Organization justiceperception had wide scope in study of organizational behavior. Employee perceives organization justice in terms of fair output, process and interaction in organization. Depending on justiceperceptionemployee had shown various behavioraloutcomes, these behavioraloutcomes significantly affect the organization performance. The present study purposed to describe the relative importance of organization justiceperception (distributive justice, procedural justice, international justice, informational justice) and resulting employee positive and negative behavioraloutcomes. This conceptual paper is based on published research papers, articles and web sites and highlighted some desirable and undesirable employee behavior resulting due to organization justiceperception, such as satisfaction or dissatisfaction with job, organization commitment, turnover intention and motivation. Thus the implication of organizationaljusticeperception and behavioral outcome was very beneficial to understand organizational psychology.
This study tested the relationships between organizational citizenship behavior and perception of organizationaljustice among a sample of employees in Cukurova University Hospital, Adana city, Turkey. Toour knowledge, there are very few studies in OCB and organizationaljusticeperception in the health sector in our country. Results of this study revealed that medical faculty workers’ level of organizational citizenship behavior was low whereas level of perceptions of organizationaljustice were at moderate-high level. Unlike the study by Nielsen et al. (2009) we found that age was significantly related to OCB and organizationaljusticeperception. There was a significant relationship between gender and OCB. This finding agreed with Rubin’s (2009) research results. Occupation, time spend in this occupation and in this institution, daily workload seemed to be important factors in OCB and organizationaljusticeperception levels of workers. Inconsistent with our findings, Podsakoff (2000) stated that demographic variables (e.g., organizational tenure and employee gender) have not been found to be related to OCB. Being aware of the factors that may influence employees’ perception of justice is very crucial for every organization. Further, studying on organizational citizenship behavior among health institutions is very important as employees have essential roles. Considering the findings of this study it is possible to recommend the health institutions to increase the level of justice to improve their engagement in organizational citizenship behavior.
The results of this study are in line with the research conducted by Yilmaz and Tasdan (2009) which states that there is a positive relationship between organizationaljustice and OCB, positive perceptions of organizationaljustice can increase the perception of positive OCB. This research is also supported by the research of Silva and Madhumali (2014) which states that managers must pay great attention to how to treat their employees because this will affect the occurrence of OCB. In the research conducted by Al-Quraan and Khasawneh (2017) also obtained the same results, namely the perception of fairness positively fostered OCB behavior or behavior beyond formal duties. Singh and Singh's (2018) study also found that organizationaljustice in the workplace influences employees to display the discretionary behavior desired by the organization. This indicates that organizationaljustice does have an important role in increasing OCB nurses at the Public Hospital in Bali.
DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.811150 2322 Theoretical Economics Letters results of the present study, for a more positive perception of organizational jus- tice among the employees a leader should develop a high quality relationship with more employees by limiting the usage of more political behavior within the organization. Managers should create such a working environment within the organization that majority of the employees can perceive that they are also part of in-group. A manager who knows how to manipulate the perceptions of em- ployees can lead to more desirable organizationaloutcomes and at the same time this would help in preventing the negative organizationaloutcomes. This high quality relationship will further benefit the employees as leader will exchange personal and positional resources (inside information, influence in decision making, task assignment, job latitude, support, and attention) in return for sub- ordinate’s performance on unstructured tasks . As a result, research shows mutual trust, positive support, informal interdependencies, greater job attitude, common bonds, open communication, high degree of autonomy, satisfaction, and shared loyalty exist   . Previous research has shown that em- ployees reciprocate this relationship by showing extra-role behavior for the or- ganization and increased job satisfaction   . The realization of the factors that affects the perceptions of organizational politics will not only help an employer to understand their employees properly but also help the supervisor to understand the factors that affects the perceptions of organizational politics which can ultimately help the supervisor to exert some control over the politi- cally charged environment. This will further help managers in altering the per- ceptions of employees and take corrective measures to reduce the negative im- pact of organizational politics. For instance, a supervisor in order to mitigate the negative effects of perceptions of organizational politics can provide timely and appropriate information about decisions that have direct impact on the em- ployees. Additionally, a manager can include the employees in decision making process also in order to reduce the negative perceptions of organizational poli- tics. These steps will help the employees to better understand the decision mak- ing process of the organization which will ultimately lead to have a harmonious relationship between leader and member.
Organization is made up of different elements like leaders, employees, groups, norms etc. These elements work collectively to accomplish organization’s goals. Leaders who put their interest beyond the concern of others are servant leaders. According to R. Greenleaf (1969), leader must fulfill the demands of others. The focus of servant leader is on colleagues instead of self. Such leaders understand the role of leader as a servant and exhibit it (Robert K Greenleaf & Pownell, 1985). When employees interpret that organization is working for its own interest rather than the concern of employees, they develop the perception of trustworthiness. These perceptions lead towards employee cynicism. Employees working in an organization have some expectations, when these anticipations are not fulfilled, they develop feelings of distrust and betrayal. It is known as employee cynicism. Organizational citizenship behavior is the beneficial behavioral of colleagues towards each other. This conduct is not advised by anyone rather it occurred freely to help in achieving organization’s goals. This study will explore the relationship of perceived contract violation, abusive supervision and servant leadership with OCB in service sector organizations of Pakistan. Researcher asserts that this research is first of its kind as the proposed relationship was not tested earlier in the selected context (service sector of Pakistan). This study will use employees’ cynicism as a mediating variable. In previous studies, it was tested as a dependent variable.
Authentic leadership has been garnering significant interest in the organizational studies research, as the impact of having unethical leaders has far reaching negative consequences on every level of the organization, as well as Abstract: In today’s global economic turmoil, organizations are challenged every day to stay not only in competition but also ahead, for the sake of its stakeholders. It is the leaders of an organization who spearhead the changes and handle contingent situations. After the leaders, the employees are the core strength of an organization. The top management invest a lot to ensure a contented workforce. Employees in all levels, give importance to the way they are being treated- with respect and dignity. They demand that the compensation and remuneration they receive are justified and deserving. If there is a conflict of these situations, then an employee is under undue stress to perform better, even when not satisfied with the workplace- leading to emotional exhaustion, cynicism, feeling unaccomplished and physical strain. In short, the employee experiences burnout. In this research study, authentic leadership style is analyzed with respect to their influence on an employee’s perception about organizationaljustice and the burnout experienced. The impact of these leadership styles in ensuring a positive perception of organizationaljustice in employees is studied along with their influence in reducing employee burnout. The role of organizationaljustice is studied in a mediating capacity. A sample of 700 employees belonging to various organizations in information technology are chosen for the study.
TQM practices and people-related outcomes. It is envisioned that the study will shed light on understanding of the variations in TQM results. The aim of this paper is to establish reliable items to measure the identified determinants of quality performance. With maturity of TQM research, the research focus shifted from a purely technical perspective to a broader set of antecedents and consequences. Some examples of studies investigating people- related outcomes are ,,, and . Although it was suggested in some studies that people-related factors such as organizational culture , and organizationaljustice  play significant roles in enhancing positive employee attitudes and performance in the TQM setting, only few studies focused on impact of these factors. This study, in response to the call of scholars that the TQM philosophy should be further investigated from a holistic perspective as an organization-
Fourthly, our study shows that TMX mediates the relationship between LMX and customer orientation. We provide additional support for the idea that leaders and leadership styles are important for influencing TMX, as previously discussed in the literature (Menguc & Auh, 2008; Martin & Bush, 2003), within the Pakistani banking context. Psychological and socio- emotional support between colleagues can facilitate organizational identification with positive effects on employee in-role and organizational citizenship behavior (Kwan et al., 2015; Liu et al., 2011) and, thus, positively affect behaviors such as customer orientation. The SOCB literature (Chou & Lopez-Rodriguez, 2013) discusses how such behaviors can lead to increased employee loyalty and participation and overall higher-quality service delivery (Bettencourt et al., 2001). Our study adds to this body of research and suggests that co-worker interactions in the workplace are crucial in creating customer loyalty and satisfaction (Lytle & Timmerman, 2006; Homburg et al., 2002; Lytle et al., 1998). The mediating effects of TMX between organizational distributive justice and customer orientation and LMX and customer orientation may be explained as TMX alone does not account significantly enough for customer orientation. In practical terms, good co-worker interactions and relationships on their own may not be enough to create organizational identification, employee commitment, and drive individual employees to exhibit desirable organizational citizenship behaviors, such as customer-oriented behaviors. Indeed, other factors such as psychological ownership for the organization and the work environment have also been found to affect citizenship behaviors (O’Driscoll, Pierce & Coghlan, 2006). The results indicate that organizational distributive justice and LMX are expected to encourage employees to more positively interact with co- workers, and once individuals develop effective team relationships, they become more likely to behaviorally support SOCBs such as customer orientation.
are not contributing to the baseline of performance. This model is found to be in the hearts of those organizations which always take measures towards cost cutting. Merit pay is not always effective and downsizing has malicious effects in the long run and workers are strait jacketed by bureaucratic management that results in decreasing innovation in organization. One should take into consideration economic matters but to the extent of duty. Quid pro quo exchange also includes ethical compulsions that one party has to the other. Employees look towards benefits but employer looks to the output more. Organizationaljustice is about the perception of employee about organization that how they are being treated. It works like glue to keep people together and work effectively. On the other hand, there is injustice that works as harsh solvent and melts the bonds within organization and society. Injustice is not only injurious to individual but also to the organization. In organizationaljustice, procedural justice is considered to be central determinants of job satisfaction. Procedural justice plays its role in the overall evaluation of an organization such as trust in supervisor, organizational commitment and citizenship behavior. Procedural justice explains the means to determine the output/outcome. Procedural justice is about the perceived fairness of process used to make decision and distributive justice is concerned with the perceived fairness of outcome to be rewarded. Thus distributive justice is a motivating force for employee. Procedural justice is associated with the organizational system evaluation such as pay system, organizational commitment and process satisfaction, whereas distributive justice is pertinent to organizational outcome such as pay satisfaction, outcome (Folger & Konovsky, 1989; Greenberg, 1990).
Philosophers and social commentators were writing about justice long before management scientists were. Among the ancient Greeks, for example, Herodotus' History and Plutarch's Lives described the achievements of the Lawgiver Solon, who reformed Athenian government. These are the prescriptive approaches, since they seek to logically determine what sorts of actions truly are just. As such, they reside comfortably within the domain of business ethics . Organizationaljustice can explain a wide range of employee behaviors and highlights the importance of the ideals of justice and fairness as a requirement for organizations to function effectively . Organizationaljustice describes the individuals (or groups) perception of the fairness of treatment received from an organization and their behavioral reaction to such perceptions . The two most prevalent forms of organizationaljustice discussed in the literature are distributive and procedural justice & .
zational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) (11, 14, 15), well-be- ing and performance (16), and organizationaloutcomes and negative reactions such as staff turnover (8, 13, 17, 18). By perceiving unfairness, personnel’s morality declines up to leaving their jobs or even working against the orga- nization (9). Conlon et al. in their review on the effect of OJ on staff performance, categorized these behaviors as “the good” like task performance, “the bad” such as turn- over, and “ugly” such as behaviors against the organiza- tion (19). Heponiemi et al. reported that OJ perception is important because it acts as a buffer against undesirable effects of a number of detrimental factors like interfer- ence with family life (6, 20). Thus, in highly demanding and stressful situations of healthcare services, feeling a high level of OJ may help employees to cope with such a situation (6). Based on individuals’ perceptions of fair- ness within their organization, three kinds of OJ have been defined including the distributive, procedural, and interactional justice (21). Distributive justice is the per- ceived fairness of outcome distributions. People usually compare their output with their input and compare this ratio with that of their colleagues in their organization or also in other organizations which are approximately in the same condition (9). A distribution would be per- ceived fair only if it is consistent with the rules of alloca- tion (22, 23). When there is unfairness in the organiza- tion, inefficient workers would do their job even worse (24). Procedural Justice refers to the fairness of the pro- cess which leads to the outcomes. This issue is known as the “voice phenomenon” which means that people feel fairness when they can make a “voice” in the process instead of being “mute” (25). Studies have shown that when employees feel fairness in the process of resource allocation, they reciprocate this social reward in the form of OCBs (14, 15
Supervisor support can be mentioned as the overall perception of the employees that their supervisors care about their well-being and appreciate their efforts towards the organization (Maertz et al., 2007). Workplace social support performs a significant role in overall performance of the organization. It performs an important role in facilitating employees‟ psychological, physical, and overall well- being (Eisenberger et al., 2002). Evidently in a high power distance culture like Pakistan, supervisor support can be critical in employee learnability and usefulness of training programs. Pakistan banking sector is at an evolutionary phase, training is critical for learning new skills. Supervisor support or lack can greatly influence the employee morale and attitudes towards organizational training programs. Therefore it is pertinent to examine the supervisor support for training, as it creates a positive perception in subordinates about supervisor care and concern for them. To measure the construct of supervisor support for training, 12 items were selected from Noe & wilk‟s (1993) study. The study involved 2200 respondents from a variety of services sector. This scale was later adopted by a number of studies in Western and non- Western context (e.g. Kacmar, Wright, & McMahan, 1997; Bartlett and Kang, 2004; Chuang, Liao, & Tai, 2005; Chiaburu & Lindsay, 2008; Bulut & Culha, 2010; Riaz et al., 2013) to examine the supervisors and peers support in training program. The items included in this survey are: “My manager gives me coaching and guidance to help achieve my work objectives”, “My manager makes sure I get the training and development needed for job effectiveness”, and “My manager assigns projects using skills and knowledge from training and development”. This instrument was found to be consistent with the objective of this study.
Theories on organizationaljustice indicate that fair treatment is central to people’s relationships and is a major determinant in their reactions to third-party decisions. It was indicated that perceptions fairness in the organization will fundamentally affect by distribution of power, prestige, authority, responsibility, technology and financial resources. In line with theories, many researchers pointed out that perception of justice within an organization is fundamental for understanding employee behaviors. For instance, several empirical studies have found a strong relationship between perception of justice and attitudes towards change practices. If distribution of resources is perceived to be fair, employees will behave more favorable and open to changes in the organization (Tyler and Lind, 1992; Daly and Geyer, 1994; Cobb, Folger and Wooten, 1995).
Organizationaljustice is define as the perception of employees at work place. This perception is has four categories including procedural, distributive, interactional and informational. Distributive defined as the fairness of outcome. Distributed theory was presented by Aristotle. In his book Aristotle explained that the distributed justice is something proportionate, equity of ratio (Adams, 1965), and social exchange theory (R Cropanzano et al., 2007). Distributed justice has main concerns about the outcome which they receive from organization(R. G. Folger & Cropanzano, 1998). The organization normally distributed resources equally and fairly among employees. The theory of relational model of justice to maintain the relationship (T. R. Tyler, 1994).Procedural explained as reflection of work to achieve these outcomes. Procedural justice is explained as the polices and procedure determine on fairness (R. G. Folger & Cropanzano, 1998; Thibaut & Walker, 1975) it also promote fair decision and has empowerment to give suggestion in decision making process (Lind & Tyler, 1992). The studies show that “people are not only concerned about the outcomes of decision making but also the fairness of decision making procedure” (McFarlin & Sweeney, 1992). Previous studies shows that the procedural justice has a
Angelo & Robert (2006) see performance appraisal as a discrete, formal, organizationally sanctioned event, usually not occurring more frequently than once or twice a year, which has clearly stated performance dimensions and/or criteria that are used in the evaluation process. Jackson & Schuler (2002) described it as a formal process of employee monitoring which usually involves the evaluation of performance based on the judgments and opinions of subordinates, peers, supervisors, other managers and even workers themselves. De Waal (2004) asserts that performance appraisal is concerned with the clarification of employees’ work expectations, helping individual employee grow and the collective growth of the entire workforce, as well as ensuring that pay structure incorporates performance. It also ensures that employees have an awareness of how organizations expect them to perform in relation to organizational goals after their performances are evaluated.
All of these changes further demonstrate that ‘university academics do complex work in an increasingly demanding environment’ (Houston, Meyer, & Paewai, 2006). Hagen (2002) asserts that universities are considered as the largest ‘knowledge- based’ institutions in the region. Hence, academicians have been urged by industry and policy makers to transform their traditional roles of teaching and research by adding an additional pivotal role in economic regional development. In other words, university academics are expected to aid economic regeneration by disseminating their knowledge and expertise through industry linked partnerships. However, each party (industry, policy makers, society, government, and universities) needs to be aware that their demands on academicians can lead to uncertainty in terms of their academic role which can possibly affect their work-related attitudes and performance. Briggs (2005) argues that “...lack of clarity about roles introduces role ambiguity and role conflict with significant impact on the achievement of personal and organizational goals, resulting in employee anxiety and dissatisfaction and lack of organizational effectiveness amongst academic staff” (p. 257).
In the light of Social Identity based model of group cooperation (Tyler, 1999; Tyler & Blader, 2000), the willingness of employees to engage with the organization because of its valued characteristics induces positive job attitudes among employees that indicate their sense of intrinsic work motivation (Deci, 1975; Locke, 1976) and also helps in predicting cooperative behaviors at work (Ellemers, De Gilder & Haslam, 2004). Literature has established that intrinsic motivation is conducive to creativity, whereas extrinsic motivation is detrimental to creativity (Amabile, 1996; Hennessey & Amabile, 2010). In some recent studies, employee creativity was measured by using the intrinsic motivation scale (Gouthier & Rhein, 2011). Organizational morality has been proved as a valuable source that increases work motivation of individuals and thus can be related to creative work behaviors of employees. So on the basis of the literature studies; it can be proposed that positive values of organization intrinsically motivate employees to show creative work behavior.
Organizational commitment are crucial for predicting and facilitating knowledge sharing Rosen, Furst, and Blackburn (2007) .As Baumann et al. (2001) stated, people are willing to share their knowledge with others if they are certain that doing so is useful. Hinds and Pfeffer (2003) sum up factors affecting knowledge sharing, one of which is the organizational commitment. Likewise, (Mei, Lee, & Al- Hawamdeh, 2004) considered Organizational commitment as an effective enabler for employees communication as result of that knowledge sharing can take place smoothly. (C. Lin, 2007) proved that employees who are empowered to involve in the process of decision-making are more likely to share their knowledge such behavior can be considered as an organizational commitment. (Chiang, Han, & Chuang, 2011) stated that sharing knowledge can be encouraged and increased via organizational commitment. Accordingly, previous studies support the evidence that OC and KS are positively related to each other, for example van den Hooff and de Leeuw van Weenen (2004) conducted a case study on two Netherlands consultancy firms employees. The study investigated the influence of organizational commitment on knowledge sharing. The results of regression analysis reported that commitment positively related to knowledge sharing. Subsequently, In the same context, Van Den Hooff and Ridder (2004) divided the process of knowledge sharing into (knowledge donating and knowledge collection). Further, the researchers set out another six case studies to explore the effect of organizational commitment on the processes of knowledge collecting and donating. The overall results demonstrated that individuals' commitment to their organization positively influences knowledge donating and knowledge collecting. Additionally, the study pointed out that knowledge collecting positively affect knowledge donating. In other words, when person collect more shared knowledge, such person tends to share his own knowledge more. While, Cabrera, Collins, and Salgado (2006)argued that organizational variables such as commitment control individual participation in knowledge sharing. Hence, the authors carried out a research on 372 employees of a Netherlands large multinational IT companies. The results demonstrated that organizational commitment associated with
In terms of control variables, previous research has shown that age (Landau & Hammer, 1986) and employee tenure (Kalleberg & Van Buren, 1996; Landau & Hammer, 1986) are negatively related to perceived ease of movement. In terms of gender, women are perceived to have less favourable chances of promotion than men (Igbaria & Baroudi, 1995), while men have a more favourable location in opportunity structures (Cassirer & Reskin, 2000). Junior college and university graduates have much more chance of being promoted than either junior or senior high school graduates (Tachibanaki, 1987), and MBA education has a positive impact on job promotion (Zhao et al., 2006). Previous research has also shown that the variable socioeconomic status accounts for the most variance in promotability (Colarelli et al., 1987). Based on the results of these studies, age, tenure, gender, education, and socioeconomic status were used as control variables.
It is predicted that politics influences the relationship between control HR strategy and employee job performance. Whereas evidence has indicated that organizational politics can influence operations and outcomes of organizational systems, it was not until a decade ago that HRM scholars (Ferris et al., 1989; Cropanzano et al., 1997; Podsakoff, 2007) provided systematic examination of the effect of organizational politics on HRM. These scholars argued that organizational politics has an effect on the relationship between HR strategic orientation and employeeoutcomes including job performance (Ferris et al., 1989), job satisfaction (Vigoda, 2003), affective organizational commitment (Ferris et al., 1989; Cropanzano et al., 1997) and turnover intentions (Lewis, 2002). As noted by Ferris et al. (1989) that organizational politics trigger pressure on employees to engage in politicking to meet their goals. That is, highly political environment tends to reward employees who (1) engage in strong influence tactics, (2) take credit for the work of others, (3) are members of a powerful coalition, and (4) have connections to high-ranking allies (Vigoda, 2000). Research on the moderating influence of organizational politics is not consistent. For example, Ferris et al. (1989) found that perceived control was argued to moderate the negative relationships between perceptions of organizational politics and positive individual work outcomes. Similarly, Cropanzano et al. (1997) contended that politics is a stronger work performance predictor in situations categorized as weaker interpersonal contexts than stronger interpersonal contexts. Bozeman et al. (1996) on the other hand, found that those individuals who understand or can control political dynamics respond less negatively than those who lack understanding or control of politics. Likewise, Ferris et al (1992) found that interviewers gave higher ratings and recommendations for the job offered to applicants who employed self-promotion tactics than those who used ingratiation type of tactics thus, resulting in a likelihood of hiring a low performing individual.