Some tropical countries have been very active on this issue of carbon trading. In 1997, Costa Rica became the first country in the world to sell carbon stock of its forests by issuing “Certified Tradable Offsets”, based on a forestcarbon sequestration program with performance guarantees, carbon pools and a third party certification. Other stakeholders have also taken a pro-active role. In 1998, the state government of New South Wales, Australia, signed the country’s first carbon offset programme, including carbon credits to be marketed worldwide. The World Bank is also launching the Prototype Carbon Fund with USD 110-120 million (operational until 2012) to finance country projects that help to mitigate climatechange (Koskela et al., 2000). The Kyoto Protocol triggered a strong increase in investment in plantations as carbon sinks, although the legal and policy instruments and guidelines for management are still debated (FAO, 2000). A number of countries have already prepared themselves for the additional funding for the establishment of human-made forests. According to a FAO report, in 2000 green house gas mitigation funding covered about 4 million hectares of forest plantations worldwide (FAO, 2000). The recognition of afforestation and reforestation as the only eligible land use under the CDM of the Kyoto Protocol is expected to lead to a steep increase in forest plantation establishment in developing countries. Industrialized countries consider CDM as a potential source for low-cost emission credits, while developing countries hope it may attract new and additional investment for sustainable development. Potentially there are two ways in which farmers could benefit from entering into contracts to sequester C: (1) farmers would be compensated for the C they sequester, based on the quantity of C sequestered and the market price of C; (2) farmers would benefit from any gains in productivity associated with the adoption of C-sequestering practices (Nair et al., 2009).
Climate includes the long-term patterns of temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind and seasons. Therefore, climatechange can be defined as a significant and long-lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades, millennia or even more. It may be a change in average weather conditions or in the distribution of weather around the average conditions. The most important climatechange related provocations or aggravations includes: accelerated glaciers melting, melting of permafrost, sea level rise, increased temperature with seasonal changes, more intensive and frequent storms, more heat waves, more cold spells, more droughts, more flooding or frequent flooding more extreme rain (including seasonal changes), and change in water availability (annual and seasonal availability). These climate patterns play a fundamental role in shaping natural ecosystems, economies and the human cultures that depend on them. Because so many natural, economic and social systems are strongly related with climate, a change in climate can affect many related aspects of where and how people, plants and animals live, such as food production, availability and use of water, and health risks. For example, a change in the usual pattern and timing of rains or temperatures can affect when farmers sow their crops and the types of crops to grow, when plants flower and set fruit, when insects hatch or when rivers and streams are at their full-flow. This can affect pollination of crops, drinking and irrigation water supplies, food for animals, crop and forest health etc.
Natural forests can sequester huge amount of carbon thereby contributing towards climatechangemitigation efforts. The purpose of the study was to estimate the carbon sequestration potentials of traditionally managed Shawo sacred forest so that its role in climatechangemitigation could be recognized and valorized. Both primary and secondary sources were used to achieve the objectives. The analysis of this study was carried out using both qualitative and quantitative techniques. Descriptive research design was employed. Systematic sampling method was used to collect data of biomass along transect lines having systematically established plots of different carbon pools. Results revealed the presence of 16 plant species in Shawo forest. The average Diameter Breast Height (DBH) and Height (H) value of the plants was 9.21 cm and 10.43 m, respectively. The total mean carbon density was 514.52 t/ha (1888.31 CO 2 equivalents). Of the total carbon pools, plants share was 385.39 t/ha (1414.39 CO 2 equivalents).
Large and dominant trees are important to store substantial amount of carbon in their biomass. These trees are very effective because they are more adaptable for local climate and soil condition. Different diameter size, tree height and stem density have significant impact on the amount of carbon stored in the trees biomass. There are a few numbers of trees which have large height and diameter in the forest but they store large amount of carbon in their biomass. Forest management has significant role for climatechangemitigation, since when the forest managed properly, there will be more large trees which can stock more carbon.
the establishment of the plantations. Moreover, not much agricultural land will likely be abandoned in coming dec- ades due to the current and projected agricultural pres- sure. The limited potential in coming decades is in line with findings of Marland & Schlamadinger , who showed that the sequestration potential in forests estab- lished since 1990 is mainly relevant in the long term. As such, we do not confirm the suggestion of Kirschbaum  that plantations may help to buy some time in initi- ating emission reductions already in the next few decades. The limited role of plantations in the coming decades might be caused by our assumptions that C plantations can only be established after 2000. Various other studies report afforestation activities in different locations around the world, even before 2000. Brown  and FAO , for example, reported that globally 124 Mha and 187 Mha forest plantations have been established up to 1995 and 2000, respectively. More than 90% of these plantations have been established in 30 countries only, mainly in such Asian countries as China (45 Mha), India (32 Mha), and Japan (11 Mha). Furthermore, various studies report existing afforestation activities, but seldom account for deforestation in the same region (the so-called leakage effect). This has also been shown by others (e.g. ) by estimating an annual afforestation rate in the tropics of 2.6 Mha yr -1 throughout the 1980s, but at the same time a
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have to be drastically reduced to keep global warming below 2 degrees. Bioenergy can play a role in climatechangemitigation by substituting for fossil fuels. However, climate benefits associated with forest-based bioenergy are being questioned, and studies arrive at contrasting conclusions, mainly due to diverging methodological choices and assumptions. This thesis combines three papers to bring together different methodological perspectives to improve the assessment and understanding of the contribution of forest bioenergy to climatechangemitigation. The thesis concerns carbon balances and GHG- mediated climate effects associated with the use of forest biomass for energy in Sweden. More specifically, the focus is on methodological choices including definition of spatial and temporal system boundaries, and character of forests and forest product markets, e.g., forest owners’ responses to changes in demand for forest products, and how different assessment scales and metrics capture the difference in timing between emission and sequestration of carbon in forests that are managed with long rotations.
3.1. Effect on Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Tillage has a major influence on soil C emissions and is one of the principal agronomic activities thought to reduce SOC stocks. It was estimated that 100% conversion to no-tillage could offset all direct fossil fuel-carbon emissions from agriculture (Smith et al., 1998). Reicosky and Archer (2007) reported that the CO 2 released immediately following tillage increased with ploughing depth and in every case was substantially greater than that from the no-tillage treatment. Intensive soil cultivation breaks down soil organic matter (SOM), producing CO 2 , and consequently reduces the total C content. There are many reports suggesting that soil tillage accelerates organic C oxidation, releasing large amounts of CO 2 to the atmosphere over a few weeks (La Scala et al., 2008). Conservation tillage has been shown to result in a greater percentage of soil present in macro-aggregates and a larger proportion of carbon associated with micro-aggregates compared to that in conventional ploughing (He et al., 2011). Under conventional ploughing, macro-aggregates are readily broken down prior to micro-aggregate formation. This leads to a reduction in the proportion of C that is more protected in micro-aggregates and thus to the loss of recalcitrant SOC (Six et al., 2002). Conceptual models of aggregate turnover have hypothesized that slower macro-aggregate turnover and the ratio of fine to coarse particulate organic matter within macro- aggregates can be used as a relative measure of the turnover of these aggregates (Six et al., 2000). Differences in aggregate stability are very large when CT is compared to soil subjected to mould board ploughing (Martınez et al., 2008), with intermediate values when compared to reduced tillage systems, like chisel tillage (Alvaro- Fuentes et al., 2008). The improved aggregate stability under CT management results from greater biological activity in these soils (Tisdall and Oades, 1982), and a reduction in the breakdown of surface soil aggregates also results because of protection offered by residues remaining on the soil surface (Zhang et al., 2007).
There is an urgent need to match food production with increasing world population through identification of sustainable land management strategies. However, the struggle to achieve food security should be carried out keeping in mind the soil where the crops are grown and the environment in which the living things survive. Conservation Tillage (CT), practicing agriculture in such a way so as to cause minimum damage to the environment, is being advocated at a large scale world-wide, and is thought to take care of the soil health, plant growth and the environment. This paper aims to review the work done on conservation tillage in different agro- ecological regions so as to understand its impact from the perspectives of the soil, the crop and the environment. Research reports have identified several benefits of conservation tillage over conventional tillage (CT) with respect to soil physical, chemical and biological properties as well as crop yields and reduction in carbon dioxide emission from soil into the atmosphere. Processes of climatechangemitigation and adaptation found zero tillage (ZT) to be the most environmental friendly among different tillage techniques.
servation Reserve Program of Unites States), the refores- tation of idle or fallow cropland, abandoned farmland and abandoned pastureland (i.e. less-favourable agricul- tural areas) is the dominant land-use change in temper- ate regions. Marginal agricultural land (MAL) is increasingly recognized as a potential avenue to reduce net GHG emissions from agricultural land by either increasing terrestrial carbon (C) stocks through increased forest area or by replacing fossil fuels for energy production through increased bioenergy crop production (Gallagher, 2008; Ravindranath et al., 2009; FAO, 2010, Wang et al., 2013). In Europe, approximately 56% of the utilized agricultural area was classified as MAL in 1996 by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), and the majority of this occurred in mountain- ous zones characterized by steep slope, low accessibil- ity, poor soils, land used as alpine pastures, high cultivation costs and small field size (MacDonald et al., 2000; Pointereau et al., 2008; Gopalakrishnan et al., 2011; Haddaway et al., 2013). Campbell et al. (2008) reported that about 0.4 billion hectares of MAL were abandoned globally between years 1700 and 2000 due to agricul- tural intensification, reduction of soil fertility, topo- graphic unsuitability and economic conditions caused by the market globalization such as milk quotas or set- aside (Pointereau et al., 2008, Haddaway et al., 2013).
The C storage capacity varies with type of pool. The AGC pool and SOC were significantly different from other pools and from each other at (p< 0.05). The DTC and LC were also significantly different from AGC and SOC but not significantly different from each other at (p< 0.05). The study shows that the mean C stock of the major pools in each forest stand decreased as AGC > SOC > BGC > LC > DTC; implying more C allocation in the aboveground pool (Fig. 2). Nearly 63.45% of C was stored in the aboveground pool followed by 19.79, 15.23, 0.99 and 0.55% in the soil, belowground, litter, and dead tree, respectively. This was in line with Zerihun Getu et al. (2012) report that tropical forests in their natural condition contain more aboveground C per unit area than any other land cover type. The average C stored in the aboveground pool for the natural forest was 301.86 Mg ha -1 while that of plantation forest was 129.17
Carrara et al. 2004, Kolari et al. 2004). Even forests as old as 160 years are within the same range as those of 30-80 year age (Schulze and Buchmann 1999). Soilcarbon pools and living biomass carbon pools reach their highest levels in these old forests, meaning that total ecosystem carbon is at its largest in the oldest age classes (Pregitzer and Euskirchen 2004). The age-related trend for NEP seems to be poorly documented for the postmature stage (Hyvonen 2007), but in general, young trees are stronger C sinks than old stands (Hyvonen 2007). However, forests in very young age classes often act as carbon sources because of increases in heterotrophic soil respiration following disturbance (Pregitzer and Euskirchen 2004), and concomitant decreases in the size of soil C pools. The importance of age class in determining carbon accumulation has led to rotation age being an important recommendation for any forest managers who may wish to maximize sequestration.
The present study affiliates the altitudinal limita- tion of net primary production to the impact of two basic climatic factors – temperature and precipita- tion, which affect both production and decomposi- tion. Rodeghiero and Cescatti (2005), and Eu- skirchen et al. (2010) confirmed the basic role of climate in soil decomposition showing a positive correlation between soil organic matter to a depth of 30 cm and Lang’s factor. Under the conditions of the Czech Republic, precipitation is regarded as the main limiting abiotic environmental factor for for- ests up to 550 m a.s.l., whereas zones above 600 m a.s.l. are mainly limited by temperature. The sites between those two altitudes (550–600 m a.s.l) are considered to be zonal, i.e. they are affected equally by both temperature and precipitation (Kalvová et al. 2002). Presented findings show a low sensitivity Fig. 6. The predicted carbon loss in forest soils from the top
Among these pools, soil is the most important. Soil organic carbon makes up around two-thirds of the terrestrial ecosystem’s carbon, two times higher than the atmospheric carbon content (Schlesinger 1995, Scharle- mann et al. 2014). In the soil, we find both inorganic and organic carbon. The main component is organic carbon that is stored in soil organic matter (SOM). This is a dynamic entity and a function of residence time, that is, the time required by photosynthesized carbon to be cycled back to the atmosphere through respiratory processes (Luo et al. 2001). Three different carbon fractions can be identified depending on their residence time (Brady and Weil 1999): (1) the active fraction, composed of material with high ratios between carbon and nitrogen (N), such as polysaccharides and fulvic acids. It is the substrate preferred by soil microorgan- isms and comprises 10–20% of SOM. (2) The passive fraction, made up by humic colloids, which can stay in the soil for thousands of years. It is the majority of SOM (60–90%). (3) The low fraction, which has intermediate properties, and substrates high in lignin content and other recalcitrant compounds.
Urbanization is widely presumed to degrade ecosystem services, but empirical evidence is now challenging these assumptions.Globally due to Industrial development and urban growth greenhouse gas emissions have increased considerably. ases from the atmosphere into sinks trees and soil) is one way of addressing climatechange. In the wake of global efforts to address climatechange, considerable interest has been generated about carbon storage tations are being considered as a mitigation option to reduce the increase in (Kraenzel et al., 2003). Soil organic carbon, being the largest terrestrial carbon pool plays a very significant role in global terrestrial ecosystem in carbon balance. Intergovernmental Panel on ClimateChange estimated that the total soilcarbon pool in top 1 m as 2011 Pg carbon. Trees have immense role in regulating the carbon dioxide budget in the atmosphere. However, this icular ecosystem service is poorly understood quantified although trees act as the major sink of carbon dioxide by fixing carbon during photosynthesis and storing carbon as biomass. Even the edaphic factors and soil management also influence
The stability of organic C in plant residues or in soil pool depends largely on environmental changes, such as soil types, temperature, and moisture. However, the plant components play a major role for its organic C stability against its decomposition rate. For example, usually there are two major compartments of organic C in plants, ac- tive and inert, which might refer to labile and recalcitrant pools, respectively, in two-pool models proposed by McLauchlan and Hobbie . The active organic C con- sists of 4 sub-components, decomposable organic C, re- sistant organic C, microbial biomass organic C, and hu- mified organic C . The physiological and chemical characteristics in plant residues, such as C:N ratio and lignin content, may affect the distribution of those dif- ferent organic C compartments, which consequently in- fluence the decomposition rates. There are a number of reports on C sequestration or SOC accumulation in crop- lands through integrated cropping systems and cropping practices, such as conservation tillage; cover cropping, crop rotation; land use restoration or shifting cultivation, and fertilization, etc. [4,16,19,37,46-49]. Obviously, soil organic C pool has a great potential to store sequestered C and integrated cropping systems associated with crop- ping practices has displayed the promising prospects in C sequestration from the atmosphere and shifting the miti- gation of climatechange.
Using Indonesia and Vietnam as case studies, this paper explores the current state of policy integration, assesses the obstacles and opportunities for integration of adaptation and mitigation in policy design, and reviews evidence on integration at the project level. These two countries are relevant to this analysis for two reasons in particular: many of their sectors and people are vulnerable to climatechange, particularly the forestry and agriculture sectors [14,15], and their national governments have developed climatechange policies [16–18]. In terms of mitigation, the analysis focuses on REDD+ policy, because of forests’ central role in mitigation policy and because Indonesia and Vietnam are leaders in REDD+ in Asia, having introduced national strategies and received significant funding from the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad), the United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (UN-REDD) and the World Bank ForestCarbon Partnership Facility [19,20]. Both Vietnam and Indonesia are included in the Global Comparative Study on REDD+ carried out by Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).
Currently 5 carbon pools have to be reported under the UNFCCC; Above-ground Biomass, Below-ground Biomass, Dead Organic Matter, Soil Organic Matter and litter biomass. Diameter and height was measured for every individual tree having DBH greater than 5cm using Haga hypsometer, caliper, clinometers and linear tape. Tree with multiple stems at 1.3 m height was treated as a single individual and DBH ≥ 5 of stem were taken. A complete list of trees by classified them riverine and wood land forest/ forest land/ in each plot was done. Litter included in the study area such as shrubs/bushes, leaves and small fell wood. Plant specimens were collected, pressed, dried and identified their scientific name, species and vernacular name in the Gambella National Park office and the dry litter and soil was brought for analyzing in the laboratory. During collecting plant and vegetation data, local people (Anuak, Nuer) were involved, and asked the local names and the uses of the plants encountered in the survey. The botanic names of the plants were identified using Hedberg and Edwards  manual which is located in the Gambella National Park Office. Generally, at each plots the following data were collected for providing information of the study area. Altitude was recorded from a handheld GPS unit, DBH and height of the tree was measured by using clinometers, direction was obtained by compass, collecting all litters (leaves, shrubs and wood) on the ground, soil sample was taken in each plots, measure height of dead wood ( stand), and mark the tree whether it is riverine and terrestrials.
SSB offers the possibility of modulating the fast carbon cycle, the continuous exchange of carbon between atmos- phere, land and sea on a decadal time scale. As summarized in Fig. 1, every year some 120 gigatons of carbon (GtC) are removed from the atmosphere by terrestrial photosynthesis, and every year essentially the same amount is returned by plant and microbial respiration. Even a small reduction in the return step can substantially reduce atmospheric carbon. Many scientific pathways are potentially available for vastly accelerating the science of land management via SSB. These include development of engineered plants with increased root to shoot ratio; amplification of pro- cesses controlling soil mineral absorption and mineral carbonation (e.g. calcium oxalates by cacti; silicon phyto- liths by multiple plant species); engineered soil microbes that would convert organic carbon into stable carbon- ates, and pigment modification of selected tree species to increase albedo.
of organic carbon to clay surfaces, entrapment of carbon on pores of aggregates or encapsulation of organic carbon by clay particles (Nyamadzawo et al., 2009).
Changes in soil microbiological properties brought by management practices play a major role in soilcarbon storage, this is evident from the positive relationship between soilcarbon and microbial biomass carbon. With soil management practices which input more crop residues to the soil such as grass land and zero tillage, microbial populations were higher. The microbial biomass carbon reported in this study were comparable to other studies (Alvarez et al., 1995). Under reduced disturbance systems a stable pool of extra cellular hydrolytic and oxido-reductases are also preserved. These enzymes act on crop residues and convert the carbon in crop residues and root biomass to soil humus and recalcitrant carbon, thus helping to sequester carbon. The absence of soil disturbance is also beneficial to extract and preserve carbon from resistant products of decomposition of crop residues. Lack of soil disturbances provide stabilised activity for soil microorganisms especially fungi which are important in degrading the resistant components of crop residues and are therefore helpful in extracting carbon which are preserved in soil aggregates.
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