Top PDF A Whole School Approach to Supporting Children and Young People’s Mental Health

A Whole School Approach to Supporting Children and Young People’s Mental Health

A Whole School Approach to Supporting Children and Young People’s Mental Health

(Mental Health Foundation, 2016: 57) Thus, socio-economic disadvantage acts as a psychosocial stressor and can have a detrimental impact on young people’s mental health and wellbeing. It reduces the ability of young people to participate in activities with their peers. It is also associated with worse parental mental health, which is, in turn, a strong risk factor for poor child mental health and wellbeing (Education Policy Institute, 2018). Additionally, adverse childhood experiences, have a known and significant effect on children and young people’s mental health. These include trauma, poor attachment, parental alcohol and drug abuse, domestic violence, neglect and abuse (House of Commons, 2018). School factors also play a role. Evidence suggests that young people who are excluded from school or in alternative provision are more likely to have a mental health need than children not in alternative provision (IPPR, 2017). Children in schools are likely to be excluded for persistent disruptive behaviour, physical violence and verbal abuse (IPPR, 2017) but the experience of exclusion can result in the development of mental ill health. High-stakes exams can also have adverse effects on young people’s mental health and well- being (House of Commons, 2018). Additionally, lack of curriculum choice, particularly in secondary school, can increase stress and reduce self-esteem (House of Commons, 2018). Protective factors such as nurturing, stable family relationships and other social relationships can mitigate against risk factors. Positive relationships with parents, peers and teachers can strengthen resilience to adversity but they might not be sufficient to compensate. Mental ill health is also evident across individuals from a range of social backgrounds.
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The Role of Schools in Supporting Children and Young People’s Mental Health

The Role of Schools in Supporting Children and Young People’s Mental Health

the UK in relation to children and young people’s mental health. It has addressed the risk and protective factors which can cause or mitigate against mental ill health and it has outlined the elements of a whole-school approach to mental health. Schools should be places where students can live mentally healthy lives. Schools cannot control what happens to students outside of the school environment, but they can create mentally healthy environments which enable students to thrive and be resilient to the challenges they face. The commitment or ‘buy-in’ from the senior school leadership team is critical to developing effective whole-school mental health provision. Effective school leaders recognise that students need to be mentally healthy to succeed academically. They recognise that there are no tensions between the drive to improve student wellbeing and the drive to raise academic standards and they understand that the focus on wellbeing or mental health is the first priority. If students are mentally healthy they are happy, confident, have a positive self-concept and are motivated. These attributes are positively correlated with student attainment. Schools which offer targeted support for individual students but also adopt universal approaches to mental health for all students are well-placed to address the mental health challenges which young people face.
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Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

households or individuals could either not be contacted or refused to take part. Others may not have been well enough or may have lacked the cognitive capabilities to complete a long survey interview. Social desirability biases may mean some people, especially in the face-to-face section of the interview, did not answer fully or honestly. These limitations, while ameliorated to some extent with use of validated measures, self-completion data entry, weights, understanding of the population they relate to and how the data should appropriately be applied, should be acknowledged. The strengths and limitations of this information, detailed information on the survey methodology, and how the statistics in this report should be interpreted in light of this methodology can be found in more detail in the Survey Design and Methods Report. Quality issues particular to individual topics covered in this publication can be found in the relevant topic report.
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Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Overall, more than two thirds of 5 to 19 year olds who accessed professional services for a mental health reason reported waiting less than ten weeks to see the specialist. This ranged from 65.2% of those who had contact with a physical health specialist, to 93.0% of those who had contacted teachers about mental health.

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Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

This section of the interview is about the child’s level of activity and concentration over the last 6 months. Nearly all young people are overactive or lose concentration at times, but what we would like to know is how the child compares with other young people of their own age. We are interested in how they are usually - not on the occasional 'off day'.

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Taking a positive, holistic approach to the mental and emotional health and well being of children and young people

Taking a positive, holistic approach to the mental and emotional health and well being of children and young people

At the same time as mental health work is becoming more positive it is also becoming more holistic. Across all types of social and health related research there is a growing tendency to take a more ‘joined-up approach’. This involves looking at environments rather than only at individuals, as a way both to understand and also to address problems. It promotes a concern with the relationships between problems rather than with single problems, and encourages us to look at clusters of risk factors rather than single causes. Terms commonly used to describe holistic approaches include ‘settings’, ‘universal’, ‘ecological’, ‘environmental’, ‘comprehensive’, ‘multi-systemic’ and ‘multi-dimensional’—depending on which discipline and which agency are involved, but they all refer essentially to thinking and working holistically.
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Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

The survey benefited from an expert steering group, we would like to thank Miranda Wolpert, Peter Fonagy, Catherine Newsome, Lucy Heyes, Helen Duncan, Jessica Sharp, David Lockwood, Jeremy Clark, Alexandra Lazaro, and Nilum Patel. NHS Digital commissioned the survey series with funding from the Department of Health and Social Care. We are particularly grateful to Dan Collinson, Alison Neave, Steven Webster, Jane Town, Ben Osborne and Kate Croft for their thoughtful

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Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

While this survey and others show that rates of smoking, drinking and drug use in young people are in decline (NHS Digital, 2018), these still remain important issues. Even relatively low levels of alcohol consumption in young adulthood are now known to have potentially lifelong consequences for health (Deanfield et al., 2017). The widespread use of e-cigarettes is relatively new and their use is increasing (NHS Digital, 2017). The findings in this report indicate that children under sixteen were more likely to have tried e-cigarettes than combustible tobacco. The longer-time implications of this have yet to emerge, however there is some evidence that e- cigarette use increases the risk that young people will subsequently go on to use combustible tobacco cigarettes (Byrne et al., 2018; McNeill et al., 2018).
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Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

• Some people selected for the survey could not be contacted or refused to take part. The achieved response rate (52%) is in line with that of similar surveys (Bolling & Smith, 2018). A problem for all such studies is how to take account of those who do not take part, either because contact could not be established with the selected household or individual, or because they refused to take part. This may include children and young people who were at a greater risk of mental disorders (for example children in long term inpatient care would not have been interviewed), or who were hard to reach (for example students living in halls of residence). The weighting included a non-response adjustment (outlined in the weighting section) to help account for non-response bias.
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New perspectives on the contribution of digital technology and social media use to improve the mental wellbeing of children and young people: A state of the art review

New perspectives on the contribution of digital technology and social media use to improve the mental wellbeing of children and young people: A state of the art review

As advances in technology continue at an ever increasing pace around the world, it is vital that there is contemporaneous advancement in the practitioners’ awareness of the wide reaching scope of digital technology when working in the field of children and young people’s mental health. It is acknowledged that internationally, childhood is difficult to define and when planning age appropriate digital resources for self-assessment and help, caution must be exercised, as it is clear that one size does not fit all. Practitioners need to have detailed knowledge of child development theory and awareness that the widespread use of technology often begins in the pre-school years. The digital navigation skills of the young service user can outstrip those of the practitioners developing interventions aimed at offering mental health help. There can be a discontinuity in digital knowledge between practitioner and the young person, however, there can also be a digital divide within the young population itself, therefore consultation and collaboration may be one way forward incorporating the additional help of software designers.
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Experiences and satisfaction of children, young people and their parents with alternative mental health models to inpatient settings : a systematic review

Experiences and satisfaction of children, young people and their parents with alternative mental health models to inpatient settings : a systematic review

This review found a relative lack of both CYP and parental/ carer experiential data in the existing literature. This lack of experiential data is particularly evident in the case of males and fathers, which should be investigated further. It is clear that more research is required on the accessibility, accept- ability and satisfaction of service users with alternatives to inpatient settings, and urgent and emergency care. There are also grounds for future research into the TMH applications to mental health crisis and this area appears to be promis- ing and developing rapidly. Lastly, further research could be conducted into the fidelity of Club house models to establish whether they could serve as an alternative or complemen- tary model to clinical models of urgent and emergency care. Additionally, future research could also try to investigate whether Club house models could help improve transition experiences of CYP from CAMHS to AMHS services.
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Exploring teachers’ constructs of mental health and their reported responses to young people experiencing mental health problems: a grounded theory approach

Exploring teachers’ constructs of mental health and their reported responses to young people experiencing mental health problems: a grounded theory approach

This approach to memo writing was repeated for interviews four and five where the researcher used memos to establish connections and relationships between emerging categories. In each interview, categories emerged which shared similarities with each other and directed the data to highlight that teachers can have difficulty conceptualising mental health and that there is a role of outside professionals and agencies in shaping teachers’ conceptualisations of mental heath. In some cases the role of other professionals seemed to be a facilitating force in aiding the understanding of the teachers. In other cases the role of other professionals had created a ‘psychological barrier’ for teachers in being able to articulate a concept of mental health. They appeared to experience powerlessness when being asked to define mental health by the researcher. Another category which emerged from interviews three, four and five was that the teachers had an emotional response to mental health and this appears to manifest itself in them expressing an empathic relationship with young people who experience difficulties. For example, the following categories were highlighted from Interviews, Three, Four, and Five:
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Mental health and well being in the context of school : Young people in Scotland

Mental health and well being in the context of school : Young people in Scotland

First, whether or not a pupil reports ‘liking school‘ is examined. This general measure is of importance as many pupils spend the majority of their days during school term at school. 6 Next, we examine pupils’ perceptions of the atmosphere at their school, then their perceptions towards peers and finally, perception of teachers, each of which has been shown to be important in the development of young people. 7-10

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Supporting Looked After Children and Young People at School: A Scottish Case Study

Supporting Looked After Children and Young People at School: A Scottish Case Study

Glasgow Project Report Supporting Looked After Children and Young People at School: A Scottish Case Study Graham Connelly, Lindsay Siebelt & Judith Furnivall March 2008.[r]

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A community based intervention (Young SMILES) to improve the health related quality of life of children and young people of parents with serious mental illness: randomised feasibility protocol

A community based intervention (Young SMILES) to improve the health related quality of life of children and young people of parents with serious mental illness: randomised feasibility protocol

One of the biggest challenges is identifying when and how to support COPMI effectively in a non-stigmatising and accessible way. Our consultation work with CYP [19] expressed the need for interventions to improve their coping skills and mental health literacy. The earlier phase of this study, involving focus groups and inter- views with parents with mental illness, highlighted that CYP and parents desired mental health literacy, and that communication and problem-solving skills should be the driving principles underlying each of the interventions. These views were mirrored by professionals working in the NHS and third sector organisations. A more recent mixed-methods study additionally supports these find- ings [20]. It is thought that a significant “paradigm shift is required at all levels of service development, delivery and policy” [21] to enhance the lives of these CYP and their families.
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A community-based intervention (Young SMILES) to improve the health-related quality of life of children and young people of parents with serious mental illness : randomised feasibility protocol

A community-based intervention (Young SMILES) to improve the health-related quality of life of children and young people of parents with serious mental illness : randomised feasibility protocol

One of the biggest challenges is identifying when and how to support COPMI effectively in a non-stigmatising and accessible way. Our consultation work with CYP [19] expressed the need for interventions to improve their coping skills and mental health literacy. The earlier phase of this study, involving focus groups and inter- views with parents with mental illness, highlighted that CYP and parents desired mental health literacy, and that communication and problem-solving skills should be the driving principles underlying each of the interventions. These views were mirrored by professionals working in the NHS and third sector organisations. A more recent mixed-methods study additionally supports these find- ings [20]. It is thought that a significant “ paradigm shift is required at all levels of service development, delivery and policy ” [21] to enhance the lives of these CYP and their families.
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Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

The Mental Health of Children and Young People (MHCYP) survey was conducted with 5 to 15 year olds living in Britain in 1999 and 5 to 16 year olds living in Britain in 2004. The 1999 and 2004 surveys sampled from Child Benefit records. For the 2017 survey a stratified multistage random probability sample of 18,029 children was drawn from NHS Patient Register in October 2016. Children and young people were eligible to take part if they were aged 2 to 19, lived in England, and were registered with a GP. Children, young people and their parents were interviewed face-to-face at home using a combination of Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) and Computer Assisted Self Interview (CASI), between January and October 2017. A short paper or online questionnaire was completed by a nominated teacher for children aged 5 to 16 years old. Data collection varied with the selected child’s age:
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Do Young People See Mental Health as Part of their Cultural Identity?

Do Young People See Mental Health as Part of their Cultural Identity?

in the rates of mental disorder across different ethnic groups. However, as there were only a small number of ethnic minority children and young people in the studies and the information gathered from non-English speaking informants was more limited than that obtained from English speaking informants, interpreting the results was difficult. With this caveat in mind, in the 2004 B-CAMHS survey the rates of disorder were found to vary by ethnic group – children and young people categorised as Indian had a rate of approximately 3%; children and young people in the Pakistani/Bangladeshi group a rate of just under 8%; children and young people in the black group a rate of around 9%; with the highest rate in the white group at approximately 10%. The low rate of problems in young people of Indian heritage has been replicated in a more recent study. 59
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Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017

Clinical raters undertook the enormous task of reviewing information on all the children and young people who took part. From the University of Exeter College of Medicine and Health these included Carmen Apostu, Pamela Bowman, Tamsin Newlove- Delgado, Oana Mitrofan and Eva Wooding. From Kings College London: Sophie Epstein, Andrew McWilliams, Helena Hamilton, Christine Kuhn. Thanks to Bruce Clark and the Body Dysmorphic Disorder team from South London and Maudsley Hospital for independently rating the BDD diagnoses.

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Adults Alcohol / Substance Misuse Children Families Health Learning Difficulties Mental Health Older People Physical Disabilities Senior Management Voluntary Sector Youth Justice

Adults Alcohol / Substance Misuse Children Families Health Learning Difficulties Mental Health Older People Physical Disabilities Senior Management Voluntary Sector Youth Justice

For some young people it could be a relief to have an explanation for feelings and behaviour that they find hard to make sense of, whereas for others it could exacerbate feelings of blame, guilt and self-loathing. The enduring social stigma of mental health problems, combined with institutionally racist practices, provides an overall context for these feelings to be repressed, displaced, or acted out.

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