Top PDF The Robben Island diversity experience. An exploration of South African diversity dynamics

The Robben Island diversity experience. An exploration of South African diversity dynamics

The Robben Island diversity experience. An exploration of South African diversity dynamics

In the South African context, DIVERSITY can indeed be written in capital letters. The country’s history is fraught with differentiation, segregation, exclusion and discrimination (Bekker & Carlton, 1996; Eades, 1999). The replacement of the apartheid regime by the first democratically elected government in 1994 facilitated opportunities for everyone in the rainbow nation towards the celebration of diversity (Beck, 2000; Charlton & Van Niekerk, 1994). This road, to reconstruct the South African society, has been far from smooth (Hunt & Lascaris, 1998; Thompson, 2001). Organisations realised that diversity often leads to frustration, misunderstandings, unhealthy conflict and an increase in turnover of people if it is not properly managed (Milliken & Martins, 1996; Van Eron, 1995). Often such organisations use mechanistic approaches to diversity (Cilliers & May, 2002). Although these approaches do little more than achieve certain structural and behavioural changes, they seem to create an environment in which consultants and employees can work with diversity. A solitary diversity intervention is however doomed to failure since the emotions and resistance that it elicits, normally fuel various unconscious dynamics that subvert the possibility of true connection between and change in employees. Studying diversity from the systems psychodynamic perspective implies exploring the unconscious dynamics that influence the way similarities and differences amongst employees are viewed and acted upon. The aim of such endeavours would be to gain an in-depth understanding of the dynamics of South African diversity by analysing and interpreting the experiences of participants in such experiential events.
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Executive coaching in diversity from the systems psychodynamic perspective

Executive coaching in diversity from the systems psychodynamic perspective

South Africans of Chinese descent, classified as Coloured people in apartheid South Africa and declared a designated group in 2008, did not feature in the report (Mbola, 2008). Apartheid (Meyer & Boninelli, 2004) was responsible for the concentration of the White group in key areas of the labour market. In addition, resistance to transformation (Booysen, 2007; Fraser-Moleketi, 2001; Human, 2005) has reinforced the status quo. This has caused a misalignment between equity legislation and formal organisational policies on the one hand and their implementation on the other (Booysen, 2007). South African organisations are aware of this situation and attempt to democratise the workplace through diversity management programmes (Booysen, 2007) that focus on group interventions. Many of these programmes are mechanistic in nature (Cavaleros et al., 2002) and few address diversity from an organisational dynamic stance. One example is the Robben Island Diversity Experience (Cilliers & May, 2002; Pretorius, 2003). Fewer organisations are using individual inputs, like individual coaching, to improve diversity awareness. The researcher could trace no relevant international or South African research on diversity coaching with which to compare the present research.The purpose of this research was to describe the application of systems psychodynamic role analysis and to determine its trustworthiness in assisting executives to work effectively with conscious and unconscious diversity dynamics in their organisations. This research shifted systems psychodynamics from its traditional group orientation to the individual context of executive coaching (Brunning, 2006; French & Vince, 1999; Huffington, Armstrong, Halton, Hoyle, & Pooley, 2004; Kets de Vries, 2004; Kilburg, 2000; Newton, Long & Sievers, 2006). The systems psychodynamic approach to diversity draws attention to below-the-surface diversity dynamics that the field of diversity management often ignores (Cilliers & Koortzen, 2000). Diversity dynamics develops the capacity of executives to understand intrapsychic, interpersonal and systemic issues (Brunning, 2006; Kets de Vries & Korotov, 2007). Therefore, executives should address diversity challenges more effectively.
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The directors’ roles in containing the Robben Island  Diversity Experience (RIDE)

The directors’ roles in containing the Robben Island Diversity Experience (RIDE)

grandparents. I remember that they referred to the island as a place where people who do not fit into society are kept to protect us from the ‘swart gevaar’. On arriving on the island and starting doing the work, I realised to what extent my past and what I represent as an object, played in taking up the role as director in a diversity event within the South African context. In this role, I was challenged by the manager and his colleague (2 white males) of the RIDE hosting organisation, as well as two academic colleagues (2 white males, both psychologists) (they were all co- consultants in RIDE). It was as if the white males had to fight for the first position on the island that now belonged to white and black South Africans. My work as a directorate pair with Michelle (a black female associate director) was under attacked by participants. In old South African apartheid terms, this is an illegitimate and shameful relationship. It was as if participants unconsciously struggled with the conflict between the old and the new authority configuration. Historically, I am from French Huguenot and Dutch decent. As such I represent the National Party government and its apartheid policy. In the RIDE context I represent the prison wardens who suppressed the imprisoned freedom fighters (like Nelson Mandela). Consciously I experienced being authorised by participants in how they took up their participant roles, although unconsciously I experienced a simmering ganging-up amongst black participants to act out violently against my authority. It was as if black men’s script was one of ‘you had your chance – now get out of the way’ – implying that white leadership has become irrelevant. This experience was strong when some participants revealed that they were actually imprisoned on the island years ago, or when others revealed that their family members died on the island. It was as if the shame of the past had to be carried by me as the white director. When Michelle became the director of RIDE in 2002, I took up the role as associate director. This support role felt more comfortable - as if the South African system felt more comfortable with the white man co-directing a diversity event on Robben Island with all that it represents.’ (Author 1, male, RIDE director)
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Diversity Management for Improving Performance in Mobile Telephone Network (MTN) Ghana Limited

Diversity Management for Improving Performance in Mobile Telephone Network (MTN) Ghana Limited

Perhaps, one major benefit that MTN Ghana Ltd is enjoying from diversity is Marketing advantage. Respondents added that, the present mile stone in the form of ten million customers, marked by MTN Ghana Ltd can be tied to diver- sity and diversity management. The understanding is that, the diverse workforce of the company has made it possible for the company to come out with critical marketing strategies that have earned it its current position in the market. This outcome of the study on MTN Ghana Ltd supports the views of Achua and Lus- sier (2010) as in [4], Fry, Stoner and Hattwick (1998) as in [5] and that of Daft (2008) as in [13], who have variously argued that the possession of a multicultural workforce, a diversified supplier network and customer base was good for busi- ness and related enhanced market advantages to the presence of a well-managed workforce diversity.
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Diversity of Rotifera in the Shatt Al-Arab Region, South of Iraq

Diversity of Rotifera in the Shatt Al-Arab Region, South of Iraq

In the context of articles published to date regarding studies on Rotifera in the region of the Shatt Al-Arab River (Abull-Hussein et al. 1989, Ali & Abdullah 1999, Ahmed et al. 2005 and Ghazi & Ahmed 2008), and in comparison with Rotifera investigations from other water bodies in Iraq (Al-Saboonchi et al. 1986, Póltorak et al. 2001, Ahmed & Mohammed 2006, Al-Sodani et al. 2007 Salman et al. 2008, Ahmed & Ghazi 2009 and Hammadi et al. 2015), the list of taxa of Rotifera found during the current study is truly impressive. For between February 2007 and June 2008, about 99 taxa, belonging to 25 genera and 17 families were identified from Shatt Al-Arab region. Of these, 37 taxa were Brachionidae, 13 Lecanidae and 8 Notommatidae beside some other taxa (30) of the rest of families of Rotifera. Segers et al. (2004) in their study on the floodplain of the Mun River, Northeast Thailand, identified 184 species, most of them belonging to Lecane (31%), followed by Trichocerca (12%), Lepadella (11.4%) and Brachionus (8.2%). Furthermore, the highest densities of zooplankton, in general, and of Rotifera, in particular, recorded here were not reported before in the south of Iraq. The present study, demonstrated that the population density of Rotifera as well as that of zooplankton at the main River increased during the warmer months and decreased in the colder period. This result is supported by the positive correlation between density of Rotifera and water temperature (r = 0.62). Meanwhile, an inverse relation between the speed of water currents and density of Rotifera was found (r = - 0.56). Arora & Mehra (2003) while analyzing the seasonal dynamics of rotifers in relation to physico-chemical conditions of lotic water body reached similar conclusion. In summer, the absence of inflow of water brings stability to the water body, and the availability of food is more due to production of organic matter and decomposition, hence, contributing to the high species density in that season (Kiran et al. 2007 and Chattopadhyay & Barik 2009).
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Surveys of soil and water reveal a goldmine of Phytophthora diversity in South African natural ecosystems

Surveys of soil and water reveal a goldmine of Phytophthora diversity in South African natural ecosystems

Phytophthora multivora is a species recently described causing disease in natural ecosystems in Western Australia where it has a wide distribution and host range and is a pathogen of Eucalyptus spp., Banksia spp., and Agonis ‚ (Burgess et al. 2009, Scott et al. 2009). This species ; P. citricola (Burgess et al. 2009) and in Western Australia it has a wider distribution within natural ecosystems than P. cinnamomi (Burgess et al. 2009, Scott et al. 2009). It is also the dominant species in the urban environment on numerous hosts in Myrtaceae and Proteaceae (Barber et al. 2012). The variability within the coxI region led Scott et al. (2009) to hypothesize that P. multivora was endemic to Western Australia. However, similar variability was seen among isolates from South Africa in this study. Additionally, P. multivora was routinely isolated from the rhizosphere of non-symptomatic vegetation in South Africa, while in Australia it is associated with dead or dying vegetation. This is obviously an important species and further studies should be undertaken to determine its origin.
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Exploring communication challenges due to language and cultural diversity on South African construction sites

Exploring communication challenges due to language and cultural diversity on South African construction sites

According to Verwey & Du Plooy-Cilliers (2003: 257), communication across cultures and races is complex and involves interaction with not only other South Africans alone. People may use different sets of symbols, or the same symbols with a different understanding of their meanings. The non-verbal aspects of intercultural communication cause additional issues. Research has shown that those individuals who are comfortable with themselves, because they are secure in their identity and possess high self-esteem, cope best with diversity and intercultural communication. Harrison, Price, Gavin & Florey (2002: 1040) reported that people who collaborate in diverse teams learn about each other’s values, which over time become more influential to group outcomes than demographic ones. This allows diverse groups to develop unique interests and values that promote integration and cohesiveness. Increased intergroup contact, however, does not always result in intergroup integration. Harrison & Klein (2007: 1223) and Lau & Murnighan (2005: 652) agree that increased contact with members of other cultures can also lead to adverse outcomes and even create worse problems over time, if people pay more attention to information confirming bias and prejudice. It can also emphasise social group distinctions and continue with ideas and beliefs that encourage social group separation or marginalisation. Such adverse outcomes are likely to occur when increasing diversity results in configurations that emphasise separation and dispersion.
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Spatial and temporal analysis of beta diversity in the Barro Colorado Island forest dynamics plot, Panama

Spatial and temporal analysis of beta diversity in the Barro Colorado Island forest dynamics plot, Panama

Whittaker (1972) defined beta diversity as spatial differ- entiation, or the variation in species composition among sites within a region of interest. Different ways of meas- uring beta have been proposed by Whittaker himself and by other authors. Several authors have argued that the variance of a community composition data table (sites x species) is an appropriate measure of beta diversity across the sites (Koleff et al. 2003; Legendre et al. 2005; Anderson et al. 2011). It has also been shown that the total variance can be computed from a dissimilarity matrix D obtained from an appropriately chosen dissimi- larity index D. Legendre & De Cáceres (2013) described properties of dissimilarity indices that are necessary for beta diversity studies and identified 11 indices that were appropriate for such studies; two more indices were added to that list by Legendre (2014) and Legendre & Borcard (2018).
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There Is More Than One Way to Do Something Right: Applying Community-Based Approaches to an Archaeology of Banks Island, NWT

There Is More Than One Way to Do Something Right: Applying Community-Based Approaches to an Archaeology of Banks Island, NWT

Archaeological research is traditionally viewed as survey, excavation, and artifact analysis. Factors like ethnographic research, the application of Indigenous knowledge, museum practices, and heritage studies, which were traditionally thought of as outside of the realm of archaeological research are now becoming integral parts of archaeological projects. For example, while working in Cambridge Bay, Griebel (2010) found that simply involving local people in excavation was not a particularly effective way of promoting community engagement in the research. During a series of focus groups with Elders, Griebel (2010: 78) noted “Many elders spoke of the importance of physically recollecting the past, be it through a place, artefacts or the motions of remembering via mnemonics.” He recognized that there might be more effective ways of applying local knowledge to archaeological research and set up a series of projects that broadened what archeology encompasses, including the Qajaq Revitalization Project that involved Elders and youth living on the land and building a traditional qajaq (kayak). The IAP has been working towards this, for example the IAP organized a trip to the PWNHC in 2015. During this trip, community members saw how artifacts were cared for and learned how to make digital replicas of some of the artifacts from Banks Island.
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Within-Host Whole-Genome Deep Sequencing and Diversity Analysis of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Reveals Dynamics of Genomic Diversity in the Absence and Presence of Immune Pressure

Within-Host Whole-Genome Deep Sequencing and Diversity Analysis of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Reveals Dynamics of Genomic Diversity in the Absence and Presence of Immune Pressure

Similarly, while a number of truncated G proteins have been observed in RSV-B in vivo (29), we are unaware of reports of truncated G proteins in RSV-A in vivo. Studies of RSV escape from antibody-mediated selection have shown that premature stop codons in the C-terminal region can lead to antibody escape in cell culture (11). The presence of premature stop codons at every time point, however, suggests that the emergence of C-terminally trun- cated G protein is not due solely to immune pressure. In addition, the presence of minority populations with premature stop codons in the first mucin-like domain, prior to the heparin binding do- main, during the pretransplant time points raises questions about whether the variant-containing viruses are viable or fit. While in vitro and mouse in vivo experiments have demonstrated that RSV lacking the G protein can still infect cells, on the whole such virus appears to infect less efficiently and replicate more slowly (30, 31). Diversity in the F protein. In the initial study of these samples,
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Regeneration and recovery dynamics of logged forests in the Solomon Islands

Regeneration and recovery dynamics of logged forests in the Solomon Islands

economics-driven land-use activities, including industrial logging (Houghton 2012). Industrial logging typically results in the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function and provisioning in tropical forests (Houghton 2012; Carreño-Rocabado et al. 2012; Arcilla et al. 2015). It also has adverse long-term effects on forest plant recovery processes (Lavorel and Garnier 2002; Katovai et al. 2016). In most tropical regions, logged forests are left to recover through natural regeneration (Katovai et al. 2015a). However, in the absence of clear policies to safeguard this process, logged forests are often highly vulnerable to further anthropogenic impacts (Laurance at al. 2012; Zimmerman and Kormos 2012; Katovai et al. 2015a). Inadequate policies on post- logging regeneration in the tropics mainly result from a lack of information on the dynamics of forest recovery. Although recent studies have shown that the recovery to pre-cut levels of several taxonomic and functional groups can occur entirely through natural post-logging regeneration (e.g., Berry et al. 2010; Katovai et al. 2012; Wilcove et al. 2013; Asase et al. 2014), the ecological dynamics of this process have rarely been investigated.
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Dynamics of invertebrate diversity in a tropical stream

Dynamics of invertebrate diversity in a tropical stream

Sampling of invertebrates was undertaken to investigate faunal composition, temporal dynamics, trophic relationships and their major drivers. Samples were collected approximately monthly from October 1981 to June 1984 (26 sets of samples), to capture seasonal and inter-annual change, with further samples in 1993–1995 (3 sets) to investigate longer-term change. Between 9 and 20 samples were taken on each occasion, haphazardly, from the length of a riffle (~50 m), representing about 50% of the habitat at the site (the rest was mainly rocky pools). Samples were collected by disturbing a 25 × 25 cm area of substratum upstream of a triangular net (400-µm mesh). Individual cobbles and rocks were scrubbed in the mouth of the net to remove attached animals. The proportion of the sample area covered by leaf litter was estimated prior to taking the sample, and current velocity and maximum substratum size (using a φ-scale gauge) were recorded immediately afterwards. Samples were preserved in 70% ethanol then returned to the laboratory for sorting and identification. Individuals were identified to species, or equivalent operational taxonomic units, except that, after the first year’s sampling, the Chironomidae were not identified beyond family; and 1993–1994 samples were identified to family only.
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The Dynamics of Knowledge Diversity and Economic Growth

The Dynamics of Knowledge Diversity and Economic Growth

How is long run economic growth related to the diversity of knowledge? We formulate and study a microeconomic model of knowledge creation, through the in- teractions among a group of R & D workers, embedded in a growth model to address this question. Income to these workers accrues as patent income, whereas transmis- sion of newly created knowledge to all such workers occurs due to public transmission of patent information. Our model incorporates two key aspects of the cooperative process of knowledge creation: (i) heterogeneity of people in their state of knowledge is essential for successful cooperation in the joint creation of new ideas, while (ii) the very process of cooperative knowledge creation a¤ects the heterogeneity of people through the accumulation of knowledge in common. The model features myopic R & D workers in a pure externality model of interaction. Surprisingly, in the general case for a large set of initial conditions we …nd that the equilibrium process of knowledge creation converges to the most productive state, where the population splits into smaller groups of optimal size; close interaction takes place within each group only. Equilibrium paths are found analytically. Long run economic growth is positively related to both the e¤ectiveness of pairwise R & D worker interaction and to the e¤ectiveness of public knowledge transmission. JEL Classi…cation Numbers: D83, O31, D90 Keywords: knowledge creation, knowledge externalities, microfoun- dations of endogenous growth, knowledge diversity and growth
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The dynamics of knowledge diversity and economic growth

The dynamics of knowledge diversity and economic growth

The long run economic growth rate is positively related to both the e¤ec- tiveness of pairwise knowledge worker interaction and, more importantly, to the e¤ectiveness of public knowledge transmission. The latter is not obvious in the context of a model of knowledge diversity, since more e¤ective public knowledge transmission can result in a more homogeneous work force in the R & D sector. Thus, there are both costs and bene…ts associated with a more e¤ective public knowledge transmission technology. However, the endogenous adjustment of group size to a better public knowledge transmission technology implies that better public knowledge transmission improves long run growth. Finally, if we de…ne e¢ciency constrained by the monopolistic competition en- vironment for consumption goods, for a su¢ciently large number of knowledge workers our equilibrium paths are nearly constrained e¢cient.
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The Dynamics of Knowledge Diversity and Economic Growth

The Dynamics of Knowledge Diversity and Economic Growth

Speci…cally, the so called IT revolution has signi…cantly increased the speed of public knowledge transmission, whereas new industries displaying rapid growth (e.g. the biotech industry), such as computer software and advanced service industries (including global …nance), tend to have a higher weight on knowledge diversity in R & D than traditional manufacturing industries (based mainly on incremental improvements in Japan). Due to the lock-in e¤ect, R & D group size and composition were inherited from past economic circum- stances. Our model implies low mobility of Japanese workers and researchers beyond existing institutions, through no fault of their own. 4 But the Japanese
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Diversity A Strategic Imperative Or A Basic Business Requirement? A Proposed Taxonomy

Diversity A Strategic Imperative Or A Basic Business Requirement? A Proposed Taxonomy

An “imperative” is defined as a binding or compelling rule, duty, or requirement. [Webster’s 2005] In this paper we have seen that diversity can be a strong concept to be addressed by the firm. In some instances it may be a legal requirement. Certainly de jure diversity is a business imperative but not a strategic imperative. In other instances diversity may also be a basic requirement in order to be competitive. And still in other situations there may be no need to really address the concept as it is already an institutionalized force. Whether or not it serves as a basis for strategy to a great extent is dependent on “the how” it serves as a driving force upon the business environment or as a competence in the specific firm. In those cases where diversity in its many forms impacts all and there is the requirement for all to address it, it becomes a common business requirement for all firms. If it is required, then there is little opportunity to make it the “firm’s” in a way that provides a competitive advantage. Note, however, that a firm which is unable to effectively incorporate a requirement is placed in a vulnerable position vis-à-vis its competitors.
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Spatial distribution, prevalence and diversity of haemosporidians in the rufous collared sparrow, Zonotrichia capensis

Spatial distribution, prevalence and diversity of haemosporidians in the rufous collared sparrow, Zonotrichia capensis

The prevalence of Haemoproteus was markedly higher than Plasmodium , in contrast to patterns of haplotype diversity. This dichotomous observation may be attribut- able to the greater host specificity of Haemoproteus rela- tive to Plasmodium . In South America, Haemoproteus and Plasmodium showed latitudinal and altitudinal pat- terns, with a prevalence peak between 20–40°S, followed by a decrease at higher latitudes. We found that Plasmo- dium prevalence increased at lower altitudes while Haemoproteus prevalence increased at higher altitudes. Our study is the first of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus for many of these regions in Latin America, and pro- vides a map of hemoparasite prevalence and diversity within one of the most broadly-distributed passerine species in the world. Future studies should examine the prevalence of hemoparasites in other species of passer- ines, providing further information on parasite-host specificity. Our study adds to the current knowledge of prevalence and diversity of haemosporidian parasites. Low temperatures of the higher elevations can
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A Systematic Exploration of Diversity in Machine Translation

A Systematic Exploration of Diversity in Machine Translation

MT researchers have recently started to con- sider diversity in the context of system combina- tion (Macherey and Och, 2007). Most closely- related is work by Devlin and Matsoukas (2012), who proposed a way to generate diverse transla- tions by varying particular “traits,” such as transla- tion length, number of rules applied, etc. Their ap- proach can be viewed as solving Eq. (2) with a richer dissimilarity function that requires a special-purpose decoding algorithm. We chose our n-gram dissimi- larity function due to its simplicity and applicability to most MT systems without requiring any change to decoders.
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2.	WOUOKOUE TAFFO Junior Baudoin, NGUETSOP Victor Francois and FONKOU Théophile

2. WOUOKOUE TAFFO Junior Baudoin, NGUETSOP Victor Francois and FONKOU Théophile

A rigorous examination of diversity requires a combination of relative abundance of species and the species richness of the studied area. The Shannon- Weaver diversity index increases progressively when species diversity increases (Tagne, 2007). Thus, the high Shannon-Weaver‟s diversity index is 5.202 indicating high diversity of the studied savanna. This data is in coherence with the Pielou‟s equitability value which was 0.667. The weak value of Pielou‟s equitability index expresses a dominance of the zone by some species. The values of Simpson‟s diversity index obtained in this study (0.098) is weak, then the probability that two individuals randomly selected belong to the same species is low. However, the Simpson diversity index value does not directly give an idea of diversity but rather the dominance index. It agrees to calculate the inverse of this index such that a high value of this index reflects a high diversity (Sonké, 1998).
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Students’ narratives on gender and sexuality in the project of social justice and belonging in higher education

Students’ narratives on gender and sexuality in the project of social justice and belonging in higher education

“This is a picture of the minibus I take to campus. The transport to campus is a big part of my daily life, as I live quite far away from campus. Whether I perceive this place as safe or not depends on several external factors such as what time it is, if I am alone, and also the appearance of the driver. I am trying to avoid empty minibuses because of the stories I have heard about people being robbed or sexually assaulted by the driver and dumped somewhere in the outskirts.” (wf). “My fear of being sexually assaulted or even raped is much greater and almost constantly present in a situation when I am in a situation where it is hard to escape, such as in a minibus. I believe that my experience with the minibus as an unsafe place is most of all shaped by my biological gender. Considering the statistics of sexual victimization and rape of women in general and particularly in Cape Town, I know I am a lot more vulnerable as a woman.” (wf).
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