The Triple Helix as a model of university- industry-government relations is proposed to be a key component of any future national or international innovation strategy . It postulates that the interaction between university, industry and government is the key to improving the conditions for innovation in a knowledge-based society . It is a spiral model of innovation that elaborates the reciprocal relationships of different institutions that are active in the innovation process. The three institutions are presented as three interacting helices that jointly perform NPD processes (Fig. 1). The spiraling form of the Triple Helix relations represents the interactions taking place among the three institutions in order to improve the local economy through NPD . The industry acts as the centre of production, the government is the source of contractual relations that guarantee stable interactions between the three, and the university is a source of new knowledge and technology, the generative principle of knowledge-based economies . The three institutional spheres (public, private and academic) are now more and more involved in a pattern of spiraling links that emerge in various steps in the process of innovation . Their relations are relatively equal, but interdependent and they overlap as the institutions take the role of the other.
dimension which involves social and political aspect (human change, social structure, society demeanour, and national institutions) (Razmi et al., 2012). The end product of development is welfare (Daiute; 2010; Alkire 2010; Alkire 2002), where human resources as the development subject, not influenced by economic aspect, but also education and health. Satellite-based space technology mastery and utilization in Indonesia has been the centre of attention not only in Indonesia but also in international scope. Internet- based health care is an effort to lessen discrepancy and to give easy Telemedicine health care (telehealth) in order to stop or at least reduce mortality rate (Ariyanti, Sri and Kautsarina., 2017), which influence the improvement of health quality, thus improving Indonesia’s human development and decreasing Human Development Index (HDI) discrepancy of each regions. By improving better health quality, the third goal of sustainable development (SDGD) will be achieved in 2030.
The customers’ requirements have played very important role as they found as the most important trigger of NPD in Slovene firms. In 2008, the customers’ requirements were mainly met by incremental changes of products. However, the shift to radical product changes was noticed in 2011. The economic crisis and keener competition have probably forced Slovene firms to adapt to new economic circumstances by development of more radically new products. It confirms the finding of the Organisation for economic co-operation and development (OECD) (2010) that innovations are essential for countries and firms that are to recover from the economic downturn and thrive in today’s highly competitive global economy.
question of defining mental illness remains an important one. In many settings, terms such as mental health issues, mental health problems and even mental health concerns have been used, which all under-estimate the seriousness of mental illness and its burden on society. There is no doubt that many of these “problems” may be due to the many social changes, economic upheavals including ongoing economic downturn, revolutionary advances of knowledge and to other developments. All this now requires a serious re-examination of the paradigms on which psychiatry and mental health care have been based in the last century 3-6 .
However, the development of small industries is not always run smooth. Various obstacles often faced by perpetrators of Small Medium Enterprises, such as the limitation of capital, low awareness of trying, the difficulties of marketing, procurement of raw materials is limited, lack of skills or experience, a business location is not precise and wide range other problems. In addition, Small Medium Enterprises are also faced with various challenges in the global era, such as the market opportunity was wide open, the influx of new technology, efficiency and productivity, as well as competition with new players which is very strict. It is these factors which make the empowerment of SMES is not just a concern of the Government, but also other sectors such as higher education.
Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common condition that is defined as glucose intolerance of varying degree with onset or first recognition during pregnancy and it affects approximately 5% of all pregnancies all over the world. GDM is not only associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as macrosomia, dystocia, birth trauma, and metabolic complications in newborns, but it is also a strong predictor of transitioning to overt DM post- partum. The association of ABO blood groups with DM has been observed before in several epidemiological and genetic studies and resulted with inconsistent findings, but still there are not enough studies in the literature about the association of ABO blood groups with GDM. In this study, we aimed at investigating any possible relationship between the ABO blood group system and GDM and also the transitioning of GDM to overt DM postpartum, in Turkey. Patients and methods: A total of 233 patients with GDM from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. The cases that have serologically determined blood groups and Rh factor in the hospital records were included in the study, and the patients with unknown blood groups were excluded. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O) and Rh status (+/-). GDM was diagnosed based on the glucose cut-points of the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Society Groups. The distributions of blood groups of the patients with GDM were compared with the distribution of blood groups of 17,314 healthy donors who were admitted to the Turkish Red Crescent Blood Service in our city in 2012.
In the domain of agriculture (which contributes hugely to the country’s GDP), the state collaborated with civil society groups represented by agricultural work parties. Through this channel, state subsidies were granted to farmers to help boost their agricultural output thereby meeting the need for food supply in urban centers. Moreover, by this time, cash crop production (cocoa, coffee, palms, and rubber) had gradually gained hold of the Cameroonian agricultural sector, and the state collaborated by providing subsidies to farmers of cash crops to boost their productivity. In a Study of ‘Associational Life between Traditional and Modern Society on the Path to Autonomy and Self-reliant Development,’ Emmanuel Vubo made mention of the fact that although associational life has generally been built around solidarity, the focal point of departure for most of them has always been centered on economic interest represented in farming groups, credit and thrift societies, small savings societies and solidarity savings union. For example, in the ‘Moghamo’ area, all associations have a financial side captured in the term ‘’ashow,’ while that of the coastal Bantu peoples was termed ‘njangi.’ 27
The production of CXCL12, CCL2, and sVCAM-1, which are the important chemokines attracting and retain- ing leukemia cells from the BM to the CNS, significantly increased when HBMVECs were cocultured with leukemia cells. Higher sVCAM-1 may accelerate circulating leukemic cells to target and adhere to HBMVECs, making the interac- tion with the endothelium possible, whereas higher CCL2 leads to the formation of new foci in the CNS, enhancing the possibility of white blood cells entering the CNS. Our study reveals that HBMVECs, under the influence of leuke- mia cells, may be the main source of sVCAM-1 and CCL2 in the CNS, which promote the transfer of leukemia cells to the CNS. Therefore, the levels of C&Ckines in the CNS microenvironment, rather than in serum, are more precise in predicting leukemia CNS metastasis. 10
So far, it can be hypothesized that chronic prostatic inflammation could be considered one of the possible condi- tions associated with BPH, CaP, or both. Further research on inflammatory responses within the prostate is needed to improve knowledge on the mechanisms involved in the interaction among inflammatory infiltrates, prostatic stroma, and prostatic epithelium. More clarification is also needed to elucidate whether or not chronic prostatic inflammation could be considered the starting point for the development of benign and malignant proliferative disease of the prostate. With this in mind, there is a need to improve the capability to define the type of, and quantify, asymptomatic prostatic inflammation. Research into the relationship among BPH, CaP, and chronic prostatic inflammation may benefit from improving clinical imaging for the diagnosis of individual conditions and from a better histologic characterization of the spatial distribution of inflammatory infiltrates, BPH nodules, and preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the prostate.
Angiogenesis is potentially involved in the etiology of shoul- der pain, lymphedema, and dysfunction and may help explain a proportion of the interindividual variability in the develop- ment of such morbidity among breast cancer survivors. It is involved in the response of the tissue microenvironment to adjuvant cancer therapies and has potential roles in pain, lymphedema, and dysfunction pathways. Furthermore, angio- genesis has been shown to play a role in noncancer shoulder conditions such as rotator cuff disease. 86–88 However, there is
Int J De, Biol ~2 1 10(19981 Rrllino Ca2+ oscillations in the activation of the egg and development of the embryo in mammals KEITH T JONES Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biofogy, University C[.]
This review was funded by AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA. AbbVie participated in the writing, reviewing, and approving this paper. No payments were made to the authors for the development of this manuscript, and all authors approved the final version. Lindy van den Berghe and Emma East of Lucid Group, Burleighfield House, Buckinghamshire, UK, provided medical writing and editorial support to the authors in the development of this manuscript; financial sup- port for these services was provided by AbbVie.
Investment funds are financial institutions that have an increasingly important role in the capital markets of many countries, and in some countries indeed they have become the main entities affecting events on the financial markets and outside them. These in- stitutions are best developed in advanced countries, above all in the USA, not only from the point of view of total assets that they manage, but also in the sense of the very rich array of kinds of funds, the large and ramified distribution channels via which they mar- ket their shares, as well as in the sense of the regulations, the supervisory bodies and or- ganisations that monitor their operations. In Europe the investment funds market is also well developed, particularly in the member states of the EU, which is endeavouring to unify this area to the greatest extent possible. Hence what are called UCITS 2 funds were
Paralogous genes in the 3' parts of the vertebrate Hox clusters (HoxA to D) are sequentially and segmentally expressed in the developing hindbrain, with sharp anterior expression boundaries coinciding with rhombomeric borders (Fig. 1) (e.g., Hunt et al., 1991; Murphy and Hill, 1991; Prince and Lumsden, 1994; see also for review Krumlauf, 1993; Keynes and Krumlauf, 1994; Wilkinson, 1995). It is important to note that Hox expression domains are established at early neural plate stages (E7.5-8.0 in the mouse), i.e., before the formation of definitive rhombomeres (occurring about one day later), and they are in general maintained up to late stages of hindbrain development well after morphological segmen- tation has disappeared (with the exception of the Hoxa1 gene; see below) (Krumlauf, 1993 and refs. therein; Wingate and Lumsden, 1996). A direct correlation exists between Hox gene expression and commitment to a rhombomere-specific fate. Grafts of chick neural plate-stage hindbrain neuroepithelium transplanted in more posterior locations express Hox genes and display morphological features appropriate for the new location (Grapin-Botton et al., 1995). In contrast, grafts transplanted just before or at the time of rhombomere formation maintain both specific Hox expression and their segmental identities (Guthrie et al., 1992; Kuratani and Eichele, 1993; Simon et al., 1995), even though their commitment may still be reversible under certain conditions (Itasaki et al., 1996; Grapin-Botton et al., 1997). Therefore, it appears that, after a period of plasticity, the definitive commitment to a specific segmen- tal fate is accompanied by the establishment of a unique genetic ‘address’ of Hox gene expression in a block of precursors cells Fig. 1. Hox gene expression domains in the mouse hindbrain and
Modified deposition, which is a system that is engineered and managed for tailings deposition and control. Extensive sampling of water quality in tailings management shows that water in rivers carrying tailings from Freeport processing plants in the highlands to deposition areas in the lowlands meets clean water quality standards. for dissolved metals according to the regulations of the Government of Indonesia and USEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). (1) Reclamation and Re-greening (a) Upland areas. International scientists and Freeport staff have studied the ecology of the alpine ecosystem in the Freeport working area, and developed reliable ways to produce native plant species. Studies that have been carried out to date include ethnobotany, biodiversity in the su-alpin and alpin ecosystems, utilization of native species of mosses and bacteria for pioneering reclamation strategies and tissue cultivation for the development of native alpine plants. Until the end of 2005, more of the 10 hectares of land disrupted at the mine in the successfully reworked highland area in order to fulfill Freeport's commitment to the Indonesian government. (b) Lowlands. The goal of Freeport's reclamation and reforestation program in low-lying areas is to convert tailings deposits in deposition areas into agricultural land or to be used as other productive land, or to re-grow them with native plants after mining activities end.
Even though the role of bone sialoprotein in the tissue mineralization has not been clearly stated, it was proven that BSP induces creation of hydroxyapatite crystals in the system of agarose gel, when low concentrations of calcium ions and phosphates are present²³. Some facts from literature suggest that BSP can have an initiation role of growing hydroxyapatite crystals in mineralized tissues²¹.
Although developing effective treatments for these disor- ders is critical, the challenge for drug treatments in EDs patients should consider the restoration of body weight to a normal range, in order to resolve most of the physical and physiological complications, and the reduction of the distorted perception of body image and related con- sequences (mood and anxiety symptoms, obsessive-com- pulsive behaviours, aggressiveness). On the other hand, when using medications to treat comorbid conditions in people with EDs, particular attention should be given to dosage of drugs and physical monitoring. In particular, side effects of psychotropic medications should be care- fully investigated, since these drugs may sometimes lead to development of adverse reactions or exacerbate the physical complications already present in EDs patients 26 .
Switching of treatments due to (partial) inefficacy is not uncommon. Moreover, switching from a higher metabol- ic risk antipsychotic to one with lower metabolic risk can substantially improve metabolic health. In order to main- tain or achieve sustained mental health during an antip- sychotic switch, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinet- ic properties of the previous and the new antipsychotic need to be considered to avoid relevant withdrawal and rebound phenomena during switching. Finally, to main- tain or improve physical health, regular cardiometabolic monitoring needs to be conducted and strategies should focus on early education and prevention through simple lifestyle guidance and the use of lower-risk treatments as first line strategies whenever possible.