially contribute to high income volatility of households. Vulnerability is thus inherently a dynamic concept and could be thought of as a product of poverty, household’s potential exposures to risks and their ability to cope with such risks. Proper conceptualisation and characterisation of the underlying dynamic process is thus important from both theoretical and policy perspectives.
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An assessment of vulnerability to HIV infection of boatmen in Teknaf, Bangladesh

An assessment of vulnerability to HIV infection of boatmen in Teknaf, Bangladesh

Data was collected by 8 trained interviewers having mini- mum a bachelor degree, who were previously involved in the national behavioral surveillance for HIV. In addition, fifteen days intensive training was given to the data collec- tors on vulnerable groups in the study site, risk behaviour for HIV, mode of transmission of HIV infection, and data collection techniques including data collection tools. The cross-sectional survey collected demographic informa- tion, looked at boatmen's mobility patterns, and assessed boatmen's knowledge about HIV transmission and their own perceptions of risk. The survey measured vulnerabil- ity through data regarding boatmen's sexual risk behavior, including number, gender, and types of sexual partners and condom usage with different types of partners. The survey questionnaire consisted of seven sections. The first section was on socio demographic profile of the boatmen. The second section inquired about knowledge of boatmen related to HIV infection particularly on modes transmis- sion, risks, and prevention. The third section included questions regarding experience of symptoms of sexually transmitted infections and its care. In section 4, use of condom was investigated. Section 5 and 6 addressed the issues of sexual practices and sexual partners. The last sec- tion was on sexual violence.
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Autonomous adaptation to riverine flooding in Satkhira District, Bangladesh: implications for adaptation planning

Autonomous adaptation to riverine flooding in Satkhira District, Bangladesh: implications for adaptation planning

In our research, most autonomous adaptations could be considered as transformational when viewed through the risk hazard lens. This contrasts with other studies of planned ad- aptation, which have found that mostly incremental strategies were derived through participatory, multi-stakeholder process- es (Butler et al. 2016). One explanation may be that flooding in our study site was so severe that existing livelihood strate- gies became impossible, forcing transformational responses. This raises the question whether planned adaptation can facil- itate transformational or incremental strategies, when house- holds will autonomously decide on either form as they see fit. Adaptation planning should be concerned with patterns of incremental autonomous adaptation. Incremental adaptations can build the necessary capacity for future transformational adaptation; however, they may also represent short-term mea- sures that can potentially create hidden and latent systemic risks (Kates et al. 2012; Matyas and Pelling 2015). ‘ Instead, adaptation planning must facilitate positive transformations, and incentivise households to take advantage of emerging opportunities (see Rickards and Howden 2012; Howden et al. 2007; Park et al. 2012), and thus avoid or adopt certain adaptation pathways (Butler et al. 2014, Wise et al. 2016, Butler et al. 2017).
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Climate change and health: impacts, vulnerability, adaptation and mitigation

Climate change and health: impacts, vulnerability, adaptation and mitigation

7. McMichael AJ, Campbell-Lendrum D, Kovats S, Edwards S, Wilkinson P, Wilson T et al. Global climate change. In: Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Murrgay CJL, editors. Comparative quantification of health risks: global regional burden of diseases due to selected major risk factors. Vol. 2. Chapter 20. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004. pp. 1543–649. 8. Patz JA, Gibbs HK, Foley JA, Rogers JV, Smith KR. Climate

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Climate Change and Farming Vulnerability in the Coast of Bangladesh

Climate Change and Farming Vulnerability in the Coast of Bangladesh

Keywords: Climate Change, Agriculture, Migration, Food Deficiency, Health, Sustainable Capacity. 1. Introduction Climate is the characteristic condition of the atmosphere near the earth's surface at a certain place on the earth. It is considered as one of the most serious threats to the World’s Environment with its potential negative aspects on human health, food security, agriculture, fisheries, biodiversity, water, economic activities and other natural resources. Climate induced changes such as extreme cyclone, devastating tidal surges, severe floods, treacherous river erosion, excessive rainfall, overwhelming salinity intrusion etc are occurring more frequently and in an unpredictable manner around the world including Bangladesh. Low economic strength, inadequate infrastructure, low level of social development, lack of institutional capacity, and a higher dependency on the natural resource base make the country more vulnerable to climate stimuli including both variability as well as extreme events. Whoever and wherever we are, the climate dictates the way we live. The cities we build, the clothes we wear, the kind of homes we live in, the food we eat, even how we behave, all are linked to the weather patterns the climate creates locally. However, those patterns are changing rapidly and we are all to blame. Scientists and researchers are now claiming that this type of event is occurred due to the global climate change and thus, climate change is making things worse. The large portion of agro-based population represents the major component of the hard core poverty of Bangladesh. The agro-based community of the rural Bangladesh is very much susceptible to environment related vulnerability, as poverty is directly related to vulnerability (Chan and Parker, 1996; Fankhauser and Tol, 1997; Rayner and Malone, 1998). It is apparent that, all societies are fundamentally adaptive and there are many situations in the past where societies have adapted to changes in climate and environmental stressors and to similar risks.
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The Vulnerability Trends of the Banking Sector of Bangladesh: A Stress Testing Approach

The Vulnerability Trends of the Banking Sector of Bangladesh: A Stress Testing Approach

The financial sector of Bangladesh is basically the banking sector. At present, the banking sector provides financial services through 57 commercial banks. In order to increase banking stability and efficiency, the Bangladesh Bank, the Governing Council, the Board of Directors of the banks and the Bank’s Management Authority formulate various strategies and policies, formulate strategies and implement and implement banking services. But in this case, all stakeholders have to think again for the time being required. Especially after the 2008‑2009 global financial crises, major changes were made in the face of banking risk management. Besides, the expansion of financial corruption, money laundering concerns and digital security risks are being compounded by the banking system’s policy makers and management.
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Multi-scale vulnerability assessment for  adaptation planning

Multi-scale vulnerability assessment for adaptation planning

Two villages were selected from Bagepalli taluk of Chik- ballapur district (Figure 1), and a census survey was conducted to prepare an inherent socio-economic vulner- ability profile of each household to current climate vari- ability. The recorded mean annual rainfall in Bagepalli block over an eleven-year period indicated only three years as normal. Five out of the eleven years (2001 to 2004 and 2006), received an average annual rainfall of 333 mm below the normal, with consecutive years re- cording a deviation of –30% to –54% from the normal, indicating severe drought. The criteria for selection of the two villages, Gundlapalli and Saddapalli included: avail- ability of irrigation in one and a predominantly rainfed system in another; and proximity of villages (about 4 km), to ensure similar exposure to climate risks and variations such as drought or delayed rainfall, enabling comparison. Groundwater extracted through borewells is the main source of irrigation in both the villages; how- ever, Gundlapalli has more area under irrigation as com- pared to Saddapalli, where agriculture is predominantly rainfed.
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Vulnerability and adaptation to salinity intrusion in the Mekong delta of Vietnam

Vulnerability and adaptation to salinity intrusion in the Mekong delta of Vietnam

stage a combination of stresses may exceed the ability of vulnerable social-ecological systems to cope and there is a possibility that the entire system will be subject to collapse but there is no (or late) response hence losses from creeping process will affect even more people than sudden-onset hazards (UNOCHA, 2011: p7; Siegele, 2012: p11; Stabinsky and Hoffmaister, 2012: p1). In other words, the slow-onset changes are more likely to be problematic with high potential impacts on socio-ecological systems in the medium or long-term if appropriate interventions are not taken when needed (Grasso and Singh, 2009: p5). Therefore, it is necessary to pay more attention to such slow-onset hazards in term of not only preventive measures but also effective early warning technologies (Grasso and Singh, 2009: p5; Birkmann, 2011: p6). Moreover, there is a need to develop new approaches for identifying and assessing risks related to slow-onset threats due to their specific characters like “creeping” and often associated with different events (Birkmann et al., 2008: p17; Birkmann, 2011: p6). This dissertation deals with an analysis of vulnerability to salinity intrusion and related hazards (i.e. freshwater scarcity and tidal flooding) in the Mekong delta that will contribute to have better understanding of the interaction between social and ecological systems in case of slow-onset hazards in order to call more attention for proper adaptation strategies with the context of social, economical and environmental changes.
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