Top PDF The Role of Personal Values in the Entrepreneurial Process

The Role of Personal Values in the Entrepreneurial Process

The Role of Personal Values in the Entrepreneurial Process

Individuals present marked behavioral differences in relation to their decisions to create and sustain entrepreneurial activity, and previous re- search has highlighted the importance of analyzing not only the social context of the entrepreneur but individual aspects as well; the nature of the entrepreneur is still diffuse and there is a well recognized lack of unequivocal research findings on this topic (Bouchikhi, 1993; Chell, 1985; Naffziger, 1995; Shaver and Scott, 1991). We find that the concept of entrepreneurship has been addressed from different perspectives; some authors conceive entrepreneurship as a role and set of behaviors (Gartner, 1988) or as sets of competencies related to knowledge (Bird, 1995) and at the same time, in other studies, it is mainly the cognitive aspects of com- plex models of the entrepreneurial decision that are analyzed (Bird, 1988; Krueger and Carsrud, 1993). According to this view, individual cognitive aspects play a key role at different stages of the entrepreneurial process. Whether entrepreneurship is aimed at deriving financial rewards and/ or some other form of value, the process remains basically the same: alertness leads to recognition and then exploitation of opportunities, followed by decisions concerning growth (Bygrave and Hofer, 1991; Ven- kataraman, 1997).
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Consumer engagement in online brand communities: the moderating role of personal values

Consumer engagement in online brand communities: the moderating role of personal values

calls for further research to examine this relationship. Accordingly, the study aims to make three contributions to existing knowledge. First, this study addresses the calls by previous scholars highlighting that it is worthwhile to investigate what drives online consumer engagement (Hollebeek, 2013; Wirtz et al., 2013; Bolton, 2011). Understanding the drivers of consumer engagement is important because one of the primary objectives of brand management is to develop and implement successful consumer engagement in order to retain as well as grow membership numbers for online brand communities. Hence, understanding what drives consumers to engage in online brand communities and what value they derive from online brand engagement are critical. Although recent studies (Marbach et al. 2016; Islam et al. 2017a) examined the role of personality traits as antecedents of OCE, this study extends Islam et al.’s (2017a) work by investigating new personality traits, namely altruism, as well as the role of consumer-perceived value as a consequence of OCE. Additionally, this study extends Marbach et al.’s work (2016) by investigating the moderating role of personal values in the relationship between personality traits and OCE. This study also investigates personality traits as antecedents and consumer values as consequences of OCE in a large scale quantitative study focussing not only on the social media content but on the broader FHOBC context as well, contrary to Marbach et al. (2016).
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Responding Destructively in Leadership Situations: The Role of Personal Values and Problem Construction

Responding Destructively in Leadership Situations: The Role of Personal Values and Problem Construction

Personalized and inauthentic leaders have a tendency to use their power and influence for personal advantage. Socialized and authentic leaders, on the other hand, are other-oriented and work to empower followers in an effort to achieve collective goals (Howell and Shamir, 2005; Luthans and Avolio, 2003). Although both types of leaders can be successful (see Howell, 1988; Avolio and Locke, 2002), socialized and authentic leaders will tend to be more ethical due to their desire to treat others fairly and respectfully. Both charismatic and transformational theorists reference internal standards composed of values and beliefs when differentiating between personalized/inauthentic and socialized/ authentic leaders (e.g., Avolio and Bass, 1995; Bass, 1998; Ehrhart, and Klein, 2001; Howell and Shamir, 2005; Jung and Aviolio, 2000; Kuhnert and Lewis, 1987). House (1977) and House and Shamir (1993), for example, argued that charismatic leaders are able to motivate and inspire followers by drawing a connection between their own values and those of their followers. Leaders who value actions that transcend personal self-interests are likely to create organizational environments where destructive activity is not tolerated. Though not referenced directly in the Brown and Trevino (2006a) ethical leadership model, research and theory on charismatic and transformational leadership indicate that personal value differences are a key determinant behind a leader’s motivation to pursue self-interests. In fact, personal values in general have been cited and/or found in past research to be important predictors of ethical behavior (e.g., Finegan, 1994; Fritzsche, 1995; Schmidt and Posner, 1982). However, the exact role values play in the ethical decision-making process is still unclear, as little research has explored their effect using an establish theory of the structure and content of personal value systems.
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Unravelling the entrepreneurial process: Exploring the role of business models in opportunity creation

Unravelling the entrepreneurial process: Exploring the role of business models in opportunity creation

In recent years, entrepreneurship seems to have become the talk of the town in business. While the phenomenon itself is not new, Schumpeter’s (1934) view of the entrepreneur as the principal driver of economic development may today be more striking than ever before. In the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis and the ensuing global recession, there has been a boom in people leaving jobs in large companies— for both voluntary and non-voluntary reasons—to exploit new market opportunities and start their own ventures. In fact, the number of professionals employed in entrepreneurial roles has increased so dramatically, that in some countries, e.g. the US, the percentage of the workforce engaged in such activities is at an all-time high (Singer et al., 2015), and may soon comprise 100 million people worldwide (George & Bock, 2012). This “entrepreneurial revolution” (Kuratko et al., 2015, p. 1) has been fuelled by several factors, such as technological progress and the on-going digitalisation of the economy, globalised markets, venture capital availability, and a better access to entrepreneurship education, among others (Zwilling, 2013). The most palpable reflection of this trend may be the soaring startup valuations that can especially be observed in the tech industry, where companies such as Airbnb (hospitality), Snapchat (media), Stripe (payments), and Uber (transportation) have reached billion-dollar valuations, while being less than 10 years old (Austin et al., 2015). Such valuations indicate investors' expectations of future growth and returns, which are driven by the confidence that these startups can disrupt old businesses, drive industry transformation, and create new markets.
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The Role of Personal Values in Enhancing Student Experience and Satisfaction Among International Postgraduate Students: an Exploratory Study

The Role of Personal Values in Enhancing Student Experience and Satisfaction Among International Postgraduate Students: an Exploratory Study

Personal values were measured with the LOV using a seven-point scale, where ‘1’ represented strongly disagree and ‘7’ represented strongly agree. The LOV consists of nine statements relating to the nine LOV items stated above. Data were collected from a sample of postgraduate students from China, India, Indonesia and Thailand in five universities in Victoria, Australia. A total 371 useable questionnaires were received providing response rate of 24.3 per cent. Exploratory Factor analysis was undertaken initially of the personal values data to determine the underlying personal value domains. Structural equation modelling (SEM) in AMOS was used to analyse the relationship of the value construct to student satisfaction. ANOVA and MANOVA tests were employed to examine the differences between the nationalities based on their personal values, gender and age.
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I do it, but don’t tell anyone! Personal values, personal and social norms: : can social media play a role in changing pro-environmental behaviours?

I do it, but don’t tell anyone! Personal values, personal and social norms: : can social media play a role in changing pro-environmental behaviours?

The picture is slightly more complex with individuals who already have pro- environmental contextual values: the link between these and EFF values is negatively moderated by social comparison. This seems to suggest that individuals who believe they should behave in environmentally friendly ways do so because they hold strong generalised beliefs about the importance of the environment. However, this belief is then decreased when they consider others. This is an interesting dilemma, and one which needs further investigation: whilst individuals might wish to act in pro environmentally-friendly ways, the more they consider other’s actions, the less likely they are to act on their own values. This could reflect a degree of fatalism: “its not worth me making the effort, if everyone else does not” (Lorenzoni et al., 2007). Within the context of the NAM, this finding suggests that even when social and individual norms would lead to pro-environmental actions, consumers may behave differently by ascribing responsibility to “others” rather than themselves.
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The Role of Personal Values in Social Entrepreneurship

The Role of Personal Values in Social Entrepreneurship

Education institutions are social open systems which are affected by changes taking place in social construct and environment and at the same time affect social construct and environment through their services and outcomes. Education systems should be institutions which can create sustainable innovative solutions for the disturbing matters at regional, national and international levels in addition to contributing to new generations' physical, cognitive, social and cultural developments. This can just be possible with the social entrepreneur teachers who are sensitive to the matters which increasingly continue in today's world economic, social and health fields such as wars, natural disasters, poverty, unemployment, hunger, various diseases, human rights and justice, education and sheltering [25] and embrace a social mission to find outstanding solutions to these mattes, and the social entrepreneur individuals who will be raised by these teachers. Teachers undertake significant duties to make the world more livable place. In this regard, it is necessary to identify the influential factors which encourage teachers to social entrepreneurship and reveal the behaviors for social entrepreneurship. In the scope of this research, the effects of the personal values, which have impact on individuals'
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New dimensions on the economics of the entrepreneurial process

New dimensions on the economics of the entrepreneurial process

This thesis examines the transition of employees into entrepreneurship, with par- ticular emphasis on the role of workplace characteristics in influencing this movement. The first main chapter examines whether the determinants of becoming an intrapren- eur differ from those that support transitions into independent entrepreneurship. The results show that intrapreneurs resemble employees rather than entrepreneurs, con- trary to what the entrepreneurship theory would suggest. Yet it shows that those intrapreneurs that expect to acquire an ownership stake in the business, unlike the rest of intrapreneurs, possess traditional entrepreneurial traits. Chapter 3 investigates how workers’ degree of specialisation determines their decision to found a firm. It shows that entrepreneurs emerging from small firms, i.e. generalists, transfer know- ledge from more diverse aspects of the business and create firms more related to the main activity of their last employer. Workers in large firms, however, benefit from higher returns to human capital that increase their opportunity costs to switch to en- trepreneurship. Since becoming an entrepreneur would make part of their specialised skills unutilised, the minimum quality of the idea at which they would be willing to leave will be higher and, therefore, entrepreneurs emerging from large firms will be of highest quality. Chapter 4 analyses whether the reason to terminate an employment contract is associated with the fact that the majority of entrepreneurs appear to set up their business after having worked for a small firm. Moreover, it studies how this pattern varies as the labour market conditions worsen. The effect of layoffs turns out to be a key driver in the entry to entrepreneurship and it is found to exert a greater effect the smaller the firm workers are dismissed from. This has been reflected in an overall larger flow of employees from small firms moving into entrepreneurship over the recession.
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Predicting entrepreneurial career intentions: Values and the theory of planned behavior.

Predicting entrepreneurial career intentions: Values and the theory of planned behavior.

This study provides novel evidence showing that values are related to career intentions in several ways. First, our findings show higher self-enhancement and openness to change values predict entrepreneurial career intentions. This adds new evidence that values are important for career choices (Knafo & Sagiv, 2004; Sagiv, 2002). Second, we shed light on potential mechanisms. We find that attitudes, self-efficacy, and to a lesser extent social norms mediate the effect of values on entrepreneurial career intentions. Thus, we extend existing research that has investigated direct links of values with entrepreneurial career choice (Holt, 1997; Lin˜a´n et al., 2015; McGrath, Mac- Millan, & Scheinberg, 1992; Moriano et al., 2007; Noseleit, 2010). We note that vocational and career research more commonly uses work values than general values and our research extends their insight by explaining the role of personal values. Third, we find that values are one route via which country factors influence career intentions, yet our findings are also suggestive of strong normative influences of the country context that are not mediated by values. This finding is consistent with recent research that emphasizes the role of cultural norms (Stephan & Uhlaner, 2010; Stephan, Uhlaner, & Stride, 2015) and institutions (Iakovleva, Kolvereid, Gorgievski, & Sørhaug, 2014) as distinct from the effect of values.
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Generational Differences Of Personal Values Of Business Students

Generational Differences Of Personal Values Of Business Students

Inner Harmony gained six spots between 1998 and 2010. Inner harmony, which is defined by the survey as freedom from inner conflict, may have increased due to Generation Y‟s desire for instant gratification and feedback. This generation may be more internally frustrated by uncertainty and not knowing where they stand in their relationships and careers. Greenwood et. al. (2009) find that members of Generation Y crave answers and feedback. Social recognition increased in importance by four spots from 1998 to 2010. When Generation X was surveyed in 1998, social networking sites were not as prevalent as they are now. With the popularity of social networking sites like Facebook, students in 2010 have a greater capability to have large social networks and an enhanced ability to control what information is revealed about them online. Students have more of a hands-on role in managing others‟ perceptions of themselves. These factors may have led students to focus more on how others view them. In addition, Twenge et. al. (2010) note that while Generation Y places Leisure above all other work values, this generation still craves status and recognition at work.
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The role of affect in entrepreneurial orientation

The role of affect in entrepreneurial orientation

There are two reasons to conjecture that trait affect is relevant for entrepreneurial orientation. First, several scholars have noted that investigating the role of affect in entrepreneurship is important (Delgado García et al. 2015 ; Hahn et al. 2012 ). For example, Hahn et al. ( 2012 ) mention that although entrepreneurs experience extreme emotions in their work-life, Baffect is a neglected concept in entrepreneurship research, and scholars are urged to focus more on the role of affect in the entrepreneurial process (Baron 2008 )^ (p. 99). Similarly, Baron ( 2008 ) characterizes entrepreneurial environments as highly unpredictable and rapidly changing and states that affect Bmost likely exert[s] powerful effects on cognition and behavior^, which could lead to specific actions or decisions. Furthermore, the meta-analysis of Delgado García et al. ( 2015 ) shows that there is considerable evidence that affect is associ- ated with a wide range of issues in managing an entre- preneurial venture and plays an important role in sev- eral aspects of entrepreneurship, such as self-efficacy, task performance, negotiation, conflict (Baron 1990 ), venture effort (Foo et al. 2008 ), opportunity evaluation and exploitation (Grichnik et al. 2010 ). However, al- though it has been suggested that affect may influence the different stages of the entrepreneurial process, which could in turn impact entrepreneurial success, no empirical studies exist associating affect with entrepre- neurial orientation, an important stage in the entrepre- neurial process (Delgado García et al. 2015 ).
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Social impact measurement as an entrepreneurial process.

Social impact measurement as an entrepreneurial process.

communication and negotiation between organisations and their stakeholders. Organisations may therefore see measuring social impact as a way to reach organisational objectives and to shape perceptions of what type of service providers they are in a mixed economy of welfare. While some research examines the role of external players in exerting power over organisations with regard to how they measure impact (Ebrahim, 2003), Nicholls (2009) refers to the spectrum of disclosure logics used by

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Entrepreneurial stories, narratives and reading – Their role in building entrepreneurial being and behaviour

Entrepreneurial stories, narratives and reading – Their role in building entrepreneurial being and behaviour

sequential model of entrepreneurial learning. In a similar vein, Sullivan also refers to Churchill and Lewis’ Small Firm Life Cycle Stage Theory (1983). Corbett further (1995) proposes a model based on the view that individuals from each of Kolb’s learning styles will perform better during different stages of the entrepreneurial process. Moreover, Kolb’s theoretical lens is also deployed by Politis (2005) who contends that much of the learning that takes place in an entrepreneurial context is, indeed, ‘experiential in nature’ - for example, in terms of the significance for learning of prior start-up experience, which provides tacit knowledge that enables entrepreneurs to recognize and exploit opportunities and respond to checks and crisis. Here, Politis argues in favour of grounding entrepreneurial experience into knowledge and clearly relates this to Kolb’s ELT stages: concrete experience, reflective observation; abstract conceptualization; and active experimentation.
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The relationship between entrepreneurial passion and cognitive styles and their role in entrepreneurial success

The relationship between entrepreneurial passion and cognitive styles and their role in entrepreneurial success

10 Domains of entrepreneurial passion: The third dimension concerns the domains of entrepreneurial passion, or in other words, the object of entrepreneurial passion. This object towards which the positive feelings are aimed, could generally be viewed as the overall role of ‘being an entrepreneur’, however since this is a very broad concept Cardon et al. (2009) further specified this into three roles that are critical to the entrepreneurial process; (1) inventing new products or services, (2) founding new organizations, (3) developing these organizations beyond their initial survival and successes (Murnieks et al., 2014). Each of these roles involve a distinct set of tasks and activities which reflects the challenges that are associated with different aspects of the entrepreneurial process (Gundry & Welsch, 2001; Katila & Ahuja, 2002; Ronstadt, 1988). Entrepreneurs with a passion for inventing have strong desires to deliver new solutions to the marketplace involving activities such as scanning the environment for new opportunities, developing new products or services and working with new prototypes. On the other hand, entrepreneurs who have a passion for founding are very passionate about launching new businesses which involves assembling necessary financial, human, and social resources needed to create new ventures. Finally, entrepreneurs with a passion for developing enjoy developing already existing businesses, involving activities such as increasing sales, hiring of new employees, or finding investors willing to fund expansions. The level of entrepreneurial passion for each of the discussed domains may vary due to particular background or life experiences in different entrepreneurs, therefore this distinction in object of the entrepreneurial passion is necessary for measurement purposes (Cardon et al., 2013; Cardon, Wincent, et al., 2009).
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The role of creativity in mediating the relationship between entrepreneurial passion and entrepreneurial alertness

The role of creativity in mediating the relationship between entrepreneurial passion and entrepreneurial alertness

Creativity plays an important role in the entrepreneurial process, whether to design novel solutions, market products or break barriers to the use of resources (Zhou, 2008). The work of Heinonen, Hytti and Stenholm (2011) and Gielnik, Frese, Graf and Kampschulte (2012) confirms that there is a positive relationship between creativity and the generation of ideas for new products or services. As such, entrepreneurial alertness has been considered a state of mind that is prone to opportunity identification (Short et al., 2010). This aspect leads to the figure of mind processes that entrepreneurs carry out, which in Isen’s (2002) words, are those through which a person perceives information, stores it in his or her memory, processes it, and recovers it for later use. In general, creativity is a necessary condition, but it is insufficient for innovation, since many creative ideas are not marketable or cannot be developed by the people who generated them (Ward, 2004). This reasoning leads us to suppose that there are enough theoretical reasons to consider that a person’s creativity increases his or her entrepreneurial alertness. Therefore, the following hypothesis is proposed:
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The perceived personal characteristics of entrepreneurial leaders

The perceived personal characteristics of entrepreneurial leaders

Third, entrepreneurial leadership studies could more explicitly build on transformational or authentic leadership models. Some pioneering studies relate entrepreneurial leadership to transformational leadership or even define entrepreneurial leaders as a type of transformational leaders. For instance, transformational leadership is integral to Gupta et al.’s (2004) construct of entrepreneurial leadership and Fernald et al.’s (2005b, p. 5) definition of an entrepreneurial leader as “an enterprising, transformational leader who operates in a dynamic market that offers lucrative opportunities”. However, so far there is no empirical evidence on the overlap between transformational (or authentic, as proposed above) leadership. The findings of this study suggest some characteristics of ELs are highly relevant to transformational and authentic leadership, such as deeply held personal values, shared visions, ability to build elite teams or team capabilities, high need for achievement, being an ethical role model, and having a positive emotional influence as a resilient and genuine leader. Finally, further research on ELs’ ethics and authenticity is suggested by the present findings. Leadership and entrepreneurship researchers could test Surie and Ashley’s (2008) conceptual model reconciling pragmatism and ethics in entrepreneurial leadership. Authentic leadership theory has recently been of interest to leadership and entrepreneurship scholars interested in entrepreneurial ventures (Jensen & Luthans, 2006a, 2006b; Jones & Crompton, 2009). For example, Jensen and Luthans (2006b) studied the psychological capital of entrepreneurs from an authentic leadership perspective. Resilience, optimism, hope and trust are aspects of authentic leadership and psychological capital theory relevant to ELs.
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Entrepreneurial axiology : hybrid values in creative social enterprise

Entrepreneurial axiology : hybrid values in creative social enterprise

The participants were open, responsive, and thankful for the opportunity to share their experiences, and were more than keen to include me in the discussions about their organizational and personal developments. Conducting qualitative research based on participant narratives also presented some interesting insights into the ways in which knowledge can be gathered, such as the expansion of different types of knowledge to understand a single issue (Eisner 2008). Using a creative method, such as drawing, allowed for a discussion not only about the structure of organization, but a discussion arose about the “making-of” the structure itself, which was found to be particularly suited to the creative skills of the participants. Letting go of control and allowing for the creative dialogue to emerge, presented an initial challenge to data collection as the process of creation forces us to give ideas room to breathe, and begs for active listening and active movement within the space (Helin 2013). By engaging in this interpretivist, cooperative design, we were able to utilise meaning- making conversations in an interactive and participatory environment, and leading towards knowledge that speaks to academic inquiry and industry action (Park 1999, p.146), as the conversations centred around intentionality and sustainability leading towards the physical drawings of organizational structures as presented in figure 2.
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Market orientation and entrepreneurial success: mediating role

of entrepreneurial learning intensity

Market orientation and entrepreneurial success: mediating role of entrepreneurial learning intensity

The fi rst implication arising from this study is that entrepreneurs should undertake the concept of market orientation seriously. Being market oriented hopefully could reduce the risk of losing customer, who always provides a challenge but at the same time seeks attention. Entrepreneurs need to know that service sector is the most vulnerable to failure (Youn & Gu 2010) and the main cause of failure is having limited marketing knowledge and best practices as reported by Malaysia Economic Census Profi le of Small and Medium Enterprise (2011). Next, implication is also on entrepreneurs who wish to attain fulfi lling success. Entrepreneurs are supposed to be ready for intensive learning process. Learning lesson in entrepreneurial ventures costs lots of effort and investment of time and money but at the end entrepreneurs might learn the wrong things. Despite that, learning is indispensable in entrepreneurship. However, care must be taken in juggling business and personal lives especially in running market oriented service enterprises. Last but not least, the fi ndings give implication to future research to explore some other factors or additional mediators to reduce superfl uous effect of single mediation mechanism such as in this study.
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The Effectiveness Of The Implementation Of Lesson Plans Based On Entrepreneurial Values In The Kindergarten

The Effectiveness Of The Implementation Of Lesson Plans Based On Entrepreneurial Values In The Kindergarten

Research related to entrepreneurship becomes an interesting discussion especially when it is related to the topic and its relation to learning, including entrepreneurial theory, the development of entrepreneurial teaching materials and entrepreneurial learning outcomes [18]-[28], not least entrepreneurial research in early childhood [2], [3], [12]. [29] explains, entrepreneurship or entrepreneurship is the process of creating something new (new creation) or making a change over the old (innovation) with the aim of improving the welfare of individuals and society. [30] explained that entrepreneurship is the process of creating something new, valuable, utilizing the effort and time required, taking into account social, physical, and financial risks, and receiving rewards in the form of money and personal satisfaction and independence. Whereas people who carry out these actions by creating an idea and realizing that idea into reality are called entrepreneurs. [29] Becoming an entrepreneur is required to have a personal maturity to support his entrepreneurial career. [31] Describes the characteristics of an entrepreneur including the following: Having high achievement motives, having a forward perspective, having high creativity, having a high innovation nature, having commitment to work, having responsibility, having independence or independence from others, having the courage to face risk, always looking for opportunities, have a leadership spirit, and have managerial skills. Entrepreneurial or entrepreneurial characteristics are also raised by [32] including hard and smart workers, confident, building for the future, profit-oriented, goal-oriented, firm, able to overcome failure, ability to provide feedback or response, show initiative, be a good listener, set standards of self
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Analysing the Role of Framework Conditions Influencing International Entrepreneurial Opportunity Identification Process

Analysing the Role of Framework Conditions Influencing International Entrepreneurial Opportunity Identification Process

It is highlighted that the entrepreneurial opportunity identification process adopts new elements when this process is developed to make full use of an international set of fa- vourable circumstances (Alvarez, Barney, & Anderson, 2013; Chandra et al., 2015). Au- thors have coined this process as international opportunity identification, defined as “the recognition and exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunity that leads to new interna- tional market entry” (Chandra, Styles, & Wilkinson, 2009, p. 31). Muzychenko and Liesch (2015) add more elements by defining an international opportunity as “the likelihood of conducting an exchange with new or existing partners, such as foreign intermediaries of foreign customers, in new international markets” (Muzychenko & Liesch, 2015, p. 705). This conceptualisation of an opportunity in the international market gives an idea that antecedents of entrepreneurial opportunity identification are likely to differ in their com- positions and effects according to the market context. Such differences are expected to be more prominent when the entrepreneur’s opportunity identification efforts are com- pared between the international and domestic market context. From the individual level perspective, it is possible to note the significance of social capital as a crucial factor in order to facilitate the way to locate the context for business ideas. That is to say, entre- preneurs may use their social capital when deciding to target domestic or international markets. For instance, this is possible by identifying international opportunities through personal contacts (Oyson & Whittaker, 2015). Additionally, key issues related to the op- portunity identification process in international markets are entrepreneurial cognition, prior knowledge, and industry context. However, from the conceptual point of view, the logic of the interplay among such factors should be clarified. These elements neither in- teract nor influence the opportunity identification process by a linear sequence. There- fore, it is necessary to understand the logic of their interplay as antecedent to the entre- preneurial opportunity identification process. Furthermore, factors such as culture and the impact of institutions should be part of the analysis to widely grasp the entrepreneur vision to select markets. In other words, external enablers are needed as part of the op- portunity process. To have a better picture of which factors affect the process, it requires from us to observe the structure of the opportunity identification process itself.
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