Top PDF The scaling-up of microfinance in Bangladesh : determinants, impact, and lessons

The scaling-up of microfinance in Bangladesh : determinants, impact, and lessons

The scaling-up of microfinance in Bangladesh : determinants, impact, and lessons

thus far been able to place the interests of the poor at the forefront while dealing with NGO issues. A less charitable view is that the scaling up of NGOs went largely unnoticed and once this took place the combined clout of large NGOs and donors has led to the Government taking on a largely laissez-faire approach. Ultimately the relationship between Government and NGOs also depends on individual personalities and social ties (Hossain 2003) as there have always been widely varying views regarding NGOs within the civil service and the Cabinet. Individuals in key positions within Government have time and again proved instrumental in facilitating the growth of the microcredit sector. The early development of the Grameen project, its registration as a bank and the decision to grant it managerial autonomy are clear examples (Yunus 1999), as was the establishment of PKSF with a strong autonomous board. The prevailing consensus position is supportive of NGOs though accusations of involvement in party politics by a handful of NGOs has strained the overall Government-NGO relationship of late.
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Indian microfinance: lessons from Bangladesh

Indian microfinance: lessons from Bangladesh

onwards, it has been catalyzing the banking system in the country to join hands progressively with informal delivery channels to give SHG – Bank linkage the necessary momentum. But the performance of Bank in linking SHGs to the banking system under microcredit programmes started scaling enviable heights on and from 1. 4. 1999, when, IRDP being subsumed in SGSY, formation of SHGs has become the principal mode of poverty alleviation through self-help and development of micro finance .The progress of SHG-Bank linkage programmes 2005-06 shows that the cumulative number of SHGs credit linked with banks up to 31st March 2006 is 2238565; in 2000-01 (up to 31st March) the cumulative number was 263825, registering 149.70 per cent positive growth (simple) per annum between 2000-01 and 2005-06.Under these programmes, loans are given to the SHGs in certain multiples of the accumulated saving of the SHGs i.e. the groups’ own accumulated saving are part of the aggregate loan
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Scaling up contraceptives use in the division with lowest contraceptives use in Bangladesh: sources, methods, and determinants

Scaling up contraceptives use in the division with lowest contraceptives use in Bangladesh: sources, methods, and determinants

Receiving a visit from an FPW within the last six months had the highest positive impact on contraceptive use as women who received the services had more than two times greater odds of using contraceptives than women who did not receive any visit [12, 13, 19]. Women who were visited received advice on which contraceptives were appropriate for them, as well as services from the FPW and ultimately obtaining contraceptives from them. A small proportion of our study women received services from FPWs. Officials planning to scale up such programs should focus on increasing FPW visits to women in order to achieve contraceptive coverage targets. Previous ar- ticles from Bangladesh also found that discontinuation of services from FPWs was associated with higher discontinuation of contraceptives' use [19, 20].
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Determinants of Financial Self Sufficiency in Microfinance Institutions: A study of Pakistan, India and Bangladesh

Determinants of Financial Self Sufficiency in Microfinance Institutions: A study of Pakistan, India and Bangladesh

Our results indicates that Portfolio at Risk (β= -1.1805, Z= -2.17) has a negative impact on financial self-sufficiency which shows that higher the PAR value, lesser will be the repayment rates and that will affect the financial sustainability of MFI. The findings of our study are in consistent with the findings of Nyamsogoro (2010) and Tehulu (2013). Size of MFI (β= 16.4717, Z= 4.33) has a positive impact on FSS showing that increasing the asset size of MFI causes a positive impact on financial sustainability. The findings of our study are according to the findings of Beg (2016) and Abdur Rahman and Mazlan (2014). Breadth of Outreach (β= -16.01792, Z= -3.76) has a negative impact on FSS showing that increase in number of borrowers will decrease the financial sustainability of MFI. It may be due to increase in inefficiency of MFI. In addition, our finding validates the findings of Nyamsogoro (2010). Management Inefficiency (β= -49.0295, Z= -3.37) has a negative impact on FSS showing that less efficient management of MFI will result in less financial sustainability. Our findings are consistent with the findings of Tehulu (2013). Opearting Cost Ratio (β= -1.3025, Z= -2.29) has a negative impact on FSS showing that higher the operating cost ratio, less will be the financial sustainability of MFI. Our findings are consistent with the findings of Abdur Rahman and Mazlan (2014). Loan Portfolio to Assets (β= 3.0901, Z= 2.44) has a positive impact on FSS. Our findings are consistent with the findings of Cull, Kunt, and Morduch (2009).
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Microfinance impact and the MDGs : the challenge of scaling-up

Microfinance impact and the MDGs : the challenge of scaling-up

The key development feature of microfinance is in the innovations – in products, terms, transactions costs and risk – that enabled MFIs to provide financial services where banks had failed. From the earliest development of these models, in Bangladesh and in Bolivia, these innovations were specifically identi- fied as means to serve poverty reduction. Initially, they were entirely driven by this more specific agenda on poverty rather than as a solution to the expensive experience of more generalised failure of rural financial services; especially the poor performance of the development banks, farmer cooperatives and directed lending. Their success has led to expansion and to increasing financing needs. It has opened up linkages with the formal financial sector that had retreated rapidly from rural areas with the advent of liberalisation in financial markets. Growth -or scaling up, as it is sometimes called- is linked to invest- ment resources and the financial markets are an obvious source for the MFIs to target. All MFIs face a pressure to achieve a financial performance that allows them to make this linkage so that they are not dependent on continuing donor support.
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Scaling up social lettings? Scope, impact and barriers

Scaling up social lettings? Scope, impact and barriers

Charlie had lived in his current home with Town Hall Lettings (THL) for over three years at the time he was interviewed. It was his first experience of living in private rented accommodation. For a year before his THL tenancy, he had lived in a supported housing project based in Cambridgeshire. When he initially approached the council as homeless, Charlie had spent a period of time ‘sofa-surfing’ and had poor mental health (depression and anxiety). For most of his adult life, Charlie had lived with his wife in their own property but this was lost following their divorce. Charlie was offered a room in a four-bedroom shared property through THL when he was approaching the end of his supported accommodation agreement. At first, Charlie felt anxious about moving on and did not want to leave the accommodation where he had established a support network: “I didn’t want to move, I ended up with a bit of depression through it, and the only reason was [was that] I was happy there.” It was not long before Charlie started to feel settled. THL helped Charlie to furnish the property and his room, even “clubbing together” to buy him a new duvet and pillow when his old set had gone missing in transit. Charlie described his relationship with the staff at THL as a “brilliant friendship”. He recalled how they had helped him resolve problems with his benefits, compiling a letter on his behalf, so that his HB was reinstated and backdated. With THL’s help, Charlie was starting to think about more long-term move-on options, and described how he felt ready to go through that process now: “I couldn’t focus on it before, the questions were doing my head in but now I’m in a better frame of mind. It’s a set of stairs, one at a time and one day you’ll get to the top, but they’re [THL] going to help me with that.”
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FCNDP No. 181

FCNDP No. 181

The political conflict between the ABOs and the city councils illustrates the necessity of involving government structures, rather than ignoring them, in promoting CDD, especially in urban areas. To resolve the crisis, PROSPECT worked with the city council and ABOs so that everyone understood their roles. CARE’s position as an important international NGO with resources to fund the dialogue and to meet some community needs possibly allowed them to play that mediating role in a way that a less prestigious or less well-funded organization could not. Scaling up CDD may thus require the prestige and resources of an outside catalytic change agent and almost certainly requires that stakeholders’ and participants’ roles and responsibilities are clarified from the beginning and quite possibly “officialized” in some way.
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The Theory of Planned Behavior and Microfinance Participation: from the Perspective of Nonparticipating Rural Poor in Bangladesh

The Theory of Planned Behavior and Microfinance Participation: from the Perspective of Nonparticipating Rural Poor in Bangladesh

The data collection exercises were aimed particularly at gathering information on the impact of eight factors that affect nonparticipation of the rural poor in MFIs in Bangladesh through the basic constructs of TPB such as intention, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control. To this aim, data were collected by face to face interview from six major areas of Bangladesh using closed-end questionnaire interviewing 280 respondents who are not participating in MFIs in Bangladesh. Data collection took place during the period of May, June and July in 2011. The questionnaire was constructed in a 5-point scale. In the measurement, scale 1 indicates strongly disagree and scale 5 indicates strongly agree. The questionnaire was pilot tested with a small number of samples collected from the nonparticipants in MFIs. There were seven demographic items included in the instrument which are shown in the Table I.
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Lessons Learned from Scaling Up a Web-Based Intelligent Tutoring System

Lessons Learned from Scaling Up a Web-Based Intelligent Tutoring System

Abstract. Client-based intelligent tutoring systems present challenges for content distribution, software updates, and research activity. With server-based intelligent tutoring systems, it is possible to easily distribute new and updated content, deploy new features and bug fixes, and allow researchers to more easily perform randomized, controlled studies with minimal client-side changes. Building a scalable system architecture that provides reliable service to students, teachers, and researchers is a chal- lenge for server-based intelligent tutors. Our research team has built As- sistment, a web-based tutor used by hundreds of students every day in the Worcester and Pittsburgh areas. Scaling up a server-based intelligent tutoring system requires a particular focus on speed and reliability from the software and system developers. This paper discusses the evolution of our architecture and how it has reduced the cost of authoring ITS and improved the performance and reliability of the system.
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UP-SCALING FARMER FIELD SCHOOLS AND RAINFOREST ALLIANCE CERTIFICATION AMONG SMALLHOLDER TEA PRODUCERS IN KENYA: OPTIONS, OPPORTUNITIES AND EMERGING LESSONS

UP-SCALING FARMER FIELD SCHOOLS AND RAINFOREST ALLIANCE CERTIFICATION AMONG SMALLHOLDER TEA PRODUCERS IN KENYA: OPTIONS, OPPORTUNITIES AND EMERGING LESSONS

the identified requirements for up-scaling. While in phase 1 the donors basically subsidized certain costs of training, audits and certification, during the next phase they should invest strategically in specific resources. they can do this by funding activities for increasing the number of farmer-led ffs and ra facilitators; developing new markets that are responsive to consumer tastes; improving communication and training of staff and farmers; educating non-ffs members on the benefits of ffs and ra principles; and using different methods to disseminate ffs and ra certification information. the study concluded that there are emerging the study concluded that there are emerging lessons for up-scaling ffss and ra certification. these include an understanding of the value for up-scaling ffss and ra certification. these include an understanding of the value up-scaling ffss and ra certification. these include an understanding of the value understanding of the value and usefulness of ffs and ra certification, improved sustainability via ffs training and ra certification that comes with a new cost structure for Ktda as a whole. the true cost of sustainable tea has to be rewarded by the market and the end consumer. this sustainability premium requires a marketing/ branding effort by Ktda. it should not depend on continuous subsidies by donors.
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Asset dynamics and the long-term impact of microfinance in rural Bangladesh

Asset dynamics and the long-term impact of microfinance in rural Bangladesh

10 The problem of savings is itself a key failure in many rural markets. Readily liquidated assets and cash are rarely safe when stored in the home due to the possibility of theft. Barring safety concerns, large amounts of cash on-hand remain a temptation to household members, and research suggests that male-headed households fail to optimally preserve cash stocks for long- term consumption decisions (Swain and Wallentin 2009). Without a viable way for income to be deposited to more secure long-term storage, the accumulation of savings is rarely successful and subsequently a more productive combination of assets remains out of reach. So desperate are many of the poor for the chance to save money that in West Africa, informal roaming deposit collectors go door-to-door, take regular payments of cash in installments, and later return a lump sum in exchange for a percentage of the total. In this sense, the depositors pay interest for savings instead of receiving interest as they would at a formal bank. Microfinance can provide a more reliable, stable, and accessible savings account, with the kind of structure appropriate for the needs of each client (Collins et al. 2009).
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The Role of the Arab World in the Liberation  War of Bangladesh

The Role of the Arab World in the Liberation War of Bangladesh

the outcome of the ‘ethnic-lingual nationalism’ in lieu of ‘religious nationalism’ especially ‘Muslim nationalism’, which provided the base for united Pakistan. On one hand, the role of the Arab world in the historic struggle of Bangladesh is the scar in terms of making a relationship with them. As the second-largest populated Muslim country, whenever Bangladesh has tried to make a good relation with the Arabs, this lesion has peeped in the mind of the Bangalees. On the other hand, the influence of the Arab world in the internal and foreign policy of Bangladesh is notably visible. Now, the relations with the Arab countries are going through a complexity due to mixing some policies and ideologies like secularism, socialism, the policy of look-Middle East and the policy of state religionism. So, the evaluation of the role of Arab countries in the liberation war of Bangladesh deserves an in-depth study in every respect. Many countries, including superpowers, involved in the East Pakistan crisis because it was, indeed, a part of the Cold War (1945-1991). But, the role of the Arabs was more heinous to the Bangalees than that of the Nixon administration's open collusion. It is also true that things were not really all black for Bangladesh. This article makes an attempt to identify the functions, involvements and attitudes of the Arab world in the historic struggle of Bangladesh, and then to elucidate the root causes of their stance.
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Differentials and determinants of under five mortality in Bangladesh

Differentials and determinants of under five mortality in Bangladesh

mortality remains one of the main problems in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in reducing mortality among under-five children over the last few years but it is still remain high. The purpose of this study is to observe the trends, differentials, and also to identify the determinants, of under-five mortality in Bangladesh. Data from Bangladesh Demographic and health Survey (BDHS)-2007 have been used. By using percentage distribution this study ascertained the differentials of under-five mortality. Also, Chi-square test has been used to identify the factors associated with under-five mortality. Cox proportional hazard model has been applied to find out the determinants of under-five mortality. The study results show that the under-five mortality is higher among children born as multiple births; children with first birth order and 7th th birth order; children with preceding birth interval less than 18 months; mother’s age at birth less than 20 years; mothers and fathers education; children from poor household; mother whose age at first marriage was less than 20 years; children from households without access to improved toilet facilities and improved source of drinking water. The findings of this study suggest that female education, mothers’ knowledge and awareness regarding childhood disease, treatment, immunization and access to child healthcare should be
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Lessons Learned from Scaling Up a Web-Based Intelligent Tutoring System

Lessons Learned from Scaling Up a Web-Based Intelligent Tutoring System

Abstract. Client-based intelligent tutoring systems present challenges for content distribution, software updates, and research activity. With server-based intelligent tutoring systems, it is possible to easily distribute new and updated content, deploy new features and bug fixes, and allow researchers to more easily perform randomized, controlled studies with minimal client-side changes. Building a scalable system architecture that provides reliable service to students, teachers, and researchers is a chal- lenge for server-based intelligent tutors. Our research team has built As- sistment, a web-based tutor used by hundreds of students every day in the Worcester and Pittsburgh areas. Scaling up a server-based intelligent tutoring system requires a particular focus on speed and reliability from the software and system developers. This paper discusses the evolution of our architecture and how it has reduced the cost of authoring ITS and improved the performance and reliability of the system.
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Microfinance   evolution, and microfinance growth, of India

Microfinance evolution, and microfinance growth, of India

several data sources shed some light on the industry. The growth of microfinance is visible in many aspects. There are more than 2000 NGOs involved in the NABARD SHG-Bank linkage program. Out of these, approximately 800 NGOs are involved in some form of financial intermediation. Further, there are 350 new generation co-operatives providing thrift and credit services. According to our estimate, the present total outstanding, including Sa-Dhan members and bank linkages is approximately Rs.700 crores (Rs. 150 crores of Sa-Dhan members and another Rs. 550 crores from the Banking system). The total client base is estimated at 6-8 million as opposed to the Government of India (GOI) intention to reach 25 million clients. The growth of community institutions has taken place with the role to take social and financial intermediation. A numbers of community banks have come into existence at village and block levels call ' Federation of Self Help Groups'. The inadequacies of the formal financial system to cater to the needs of the poor and the realization of the fact that the key to success lies in the evolution and participation of community based organizations at the grassroots level led to the emergence of new generation of MFIs. One kind of MFI is an NGO engaged in promoting Self Help Groups (SHGs) and their federations at a cluster level and linking SHGs with Banks under the Scheme. Examples are Myrada in Karnataka, which has promoted Sanghmitra, a company of its village saving and credit sanghas, PRADAN which has established a large number of SHGs and federated them under Damodar in Bihar, Sakhi Samiti in Rajasthan. Another kind is NGO-MFI directly lending to the poor borrowers, who are either organized into SHGs or into Grameen Bank type of groups after borrowing bulk funds from SIDBI, RMK and FWWB. Examples in this category are Rashtriya Gramin Vikas Nidhi (RGVN) which runs credit and savings programme in Assam and Orissa on the lines of Grameen Bank, Bangladesh. Also we have SHARE in AP, ASA in Tamil Nadu under this category. There are MFIs which are specifically organized as cooperatives, such as over 500 Mutually Aided Cooperative Thrift and Credit Socities (MACTS) in AP, promoted among others by Cooperative Development Foundation (CDF) and the SEWA Bank in Gujarat which also runs federations of SHGs in nine districts. Then we have MFIs, which are organized as Non-Banking Finance Companies (NBFC) such as BASIX, CFTS Mirzapur, SHARE Microfin. Ltd. and Sarvodaya Nanofinance Ltd. Growth of Microfinance in India
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Costing the scaling-up of human resources for health: lessons from Mozambique and Guinea Bissau

Costing the scaling-up of human resources for health: lessons from Mozambique and Guinea Bissau

This study's methodology, used to compare the Mozam- bican and Guinean experiences, presents a number of limitations. First, as the two case studies are based on previous work, a policy analysis framework was only applied retrospectively. As the study methods were not applied to design the original fieldwork, but only to inter- pret its results, the depth and internal validity of our anal- ysis may be limited. Secondly, due to their Portuguese cultural heritage and country's current political situation, the Mozambican and Guinean health systems present very specific features, which may limit the generalisation of the study findings to other contexts. Despite these lim- itations, a number of lessons from the case studies can be considered valid and possibly applicable to other con- texts.
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Impact of microfinance on health, education and income of rural households: evidence from Bangladesh

Impact of microfinance on health, education and income of rural households: evidence from Bangladesh

A significant number of studies have examined the impacts of microfinance on education. The evidence from these studies is conflicting, signifying both positive and negative impacts. It is evident from some studies that participating in microcredit programmes contributes to the household’s expenditure on children’s education (Adjei et al. 2009; Lacalle Calderon et al. 2008). However, Brannen (2010) and Gubert and Roubaud (2011) found no such effect. Nanor (2008) found contradictory impacts on spending on education depending on the region, suggesting that the relationship between microcredit and education are influenced by other factors. Among the four studies conducted, two studies showed that microfinance is doing harm by dropping education among the participants of micro-credit. The reason is that microcredit members are generally from poor households, so their children are more likely to working rather than attending school, because opportunity cost of attending school is very high for these poor children. They can earn money or do some productive work rather than attending school. Another study conducted in Malawi showed that access to microcredit significantly decreased the primary school attendance among the children of the borrowers (Shimamura & Lastarria-Cornhiel 2010). Moreover, data suggested that the duration of time within the credit programme does not indicate positive impacts on spending on education and decreases children’s enrolment (Adjei, Arun & Hossain 2009). One study in Bolivia based on two household survey conducted by Maldonado and González-Vega (2008) mentioned that microfinance has a significant impact on child schooling of the clients. As per the study, the schooling gap is less for old clients compared to new clients. On the other hand, a recent study conducted by Islam and Choe (2013) indicated that participation of household in microcredit programmes has adversely affected children’s schooling, especially girls’ schooling. However, their study was based on an old panel data. On the contrary, Littlefield, Morduch and Hashemi (2003) found that poor people use the income generated from microenterprise activities for the education purposes of their children. Most of the earlier studies showed that children of microfinance clients tend to go to school and continue school for long period than for children of non-clients.
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High Noon for Microfinance Impact Evaluations: Re investigating the Evidence from Bangladesh

High Noon for Microfinance Impact Evaluations: Re investigating the Evidence from Bangladesh

While much of the literature seems to assume otherwise, there is evidence that the poor choose to borrow from multiple sources for various reasons, including for purposes not sanctioned by MFIs (Fernando, 1997; Coleman, 1999), and do not just access microfinance to access credit or reduce the burden of traditional sources of credit (as argued by Khandker, 2000). For example, poor borrowers use (fungible) credit for consumption; to augment microfinance loans which are rationed in order to invest in more remunerative activities which require larger amounts of credit; to make the regular payments required by MFIs when the income from the activities in which they have invested does not yield the regular returns required to meet the repayment schedule, to improve their portfolios, and, no doubt, other reasons. Those with different portfolios will have different observable and unobservable characteristics. Thus, a comparison of (eligible) participants with (eligible) non- participants will include among the participants those who also borrow from other sources, and similarly among the control group(s); these groups will be quite heterogeneous, as will any impacts of microfinance borrowing. While it might be desirable to compare more homogenous sub-groups separately so one could distinguish differences in impacts and probably obtain more precise and statistically significant results, this is constrained by sample sizes in existing data sets.
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The challenges of microfinance: In India and Bangladesh

The challenges of microfinance: In India and Bangladesh

Microfinance brings its importance to the poor like everyone else; most poor people who need and use financial services to take advantage of business opportunities, i[r]

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Social autopsy for maternal and perinatal deaths in Bangladesh: a tool for community dialog and decision making

Social autopsy for maternal and perinatal deaths in Bangladesh: a tool for community dialog and decision making

past experiences, SA was introduced in 2010 through the partnership between the Centre for Injury Prevention and Research (CIPRB), Bangladesh, and the United Nations Children ’ s Fund (UNICEF), Bangladesh, in collaboration with the Government ’ s MPDR system. The SA initiative was initially piloted in Thakurgaon to alleviate maternal, neonatal deaths, and stillbirths [4, 5, 11–13]. After observing the positive effect in reducing stillbirths, maternal, and neonatal deaths, the Government of Bangladesh scaled it up to districts during the 2011 to 2012 period [5]. Positive results generated a potential background and platform to expand the system to 10 districts from 2013 to 2015, increasing to 14 districts of Bangladesh in 2015 [5]. The Government has now expanded the newly named “Maternal and Perinatal Death Surveillance and Response” (MPDSR) program in 22 districts and eventually plans to cover all districts in Bangladesh. SA has been incorporated in the MPDSR system as one of the key strategies to address avoidable maternal and neonatal deaths and thereby contribute to Bangladesh achievement of the 2030 Sustainable Developmental Goals (SDG): (3) to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages, specifically targets (3.1) to reduce maternal mortality, and (3.2) to end preventable deaths of newborns [11].
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