Top PDF ROUTE CHOICE MODELLING FOR BICYCLE TRIPS

ROUTE CHOICE MODELLING FOR BICYCLE TRIPS

ROUTE CHOICE MODELLING FOR BICYCLE TRIPS

of various attributes, which for the means of cyclist route choice are relevant or important. Since some research studies are a case study or are dealing with a specific environment of cycling, they have certain perceptions for attributes, but mostly the main attributes considered are length or travel time, gradient, existence of bicycle facility such as cycle lanes, intersections, age and experience of cyclist and traffic volume. Sometimes this kind of modelling has been studied altogether with pedestrian traffic (Westerdijk, 1990). Goldsmith (1992) depicts cyclist routings as, “The consideration of factors beyond travel time and distance are particularly important for bicycling as cycling levels are considered to be also affected by many additional characteristics of the network such as road type and automobile volumes”. This gives a clear vision that unlike vehicle routing, cyclists don’t have the time-distance criteria as the main priority, and a few quality matters, concerns their route-choice. In some cases, cyclist’s shortest route to destination would have to pass over a rail track or other obstacles, which would be avoided by cyclists.
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Route choice and speeds of cyclists in São Paulo

Route choice and speeds of cyclists in São Paulo

Identifying car and bicycle trips: Because the GPS tracker of this research was within the smartphone of the users, all of the trips from the users were captured. Thus a mixture of all transport modes could have been present in the data processing, with only obvious car trips with speeds higher than 50 km/h to be filtered out. Being able to filter out only the cycling trips would highly benefit the validity of the research. Sch¨ussler & Axhausen (2015) comes up with numbers to automatically distinguish the different transport modes with the use of the GPS points. With this numbers the differences in transport mode can be found, making it easier to process the data. No acceleration could be found with the existing data. However future data collection could captured and include this data to deal with this issue.
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Route choices of transport bicyclists: a comparison of actually used and shortest routes

Route choices of transport bicyclists: a comparison of actually used and shortest routes

The mean difference in distance was 277 m (median, 168 m), whereas two-thirds of the actual routes differed by a maximum of 10% from the shortest distances. On average, in Graz, the actual distances were 7.6% longer than the shortest possible ones. A study in Vancouver, Canada, comprising 50 bicycle trips yielded similar data [15]. Winters and co-workers found that the actual bi- cycling routes were on average 8.3% longer than the shortest possible routes. In a study conducted in Phoenix, USA, Howard and Burns [11] investigated 150 regu- lar bicyclists and found that bicycle trips were on average 10% longer than the shortest possible routes from origin to destination. In a Japanese study compris- ing 754 bicyclists, the detour ratios of bicyclists ranged between 6 and 16% [12]. Aultman-Hall and co-workers [13] analysed the trips of 79 bicyclists in Guelph, Canada, and found that actual bicycling routes were on average 11% longer than the shortest possible routes. Detours were much fewer in Graz than they were in these international studies. We now believe that the short detours in the present study were due to the compactness of the city of Graz, which is also typical for other European cities, and which is less true for cit- ies in Australia or America/Canada. In European cities, everything is close by, and the median trip length was also lower than in, for example, Canadian cites (2.3 km in Graz vs. 3.7 km in Vancouver). Moreover, European cities like Graz have well-developed bicycling infra- structure, and so the need for detours may be less com- pared to cities with poorer bicycling facilities.
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Route choice modelling in dynamic traffic assignment

Route choice modelling in dynamic traffic assignment

For only a few people is transport an end in itself. Most need to travel to be able to perform a certain activity, e.g. work, education or shopping. Since activities are carried out at different locations, people tend to make trips between these locations. This results in mobility and has its effect on daily society life. This chapter gives an introduction to the study presented in this report on dynamic traffic assignment route choice modelling. Paragraph 1.1 gives a short introduction on the growing mobility that partly forms the research motive pointed out in paragraph 1.2. In paragraph 1.3 the research objective and questions are presented. Paragraphs 1.4 and 1.5 describe the context of the study and scope of research respectively. This chapter concludes in paragraph 1.6 by giving an outline of the report contents.
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A Study on Energy Conversion with Replacing the Composite Shaft for Shaft Driven Bicycle

A Study on Energy Conversion with Replacing the Composite Shaft for Shaft Driven Bicycle

IOT acts as a medium for obtaining the real time values and analysing them within a short span of time is thereby preventing a failure to happen. The main focus is on making use of IOT Technologies for the enhancement of the stress parameter affecting the bicycle. For this purpose, temperature sensor, altitude sensor, speed sensor and Arduino are used. By this we can understand the proper analysis of dynamic loading for rapid and effective part design of a bicycle. In order to reduce the weight and thus the effort required for pedalling, the steel rod is wrapped with multi-dimensional fibre-reinforced plastic strands with this mixture of epoxy and hardener. This mixture acts as a medium for holding the fibre-reinforced plastic against the rod and stress bearing capabilities with reduced weight.
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The Day-to-Day Dynamics of Route Choice

The Day-to-Day Dynamics of Route Choice

iii)Steps 3 to 6 are useful for introducing the general concept of the model, but would make very inefficient use of computer power and storage. By using a sensible search strategy in step 6, route/departure time disutilities (steps 3 to 5) and possibly even link travel times (step 2) should only need to be calculated as required. Should it not prove possible to develop an exact method to achieve this, an efficient yet approximate technique would be more than adequate. Indeed, in practice drivers have to resort to heuristics when comparing the utilities of different choices. For example, a strategy could be (for trips after the first one): From the choice on the previous trip, consider only the time interval chosen then and the interval before and after and select a route from a set of reasonable ones. The reasonable ones could be defined `a priori', or defined relative to the previous route chosen (cf Dial's method). The minimisation problem of step 6 is similar to that arising in the iterations of a conventional static equilibrium model. the differences are that the problem of step 6 has an extra choice dimension and is specific to each individual. Thus, for each individual a cost minimisation problem is solved for a single origin and single destination. The tree-building algorithms used in static equilibrium methods, whereby one origin and all destinations are simultaneously considered, therefore appear to be of limited use. It is noted that techniques for determining minimum time (though not minimum cost) routes in the dynamic case have been proposed (Hall, 1987; Chen and Underwood, 1991; Kaufman et al, 1991).
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The relationship between street network morphology and percentage of daily trips on foot and by bicycle at the city-level

The relationship between street network morphology and percentage of daily trips on foot and by bicycle at the city-level

Eurostat database, UITP and some developed cities database are limited urban mobility data sources at the city-level. Although UITP database includes more cities and indicators than others, this database does not have enough street network morphology indicators that represent connectivity and block size. Therefore, open street maps (OSM) are used to have nodes per area, nodes per blocks and blocks per area. A node represents an intersection and a block represents an area that is surrounded by roads. Nodes per area and blocks per area represent nodes and blocks density in the study area (defined metropolitan areas by UITP). UITP database provides percentage of daily trips on foot and by bicycle. Table 1 shows the collected data from UITP and OSM. Nodes per area, nodes per blocks and blocks per area are the results of modifying and analyzing OSM data (refer Figure 1). The size of the blocks can be represented by the number of blocks per area. Nodes per blocks also can illustrate the average road density for the blocks. The type of intersection (nodes) is not considered in this macro-level study (e.g., 4-way, 3-way, interchange, etc.). However, more nodes and more routes can represent connection density and connectivity.
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Pedestrian route choice: an empirical study

Pedestrian route choice: an empirical study

This paper has investigated the route choice of pedestrians by using sample data collected in Northampton. This entailed the identification of the actual routes of the walks undertaken using a Geographical Information System. Then route choice sets were generated by implementing the k-shortest and -dissimilar strategies. It was seen that about three quarters of the walks in the sample were on the shortest available route and that, of the other quarter, the excess length was highly variable and fairly evenly distributed over the shortest route length, increasing weakly with it. At the time of writing, it is intended that discrete choice modelling techniques will be applied to investigate the route choice process of pedestrians and in particular to inform on the characteristics that influence them in this.
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The issues in modelling freight transport at the national level

The issues in modelling freight transport at the national level

conventional approach involves the creation of a broad model platform of the national transport system for general policy support to the government. In the organisation of modelling efforts, continuity is of prime importance. The development, maintenance and use of national freight transport models are matters that span many years and during this period a stable environment that commits to the model is important for success. Secondly, a complementary and increasingly popular approach is to develop case-based models around a single policy issue of national importance that does not allow broader usage. Besides national government, other stakeholders such as private parties, NGOs and other governmental bodies are grouped around a single issue. Critical success factors for both approaches include involving the users of the models as early as possible, clear ownership of the model by one organisation or a group of organisations that can act as a single body, transparency about the model (including use of the model by third parties, consultants as well as academics) and using different tracks for daily model application and further innovation.
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Travellers’ choice of information sources and information channels for domestic trips

Travellers’ choice of information sources and information channels for domestic trips

On the other hand, existing studies have yet to differentiate information sources (i.e. providers of information) and information channels (i.e. communication methods), thus generating misleading knowledge when talking about the topic of disintermediation. The only exception is represented by Grønflaten (2009), who analysed the topics of disintermediation adoption and information perspective, and highlighted that travellers are likely to choose the combination of travel agents and face to face when older than 59, travelling on an organised tour and being international visitors (specifically from Holland). However, existing studies devoted to deepening the scientific debate around the topic of disintermediation and distinguishing between information sources and information channels are rather limited in number and very site-specific, thus making any further research adopting such perspective noteworthy. This study intends to fill this research gap by presenting and discussing findings related to an empirical investigation on a sample of 363 domestic tourists travelling to Sardinia (Italy) (i.e. short-haul trips).
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Examining the factors that impact upon mode choice for frequent short trips

Examining the factors that impact upon mode choice for frequent short trips

The survey began with an introduction section which outlined the general purpose of the study, its relevance and who was conducting it. The second section was constructed with a number of questions designed to find out information about the respondents' travel patterns, their primary mode of commuting to and from work. This is designed to see if there is any link between commuting modes and the decision to either walk drive or cycle when undertaking short trips. The third section included questions which are designed to gauge the respondent’s views of issues such as cycle safety, exercise, and physical fitness. It also asks the respondent to consider how important issues such as climate change and heart disease are to them, and if the respondent feels that they have the ability to affect these concerns. The fourth section of the survey contained the discrete choice scenarios. The final section consisted of questions designed to gather demographic information about the respondent.
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The impact of travel information's accuracy on route choice

The impact of travel information's accuracy on route choice

likelihood of choosing the reliable route as demonstrated also by the aggregate analysis which implies greater tendency towards risk aversion when uncertainty increases. Moreover, when accuracy is low, even a useless alternative (R2) may appear attractive. Here the payoff variability effect would suggest that the high level of variability in the choice environment is inhibiting learning and causing greater confusion. Third, the model suggests that predominantly risk averse participants are, ceteris paribus, less likely to choose the shorter and riskier route. Thus for predominantly risk averse travellers, suggestions indicating a risky route would be likely ignored. Fourth, the model asserts that travellers will have greater sensitivity to descriptive information compared to feedback information based on experience and foregone payoffs demonstrating the importance of information. Fujii & Kitamura (2000) also showed greater sensitivity to information compared to experience, and Ben-Elia & Shiftan (2010) verified this for the short run when knowledge about the network performance is relatively low. However, more trials (than the twenty in our case) are needed to verify this result.
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Discussion   cooperation in local organic food systems

Discussion cooperation in local organic food systems

Colin Sage (2003) sees personal acknowledgement and relations of regard underpinning the existence of the organic food network in south-west Ireland. Relations of regard may be involved in the inspiring planned cooperation between Bakkedalen farm and the local baker, Denmark, in collaborative planning of the bicycle route in Kluczbork, Poland, or in the contacts and direct sales between the Puumala day care centre kitchen and local organic producers in the Juva case in Fin- land. Besides common purposes and objects, relations of regard may fuel the collective action for enhancing ecological agriculture and local food systems.
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Pedestrian and Pedal Cyclist Route Choice Criteria

Pedestrian and Pedal Cyclist Route Choice Criteria

As can be seen, equal aggregated values and relative aggregated values correlate about the same with the global preference. The average correlation coefficients for equal weights and relative weights are about the same and these correlation coefficients are high. While the correlation coefficients for equal weights are high, it is not clear if the aggregated values on the basis of relative weights produce high correlation coefficients or if these correlation coefficients are high because the correlation coefficients for equal weights are high already. It is possible that the quality of the relative weights depends partly on the correlational structure of the data. The beta aggregated values have much higher correlation coefficients with the global preference than the other two methods. The correlation between aggregated values based on beta weights and the global preference is high. So if a route is much preferred by a subject, the aggregated value for that route, based on the beta weights, will be high too. The beta weights seem to produce more valid aggregated values then relative weights do. There are only small differences between the three countries and the two travel modes.
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Line planning with user optimal route choice

Line planning with user optimal route choice

We model line planning with route choice (LPRC) as a bilevel optimization problem with a line planning problem on the upper level and passenger route choice problems on the lower level. We use two different techniques to transfer the bilevel optimization problem into a single-level (mixed-)integer linear problem ((M)IP). For both transformations, binary variables and ’big-M- constraints’ need to be added, which lead to an increase in computation time compared to the problem formulation with route assignment instead of route choice. However, it turns out that in practical situations, most of the additional constraints are unnecessary. For this reason, we develop a constraint-generation approach, which iteratively adds the set of constraints to the formulation which are violated by the current solution.
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The Best Route Is Not Always the Easiest One: Spatial References in Heuristics of Route Choice

The Best Route Is Not Always the Easiest One: Spatial References in Heuristics of Route Choice

heuristic to the misperception of increases associated with the direction, north (i.e., north is up). In line with this heuristic, participants rated a northern route as one that burned more calories and took more time to complete than a southern route. In addition, Brunyé et al. (2012) found that large-scale regional characteristics did not affect the southern route heuristic, and speculated that a north-going route may be associated with a vertically upward direction, which is more physically demand- ing relative to the downward direction. However, in the studies by Brunyé et al. (2010, 2012), the south-going routes appeared both south-going and down-going routes, because the north was always shown as up in all the maps used in their experiments. Therefore, it is possible that the so-called southern route pref- erence heuristic is not actually related to geographic reference (i.e., north-south); instead, it may be due to an egocentric ref- erence (i.e., up-down). Furthermore, in the Brunyé et al. studies (2010, 2012: p. 301), the best route was explained as “the one that was shorter and/or faster,” although there were probably individual differences in the comprehension of the “best route.”
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Mapping Frictions Preventing from Bicycle Commuting

Mapping Frictions Preventing from Bicycle Commuting

The definition of "frictions" was more relevant than the definition of "bicycle trips". The analysis of urban cycling needed to go beyond the geographic perspective in order to understand frictions not only as a geometry happening at a particular time. We, therefore, used an ideal cycling scenario to compare with the crowdsourced trips and estimated the existing deviation in speed to drive our analysis. In practice, we defined a procedure with three levels that not only allowed us to identify frictions but also brought up criteria for their description. The two additional levels of frictions increased consistency by considering more than the number of walking segments, origins, destinations, and adding the friction intensity ratio. The identified frictions were located at places with segments recorded at low speeds induced by an external factors.
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An Accessible City An investigation using GIS into the potential for further development of the proposed major cycleways network for Christchurch, New Zealand

An Accessible City An investigation using GIS into the potential for further development of the proposed major cycleways network for Christchurch, New Zealand

Following a substantial number of cycling fatalities in Christchurch over recent years, the need for safe and attractive cycling infrastructure has become more predominant than ever before. From the results presented in Chapters 7 – 9, it is clear that the proposed major cycleways network is a large step in the right direction towards rehabilitating the reputation cycling safety currently has in Christchurch. Copenhagen’s cycle strategy places a significant amount of importance on cycle travel time (The City of Copenhagen, 2011); it is acknowledged heavily throughout the strategy that in order to encourage more people to commute via bicycle, travel time must be competitive with other modes of transport. However, the strategy suggests that travel time is not simply about speeding through the streets and getting to your destination as quickly as possible, but also about being able to choose your own travel tempo and most direct route. Not surprisingly, the strategy points out that fewer missing links in a network leads to more direct routes that require less stops and greatly improve travel times. Consequently, minimising gaps in Copenhagen’s cycle network has become one of the city’s key goals throughout the life of the strategy. Taking into consideration the success that Copenhagen has had in implementing an effective and widely utilised cycling system, it is not unreasonable to suggest that Christchurch follow their lead when planning for cycling infrastructure. Taking the time now to ensure that the city’s cycle network is cohesive and well connected will go a long way towards reaching the goal of Christchurch becoming a cycle city, encouraging more of the population to make use of utility cycling and its many benefits.
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Modelling the impacts of ATIS accuracy on travellers' route choice behaviour and risk perception

Modelling the impacts of ATIS accuracy on travellers' route choice behaviour and risk perception

Psychologists have been long aware that under conditions of uncertainty the rational utility maximization paradigm is likely inadequate (Gärling & Young, 2001). Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) is orientated to analyze people‟s choice behaviour under uncertainty (in static conditions). The main idea is that choice is reference-based and that risk attitudes depend on the framing of the outcome in the form of gains or losses (Kahneman & Tversky, 1984). Moreover, loss aversion suggests that cognitively a loss is perceived larger than an equivalent gain. In addition, it is asserted that large probabilities are underrated whereas small probabilities are generally inflated (the „S‟ shaped weighting function). Katsikopoulos et al. (2002) demonstrated that a route that is perceived as a relative expected loss is preferred when the travel time range is greater than the reference - implying risk seeking. In a synthetic (static) setup, Gao et al., (2010) show that strategic behaviour is consistent with Prospect Theory. However, it should also be noted that in dynamic contexts (sequence of repeated choices), these results do not necessarily hold and reversals of behaviour can occur when learning is introduced (Barron & Erev, 2003). Ben-Elia & Shiftan, (2010) found that risk prone behaviour characterises mainly the short run whereas in the long run when learning is reinforced the average trend is towards risk aversion. Moreover, they could not find Prospect Theory consistent behaviour when route-choice was conducted in a dynamic context.
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Measuring the quality of bicycle routes in Pune, India: A field survey to measure bicycle route quality as part of the sustainable transport initiative in Pune, India

Measuring the quality of bicycle routes in Pune, India: A field survey to measure bicycle route quality as part of the sustainable transport initiative in Pune, India

This pilot survey is conducted at two bicycle tracks in Pune and this chapter presents the results. Paragraph 4.1 first discusses the overview of the bicycle tracks in Pune and shows the summarized results in a map. The more extensive results of the pilot measurements are explicated in paragraph 4.2. This paragraph consists of a table indicating the quality of each segment and explains the specific situation of each segment. For extra details there is a photo appendix and a GIS map, in addition to chapter four, which are not included in this report.

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