Top PDF The link between job satisfaction and organizational commitment:differences between public and private sector employees

The link between job satisfaction and organizational commitment:differences between public and private sector employees

The link between job satisfaction and organizational commitment:differences between public and private sector employees

someone holds a job that they do not expect to provide satisfaction, but which is subsequently found to be extrinsically and intrinsically satisfying, does the employee in response increase his or her organizational commitment? If we assume, following the research reported above, that public sector employees tend to enter employment less motivated, then the experience of a satisfying organizational environment and job content would positively influence their commitment. This could be more evident for those employees entering an organizational environment who are looking for job security, acceptable wages, and the satisfaction of basic human needs. This, according to Bourantas and Papalexandris (1992), who examined differences between private and public sector employees in Greece, is typical of public sector employees. Their research identified differences in the dispositions of people attracted to each sector. Greek private sector employees tend to have higher levels of activity, sense of competence, tolerance of ambiguity, a stronger Protestant work ethic, and higher growth need than their public sector counterparts. Private and public sector employment in Greece exemplify substantial differences with respect to employment relationships, status, wages, fringe benefits, and employee human resource management. Table 1 summarizes some of the most important and significant
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The mediating effect of job satisfaction on the link between leadership style and organizational commitment

The mediating effect of job satisfaction on the link between leadership style and organizational commitment

MajlisProfesor Negara through their research (BeritaHarian, 2013) which involved 3,756 respondents resulted only 67% of them believed that ECM has managed election for the country in a proper way. Public perceived the negative image upon ECM as the trusted body for the country election management and hoping for the improvement in several aspect towards ECM such as image, integrity and its electoral rolls. 13 th General Election was held during the second quarter of the year 2013 on May 5, 2013. During the first quarter of the year 2013, there were about 69 complaints on ECM misconducts reported in the national newspaper. This indirectly gave a negative effect to ECM as the only authority and independent body and to conduct the election as well as the civil servants served at ECM.
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An Empirical Investigation Of Job Satisfaction And Organizational Commitment Among Managers of Private and Public Establishments.

An Empirical Investigation Of Job Satisfaction And Organizational Commitment Among Managers of Private and Public Establishments.

total job satisfaction(t=2.576,p<0.05). It is also note worthy that job satisfaction related to management style is significantly higher in the private sector (X=-0.8171) than in the public sector(X=-1.0285). The reason for this differences may be that public establishments are less able to satisfy the autonomy and esteem needs of the managers. On the other hand, the ability of the managers in the private sector to take more initiatives may increase their job satisfaction. These explanations likely explain higher job satisfaction in terms of management style in the private sector. Job satisfaction related to physical environment is significantly higher in the private sector(X=-06463) than in the public sector (X=-0.9187). A potential reason for this difference may be that managers who work in the public sector have limited access to technical equipment office supplies, computers and libraries compared to those in the private sector. These resources facilitate job performance and their inadequacy in public institutions may lower perceived job satisfaction in terms of work facilities.
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The Relationships between Conflict Management Styles, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment among Workers in Public and Private Sectors

The Relationships between Conflict Management Styles, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment among Workers in Public and Private Sectors

In fact, there is no specific definition agreed upon by scholars because of different areas of specialization. First, we will focus on the basic concept and integrate it with other terminology for constructing an integrative view. Conflict is idiomatically different from the concepts of the dark side or grim, such as aggression, uncouth, delinquency, bullying or tyranny. in spite of these concepts involved in fact that conflicting groups are interdependent each other and have different interests, values, and beliefs, but does not need that hurt group, other group and does not need to cause negative outcomes.[11] reported that organizational conflict to better understand is that "constitute a dynamic process of organizational behavior." [12], p.72) define conflict as an "intense image or severe differences between two or three parties each depends on the others, on basis of inconsistencies in needs, desires, values, beliefs and attitudes. [8], p.19). [13], p.122) defined the conflict as "an interactive process manifests itself in the form of disagreement and conflict within social entities like person, group, or organization." as defined by [14], p. 333) "internal conflict caused by differences in values, ideas or feelings between two or more people. [15], p.4) defined the conflict as a "perceived differences and concerns among a group of people." [16], p.6) defined it as "a process that begins when a person or group realizes differences or conflicts around interests, sources, beliefs and values within-person or with other people or group." [17], p.5), defined it as “extent of agreement or conflict between people and groups around interests, beliefs, and values." [18], p. 149) defined the conflict as “a process by one of parties is aware that concerns or interests opposed or resisted or been affected by party or group”. [10], p. 198) review a number of definitions of the concept of conflict across literature and concluded that the definitions are not same. It focused on different definitions that we can summarize as follows:
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Relationships Between Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Teacher Engagement

Relationships Between Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Teacher Engagement

Teacher quality and performance issues, including teacher productivity in terms of student outcomes, and teacher attrition, are of concern for educational researchers and policy makers (Finster, 2013; Marvel et al., 2007). One factor that may be related to low performance and attrition is a lack of engagement among teachers that affects teacher quality and school effectiveness (Albrecht, 2010). Some studies have shown relationships between work engagement and performance in fields outside of education, but this link has not been made conclusively for teachers in schools. Moreover, little is known about psychological and organizational factors that may influence teacher engagement in public schools. Albrecht’s (2010) findings suggest that work-related constructs such as having a positive attitude and emotional connections to the workplace may contribute to employee engagement and productivity; however, this relationship has not been studied in public high schools where the problems of low teacher quality and attrition are most acute.
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Similarities and Differences between Public and Private Sector Leadership Strategies in the Caribbean: Empirical Findings on the Link between Leadership, Culture, and Performance

Similarities and Differences between Public and Private Sector Leadership Strategies in the Caribbean: Empirical Findings on the Link between Leadership, Culture, and Performance

(2006) hypothesized that an institution with strong, congruent cultures shows significant strength over those with weaker cultures and sub-cultures. However, his study did not corroborate this hypothesis (Brown, 2007; Sckerl, 2002). Rather, his study showed that dominant culture types and not cultural strength was the real predictor of organizational performance (Cameron & Quinn 2006). Further examination of his initial research findings revealed that the data also showed that each of the four cultural elements had a particular characteristic that was consistent with their model (Brown, 2007; Cameron & Quinn, 2006). Second, Kotter and Heskett (1992) conducted several research studies to examine the link between organizational culture and economic performance in government organizations. The researcher implemented a combined quantitative and qualitative case study to test the hypothesis on the relationship between organizational culture and long term performance. In summarizing their findings, Kotter and Heskett (1992) were able to identify with similar trends presented in Cameron & Quinn’s (2006) previous research. the conclusions were drawn from this study: First, it was interesting to note that an organizational culture is more important that its subcultures. Second, an organizational performance is facilitated by a well-entrenched culture (Kotter & Heskett, 1992). Third, organizational performance is greatly enhanced when it is adaptable and focuses on strategies that facilitate organizational, customers’ and employees’ needs. Finally, Kotter and Heskett (1992) found that adaptive culture has three major elements- shared vision and strength; a common understanding of the mission, goals and objectives; mutual support and trust. Finally, Denison (1990) conducted a series of studies using quantitative and qualitative methods to examine the continued impact of organizational culture on organizational performance. Thirty (30) supervisors from two (2) government organizations were surveyed. In the continued evaluation of Denison’s (1990) performance theory, the four hypotheses were subjected to further research by Denison and Mishra (1995) and ultimately incorporated into the Denison’s Culture and Performance Model (Denison, 1995. As a result, the second hypothesis is suggested:
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Job & Career Influences on Career Commitment Among Employees Of Banking Sector: The Mediating Effect Of Job Satisfaction & Organizational Commitment

Job & Career Influences on Career Commitment Among Employees Of Banking Sector: The Mediating Effect Of Job Satisfaction & Organizational Commitment

In today’s dynamic environment, organizations need to “sustain and flourish” and this need has brought an organization to the edge where people are seen as an asset, not as a cost. People are the main source which carries out important activities relating to work in an organization. Considering people as an asset for the organization, is part of contemporary human resource management. People can be an asset for an organization only if they are committed with their organization. It is not only about making employees committed for short term but also to hold them in the organization for a long time period to raise the efficiency and effectiveness of the organization. Employee’s commitment to their career allows the employers to decide whether the candidate is a good asset or not (Commitment to career). A lot of career changing is observed over the past 18 months (Fogarty, 2013). In present world, banking sector is offering many career opportunities. A banker, these days, might be a computer programmer, an economist, an attorney, an electronic banking expert, an accountant, a loan officer, an agricultural expert, a public relations specialist, a teller, a sales representative, a human resources officer etc. As one can have many career opportunities, so one can move from one career to another (Consider a Career in Banking, 2006). So, it is important for an organization to have a work environment that improves the commitment of the employees to their careers as well as with their occupation. This research is aimed at analyzing the influences of job and career on the career commitment while examining the mediating effect of job satisfaction and organizational commitment among employees of banking sector (managers and officers). 1.1 Objectives of study
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The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: Case Study of Employees in PT X

The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: Case Study of Employees in PT X

Contingent reward system reinforces positive motivation for a job well done effectively and in timely fashion. Smith (n.d.) also informed that the evaluation and assessment is more frequent than annual performance review and evaluation. Additional information provided by Smith (n.d.) stated that the rewards given must be aligned with employee’s interest in order to attract them. Spector (1997) believed of these four indicators to measure contingent rewards, which are appropriateness, value, contentment, and fairness. Henne and Locke (1985) also confirms that employee wants to be recognized and rewarded for good performance. It increases employee’s job satisfaction. Reward system in private sector is said to have effect on job satisfaction (Getahun, Sims, & Hummer, 2008). The sample items used in Getahun, Sims, and Hummer (2008) research include “recognition depends on a job performed well,” “pay raises depend on performance,” “high performance is recognize and promoted,” and “high performing employees receive non-monetary rewards”.
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Participative decision making and employees job satisfaction: A comparison between public and private pharmaceutical companies in Egypt

Participative decision making and employees job satisfaction: A comparison between public and private pharmaceutical companies in Egypt

When we turn to the public managers interviewed in the study we find they gave a moderate degree of satisfaction with the company management system (average 3 in a scale of 1 to 5) but at the same time they gave a variety of sources for dissatisfaction when justifying their answers. One manager criticized the management system saying "Not all decisions are good”. Another one was satisfied about the system saying "the management system here is better than private sector where people work more without better financial remunerations", while a third manager complained from acting department head but since she was still relatively young (37 year old) she did not pass the minimum number of years required to get that promotion according to the regulations, so did not receive financial remuneration from acting department head. She also complained from the equity in pay in various departments whatever the work load asking for incentives based on performance. Finally a fourth manager blamed the Holding company for pharmaceuticals for delaying the operation of the automatic system designed to link various departments inside the manufacturing company.
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The Relationship between Organizational Commitment, Organizational Identification, Person-Organization Fit and Job Satisfaction: A Research on IT Employees

The Relationship between Organizational Commitment, Organizational Identification, Person-Organization Fit and Job Satisfaction: A Research on IT Employees

Kelman (1958) constructed taxonomy of behavior or opinion change specifying that individuals can accept influence in three conceptually distinct ways: (a) compliance or exchange, (b) identification or affiliation, and (c) internalization or value congruence. Compliance is largely driven by thoughts of pain and please and it occurs when attitudes and behaviors are adopted not because of shared beliefs but simply to gain specific rewards including intangible benefits such as approval. In fact, they do not really agree and internally may well feel the tension of cognitive dissonance as their actions are inconsistent with their beliefs. In this case, public and private attitudes may differ. Identification, in Kelman's terms, occurs when an individual accepts influence to establish a satisfying relationship; an individual may feel proud to be a part of a group, respecting its values and accomplishments. Similarly, as we identify with a group we accept their rules and values. Internalization often requires significant cognitive processing as we think about what is said and fit the ideas into our existing beliefs, values and schema. Internalization occurs when influence is accepted because the encouraged attitudes and behaviors are congruent with one's own values. Mowday et al. (1982, p. 15) addressed that, "There are many instances where organizations need individual affiliates, especially those in critical positions, to perform the duty for the benefit of the organization". The affiliated individuals that shares the organization's goals and values can act instinctively to benefit the organization (Ouchi, 1980; Williamson, 1975). Based on social exchange theory (Blau, 1964) and the norm of reciprocity (Gouldner, 1960), greater perceived organizational support (POS) is expected to result in greater affective attachment and feelings of obligation to the organization (Shore and Wayne, 1993). Besides, Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchinson, and Sowa (1986) argued that beliefs underlie employees' inferences concerning their organizations' commitment to them in turn contribute to the employees' commitment to their organizations. Employees affectively committed to the organization for the organization‘s well-being and help the organization reach its goals.
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The Impact of Organizational Structure on Organizational Commitment: A Comparison between Public and Private Sector Firms in Jordan

The Impact of Organizational Structure on Organizational Commitment: A Comparison between Public and Private Sector Firms in Jordan

Formalization refers to “the amount of written documentation in the organization” (Daft, 1995: 16). It indicates the extent to which job tasks are defined by formal regulations and procedures (Michaels et al., 1988). These rules and procedures are written to standardize operations in organizations. Standardization is the extent to which employees work according to standard procedures and rules in an organization (Hsieh and Hsieh, 2001). It ensures employees complete their duties and tasks in the required manner, and therefore, ensures that an employee's actions and behaviors are routine and predictable (Jones, 2013), and that similar work activities are performed in a uniform manner at all locations (Daft, 1995). Formalization and standardization are control mechanisms which seek to ensure that employee behaviors contribute to the achievement of goals in organizations. Price (1997) stated that formalization and standardization often coincide; however rules and procedures may not embodied in written document in small organization. When formalization and standardization are extensive in an organization; employees are accountable for their actions, and have no authority to break rules (Jones, 2013).
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Job Satisfaction among Employees of Banks: A Comparative Analysis between Public and Private Sector Banks of Punjab, Pakistan

Job Satisfaction among Employees of Banks: A Comparative Analysis between Public and Private Sector Banks of Punjab, Pakistan

The concept of job satisfaction has emerged and different factors contributing to it like monitory and non-monitory. Job design is also an element of job satisfaction. Different elements like employee acceptance by work group, liking, disliking, variety of tasks, behavioral elements; reward system, organizational climate, promotion criteria, hard work etc. are all responsible for job satisfaction. There are numerous publications related to job satisfaction. There are numerous publications existing on the topic of job satisfaction and this grows daily. Locke (1976) estimated that, about 3,350 articles and dissertations had been written on this topic. Cranny at al. (1992) indicated that more than 5,000 studies on job satisfaction have been published. Oshagbemi (1996) suggested that if a count of relevant publications (articles and dissertations) were made, estimate would probably be doubled by Locke’s. As a result of many decades of effort by researchers and HR practitioner, there appears to be a high level of agreement among scholars on the meaning of the job satisfaction. There are a number of studies conducted on job satisfaction from last 80 years. It is an important topic to be discussed both in manufacturing and service concerns (Ahmed at al., 2010).
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Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Job Attitudes: Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment of Banking Sector Employees of Pakistan

Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Job Attitudes: Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment of Banking Sector Employees of Pakistan

The purpose of this study is to analyze the nature of relationship between employees’ perception of CSR and job satisfaction and CSR and organizational commitment. Past studies have proved that there is positive relation between CSR and organizational commitment. On the base of the social identity theory, Turker (Turker, 2009) has proved the positive link between organizational commitment and CSR. According to Peterson (2004b) there is direct relationship between CSR and organizational commitment especially in an organization which is satisfying the needs of its employees and its employees are satisfied with their jobs. CSR activities of a corporation causes employee satisfaction with their job and this satisfaction effects their commitment with organization positively (Kim HR, 2010). If employee believes he is working in a socially responsible organization, it cause greater job satisfaction and he wants long relationship with such organization (Dunford, 2011). A company which is meeting the expectations of its employees regarding CSR and general business ethics values, can expect better job attitudes and behaviors, greater productivity and lower turnover (Trevino, 2004; Tuzzolino, 1981).
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EMPLOYEES’ ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND EFFORT PROPENSITY: THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTOR

EMPLOYEES’ ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND EFFORT PROPENSITY: THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTOR

Also this study showed that all three components of organizational commitment are related to effort propensity except in-role performance. As was found by some recent studies (e. g. Qamar, 2012; Wasti, 2002) extra-role performance which is closely related to OCB was positively correlated to all three components of organizational commitment. Whereas, withholding effort as well as propensity to turnover were found as significantly negatively related to affective, normative and continuance commitment. Such result supported some previous ideas (Hallberg, Schaufeli, 2006; Kiddwell, Valentine, 2009; Labatmediene et al., 2007; Meyer et al., 2002; Wasti, 2002) that the more employees are committed to the organization and satisfied with job, the less they tend to withhold effort and leave the organization. Besides, many authors agree that high level of organizational commitment decreases the likelihood of withdrawal behavior which is a part of effort propensity (e. g. Koslowsky et al., 1997). The analysis of this investigation revealed that withdrawal behavior was negatively correlated with affective and normative commitment. Only there was no relationship between continuance commitment and employees' withdrawal in this investigation.
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Impact Of Culture On The Organizational Commitment Of Public-Sector Employees In Haiti

Impact Of Culture On The Organizational Commitment Of Public-Sector Employees In Haiti

In most countries, the well-being of employees is considered paramount in the public sector (Gould- Williams, 2004). In Haiti, the public service seems to project quite a different image. It is synonymous with bureaucratic delays, lack of accountability and motivation. Moreover, officials appear to be barriers to skills development. The promotions seem to be based on relationships rather than competence. Noe (1999) showed that management of individual skills is an important aspect of doing business today and employee development will likely grow in the future. Classroom and on-the-job training can be used to develop employee skills. Without the knowledge and skills, employees cannot perform their jobs properly and it becomes difficult for them to become involved in decision-making processes (Galunic & Anderson, 2000; Dufour, 2008). Many authors suggested that training should be designed to achieve increased organizational commitment (Lang, 1992). Bartlett (2001) examined the relationship between employee attitudes toward training and feelings of organizational commitment. He found that variables related to training are highly correlated to organizational commitment. The availability of training, support for training, motivation to learn, training environment, and perceived benefits of training were all significantly correlated with affective commitment, normative commitment and overall organizational commitment (Ahmad & Bakar, 2003). Benson (2006) also revealed the importance of training on organizational commitment. According to Benson (2006), training not only affects education and skill levels, but it also has psychological effects that include increased levels of engagement and satisfaction. Benson (2006) also found that, in general, employees view skills development and training
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Job satisfaction of employees in public and private  sector organizations

Job satisfaction of employees in public and private sector organizations

Job satisfaction is one of the most important aspects a company needs to look after asit has a significant correlation with job performance and productivity. Specifically, this relationship appears stronger on collective bias, which has a greater effect to the units and organizational performance, including productivity, work process efficiency, and most importantly, profit. Then, personality traits and emotional states seem to have an important role in determining individual satisfaction. Concurrently, work environment and organization strategy are more likely determinant to increase collective job satisfaction. Thus, organizations should consider implementing both personal and organizational approach to ensure greater level of employeessatisfaction is achieved.
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Organizational Climate as a Determinant of Job Satisfaction among Public Sector Employees in Kisii County, Kenya

Organizational Climate as a Determinant of Job Satisfaction among Public Sector Employees in Kisii County, Kenya

The concept of organizational climate has been found to be one of the most important organizational aspects in management and organizational behavior literature today because it helps explain employee motivation, employee behaviour and organizational performance. It provides managers with insights into the “people side” of the business. As a result of this, climate, then, has been considered as one construct that can become an active and useful tool for managing employees in both public and private organizations (OED Consulting Ltd., 2000). Behavioral activists such as Vroom argue that apart from the other job and organizational characteristics, employees are motivated to exhibit positive attitudes towards their jobs when there is equity and fairness in the outcome of their inputs. In other words, employees are satisfied and motivated to perform well when they know that they receive rewards that are perceived to be commensurate to their effort (Robbins & Judge, 2013).
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JOB SATISFACTION IN BANKING: A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS IN DEHRADUN, UTTARAKHAND

JOB SATISFACTION IN BANKING: A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS IN DEHRADUN, UTTARAKHAND

A satisfied and hard working employee is the backbone of any organization, including banks. Banking sector play a prominent role in India’s industrialization and economic development. Workforce of any bank is responsible to a large extent for its productivity and profitability. Job satisfaction is the level of contentment a person feels regarding his or her job. This feeling is based on an individual's perception of satisfaction. There is a direct link between employee job satisfaction and financial results. The more satisfied employees are the more motivated and committed they will be to your organization’s success. In this Research paper we have tried to make a comparison of Job satisfaction between Public and Private sector banks and tried to find out the basic reasons of dissatisfaction in job.
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Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction in Information Technology Sector

Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction in Information Technology Sector

This research finds out demographic factors like gender and age of the employees have a non-significant association with job satisfaction which implies that increase in the age or differences in gender does not necessarily make an impact on job satisfaction level of an employee however it leads to reduction in continuance commitment. Secondly, the findings state that the current job of the employee meets his career objectives and the organization provides basic allowance scheme. It is therefore recommended for the IT companies’ managers to make fair decisions and concentrate on increasing the allied benefits of their employees which would instinctively reduce bureaucracy. Managerial implication of this research is it will help the companies to investigate the level of commitment of their employees and would boost them in adopting policies which would enhance employee’s satisfaction and retain them in the company. This research would serve valuable for HR practioners, industry persons, organizations who are making efforts to keep their employees satisfied and happy. The degree to which employees are satisfied with their jobs can be understood from multiple job perspectives like supervision, payment, promotion; nature of the job etc.This research would help the managers to make better decisions in implementing policies to enhance commitment level of the employees. Regression analysis findings reflected that affective, normative and continuance commitment had a significant influence on job satisfaction. So we can say that when there is a unit rise in affective commitment it will lead to increase in job satisfaction by 0.459 units, a unit increase in continuance commitment will lead to rise in job satisfaction by 0.368 units and a unit rise in normative commitment will lead to increase in job satisfaction by 0.272 units. Another important finding is the total score of affective commitment is less as compared to the score of normative and continuance commitment. This indicates the employees are emotionally less connected with the organization. Employers must strategize their policies in adherence to the values and goals of the organization so that
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The relationship between the occupational stress, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction with organizational citizenship behavior

The relationship between the occupational stress, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction with organizational citizenship behavior

Organizational Commitment is an employee psychological additional behavior to the organization. Organizational commitment is one of the important parts within organizational behavior. And have found that the clear relationship between organizational commitment and attitudes and behaviors in the workplace (Porter et al., 1974, 1976; Koch and Steers, 1978; Angle and Perry, 1981). Two most comment approaches have been determine, they are commitment-related attitudes (Job Satisfaction, the employees feeling about the job) and commitment-related behaviors and it have been done not only in private, public and non profit sector, but also it have been determine internationally. Commitment is not something that you can directly see. The employees should have to characteristics that will show our commitment within organization, they are focus and personal sacrifices. Focus means the employees should focus and pay fully attention on the job or task that have been given from the production level of the product or services until on how to making profit to the company. Personal sacrifices means the employees should be more loyal and have self belonging to the organization and it will show the commitment straightly to the organization. The employees will be willing to make personal sacrifices to reach your goals. People need to attach a meaning to the sacrifice. If this sacrifice does not provide them with a sense of achievement, they will not be willing to do it. Commitment is a willingness to look for a new and better way to do something and then do it. It focuses on eliminate the procrastinating the task given and confronting on what is not working. This spirit of commitment allows a person to take risks they would not have taken before. This risk is looking to the future in its place of revise the past. Commitment within Bernama TV not is the same for each level. Bernama TV has two different areas or two different working fields which is management team and production team. They have different commitment to be show, practice and present. According to Buchanan (1974) most scholars define commitment as being a bond between an individual (the employee) and the organization (the employer), though his own definition of commitment Meyer and Allen (1991) and Dunham et al (1994) identified three types of commitment; affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment. Normative commitment is a relatively new aspect of organizational commitment having been defined by Bolon in 1993.
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