The survey questionnaire was designed by Ipsos MORI in close consultation with the Scottish Government. Interviews were conducted by Ipsos MORI telephone interviewers, using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI), between 9 May and 2 June 2019. The interviews lasted an average of 6 and a half minutes. The survey questionnaire included questions on parents’ use of and views on out- of-schoolcare and their reasons for using/not using this type of care. As a short quantitative survey, the aim of the research was to provide top-level data rather than to explore the issues in any depth.
The childcare is responsibility of both parents. However, mothers and fathers participate in different way in the child care at home, at school and in out-of-school activities. A number of studies published in a book “Working Time, Labour Conditions and Demographic Behaviour” (2007) indicate some specifics for the family and gender behaviour in regard to child care. According to M. Nikolova, fathers spend 65 minutes per day on child care in the total balance of time for home activities, while mothers spend 115 minutes per day. This fact outlines that women are almost twice more engaged in child care. However, the survey does not specify whether this care concerns out-of school activities. Further the study underlines that 22.1% of working women aged 21-30 spend over 3 hours per day on child care, as well as 21.3% of working women aged 31-40 and 11.8% of women aged 41-50. 8 It is also interesting to point out that according to the same study, the higher the education of the mother is, the more the time spent on child care in institution is. This means that women with higher education are more reluctant to go back to work after the birth of the child in comparison with less educated mothers. In this respect, the active labour market policy has designed some policies, aiming at encouraging the labour market reintegration of less educated and qualified young mothers. National programme “Support of Maternity” is a successful active labour market policy aiming at mothers’ labour reintegration after birth. The programme encourages employment reintegration of young women and their professional career by ensuring child care for their children. The programme engages unemployed people with proper qualification to care for children, or early-retired people who would like to provide child care services. This might be a person close to the family – grandmother or other elderly woman (friend, relative, etc.), who is unemployed or pensioner. The programme
The FPH module for secondary school pupils comprised a combination of interviewer administered questions and a self-completion questionnaire . A self-completion questionnaire was used because the interview was con- ducted in the presence of a parent or guardian and it was thought that some questions could be sensitive, for ex- ample some parents may not be aware their child was purchasing food or drinks out of school. The FPH mod- ule was designed for this survey and pre-tested using cognitive interviewing techniques to ensure usability and correct interpretation of the questions. It included ques- tions about the pupil’s perceived opportunities to pur- chase food or drinks out of school, reported purchasing of food or drinks out of school, a description of the places food or drinks were purchased from and the reasons for choosing to purchase food or drink out of school. The majority of the questions were closed answer lists, which were developed using a combination of expert knowledge and feedback from the pilot interviews. Free text space was included for pupils to add an option not listed. When answering the questions pupils were asked to con- sider their purchasing habits in “a usual school week”. Purchases only included items bought by the pupil for themselves, and not items bought for them by other people.
Abstract. Parental demand for academic performance is a key element in the view that strengthening school choice will drive up school performance. In this paper we analyse what parents look for in choosing schools. We assemble a unique dataset combining survey information on parents choices plus a rich set of socio-economic characteristics; administrative data on school charac- teristics, admissions criteria and allocation rules; and spatial data attached to a pupil census to define the de facto set of schools available to each family in the survey. To achieve identification, we focus on cities where the school place allocation system is truth-revealing (equal preferences). We take great care in trying to capture the set of schools that each family could realistically choose from. We also look at a large subset of parents who continued living in the same house as before the child was born, to avoid endogenous house/school moves. We then model the choices made in terms of the characteristics of schools and families and the distances involved. School characteristics in- clude measures of academic performance, school socio-economic and ethnic composition, and its faith school status. Initial results showed strong dif- ferences in the set of choices available to parents in different socio-economic positions. Our central analysis uses multinomial logistic regression to show that families do indeed value academic performance in schools. They also value school composition preferring schools with low fractions of children from poor families. We compute trade-offs between these characteristics as well as between these and distance travelled. We are able to compare these trade-offs for different families. Our results suggest that preferences do not vary greatly between different socio-economic groups once constraints are fully accounted for.
This starting sample included records for some individuals who did not actually have EHC plans. This was because some education providers had misunderstood how pupils with SEN should be recorded in the school census following changes to support for them set out in the Children and Families Act 2014. New SEN data categories were introduced to the school census: ‘SEN Support’ and ‘EHC plan’. Children with SEN whose needs were being met without a SEN Statement (i.e. those receiving School Action and School Action Plus) were to be re-classified into the new ‘SEN Support’ category. Those pupils with SEN Statements were to be re-classified to the ‘EHC plan’ category, after they had transferred from a SEN Statement to an EHC plan (following an EHC needs
The second identification challenge also relies on the definition of the FCS of schools for each household: determining how the school nominated by the family relates to their true preferences as a function of the allocation mechanism. Parents’ nominations are likely to be affected by the admission criteria (or the mechanism design) used by the LA. This issue is informed by the mechanism design literature that has analysed agents’ optimal responses to assignment mechanisms (Abdulkadiro glu and S€ onmez, 2003; Abdulkadiro glu et al., 2009). We believe that the school choices we observe are likely to reflect true preferences for school attributes, as at the relevant date for our survey about two thirds of LAs in England used a mechanism likely to elicit truthful preferences among schools that have a high probability of admission (Coldron et al., 2008). To explore the validity of this assumption, one of the robustness checks restricts the sample to those areas where the allocation mechanism is truth revealing. To address our first and second questions on parents’ preferences for school attributes and the variation in observed preferences between socio-economic groups, we run a conditional logit model on households’ top school choice. We show that families care about three main school attributes: the academic quality of the school, its socio-economic composition and the home–school distance. The majority of house- holds prefer schools with higher academic standards. On average, families prefer schools with fewer children living in low-income households. Almost all households have strong preferences for proximity. Preferences appear to be heterogeneous across socio-economic (SES) groups: those in the lowest SES group in particular have distinct preferences, with negative demand responses to increases in academic quality and
The Government’s vision is to ensure that every child gets the best start in life, and to give parents more choice about how to balance work and family life. By 2010, all 3 and 4 year olds will be entitled to 15 hours a week of free high quality care, for 38 weeks a year and there will be an out of school childcare place available for all children aged 3- 14 from the hours of 8am-6pm every weekday. This will be accompanied by a package of measures to help address the issue of affordability of childcare, including increases in the childcare costs that can be claimed through Working Tax Credit and measures to help parents balance work and family life, including the extension of paid maternity leave.
1, the parents of children with known anaphylaxis and prescribed the EpiPen identified from clinical records (at Hamad General Hospital, the only tertiary health- care centre in Qatar) were contacted. Parents were asked to supply the name and contact details of their child’s school. In phase 2, we contacted the schools to identify personnel who were likely to deal with a child’s health problems (nurse, teacher or school principal). We started collecting data from February 2016 to June 2016. Contact was attempted three times, and if no response was obtained, we deemed the participant to be a non-re- sponder.
Our study is the first to explore the state of anaphy- laxis management in Lebanese schools and day cares. Despite the small sample size, we were able to target all the RNs working in schools and day cares. However, there are several limitations to be noted, most impor- tantly in Lebanon, many daycares and schools, espe- cially the public governmental ones, do not have an RN on site. Even our non-responders were employed at private schools or day cares according to the ONL registry. Hence, little is known about the management of anaphylaxis in these schools and future studies need to target that by gathering information from teachers, school administrations, students and parents. For these situations, the literature suggests providing comprehen- sive training sessions to non-health care personnel. 28
4.14 Along with those identified above as playing a role in identifying families with parenting issues, once a child comes into the school system professionals such as teachers, education support workers and classroom assistants are added to this list. There are also Education Home Visiting teams who, technically, can be called in for consultation from birth if organically based developmental issues are identified. In addition, there are Community Skills Workers in at least one third of local authority areas who are well positioned to pick up issues around older children. For the first time, and providing a child attends school regularly, it will be possible for individuals responsible for a child’s care to observe indicators related to possible parenting issues such as changes in behaviour. As can be seen in Annex 8, along with the services already available to younger children programmes such as ‘Managing Children’s Behaviour’ now become available. For older children, there is also a ‘Managing Teenage Behaviour’ programme, as well as more focused interventions such as ‘Baby Think It Over’ 4 , although funding for the later has been mentioned as a particular issue.
However there were also many comments about the vulnerability of young people when they returned home or left care for some kind of ‘aftercare’ accommodation. Several interviewees said that the age of 16 was too young to be leaving care and that improvements in aftercare were vital. It is worth noting here that leaving care at 16 is not suggested or endorsed in any legislation or policy guidance but nevertheless it is well-recognised within the sector that that there is an expectation, shared by staff and children alike, that young people will be in the process of leaving when they turn 16. For those working in residential schools this is also very much a fact of life which seems closely connected to the funding of placements, rather than proper care- planning, and the apparent refusal of Education Departments in local authorities (who share the costs of most residential school placements) to fund such education after the young person reaches the school leaving age. Such an approach to care-planning flies in the face of the recent policy developments requiring education and social work officials to work more collaboratively and the specific emphasis on improving the educational attainments of looked after and accommodated young people.
Summing up the views of those who said that the best thing was knowing their child was well cared for was the parent who wrote: ‘for me, nothing, but for Jesse… he’s happy’. Many wrote to us about how they were able to cope better themselves, and with their other children, once their child had gone into care. Examples were: ‘I don’t get the abuse my son gives to others and my daughter is safe’; ‘I feel safe in my home’; ‘the responsibility was taken from me so I could hold down my job and keep a house going and look after my other child properly’; ‘it gives myself time to sort out my own problems and turn my life around’; ‘going to bed instead of wondering what’s happening at 3am to a 13-year-old girl’.
These are just two among many important findings in All Work and No Play? Listening to What Kids and Parents Really Want from Out-of-School Time, a joint project of The Wallace Foundation and Public Agenda that explores how young people spend time when they’re not in school and what youngsters and their parents want from out-of-school-time activities. The study is based primarily on two national random sample surveys conducted in June 2004, one with 609 middle and high school students and another with 1,003 parents of school-age children. One refreshing feature of All Work and No Play? is its exami- nation of the views of students and parents—two important constituencies rarely heard from in the policy debate surrounding out-of-school time. What are the people who actually use out- of-school activities and programs really looking for? Just how much do parents and students rely on out-of-school-time opportunities to enhance academic learning? To what extent are they looking for socialization, playtime or merely a place with adult supervision? Since participation is purely by choice, knowing what drives these consumers is essential for implementing effective policies or creating constructive programs. The study also provides a wealth of information about the very real challenges faced by low-income and minority families when it comes to finding productive things for their children to do when they aren’t in school. Viewing the data through the lenses of income and race reveals a story of the haves vs. the have-nots—a story of too many families under real pressure and not getting the kinds of out-of-school opportunities that could genuinely help their children thrive. Whether or not parents or students are generally happy with their options is strongly influenced by these demographic characteristics. The primary goal of this research is to provide reliable data on what America’s parents and young people want for kids during their out-of-school time and their experiences with it. In effect, we hope to add the public’s voice to a debate seem- ingly dominated by advocates with their own agendas. What follows are the highlights of the findings.
Abstract: The process of aging is caused by the early development of chronic complications and diversity of morphological and functional changes of organs and systems. Therefore the provision of preventive and curative care of this category of citizens has significant clinical and organizational features. Aim — To identify the main problems of medical care for the elderly and to examine the medical care. Material and Methods — 250 physicians of various specialties of medical institutions of the Saratov region on health care of the elderly in out-patient clinics have been surveyed by specially designed questionnaires. The state of receiving care in out-patient clinics has been studied among the elderly and the senile patients (n=568) by questioning.
Interagency partnership and collaboration is also important to foster support for programs, providers, children with disabilities, and their families. Several families, who responded to this survey as well as the survey in 2004, stated that they were using DDA Family Support Service funding or Autism Medicaid Waiver funding to provide additional personnel support for their child so he or she could benefit from participating in a community-based child or after-schoolcare program. With many child-serving agencies in Maryland, it was previously recommended that a workgroup be established to identify and implement
n order for the operation of the educational institution to be as efficient, there must be a more constructive collaboration among the key stakeholders participating in the process, the main actors in this process are the schools, students, parents, community and educational departments because these actors directly and indirectly benefit and have an impact on the school, these stakeholders establish partnerships with each other and sound as these partnerships to be so even more positive results are obtained.
This study was novel both internationally and in Australia specifically, given the lack of knowledge about screen behaviours in after-schoolcare inter- nationally, and lack of up-to-date evidence for either physical activity or screen behaviours in Australian OSHC. The current study used a standardised direct observation methodology to measure physical activity and screen time, which is considered gold standard, and allows contextual information to be captured which is not possible with other measurement methods such as accelerometry. A large number of children participated (n = 1068), and the participation rate achieved for children was excellent (100%), redu- cing the possibility of selection bias. The OSHC ser- vice participation rate of 23/53 (43%) is comparable to previous school-based research . A limitation of the study was that it was only conducted in a single city, thus it is unclear whether results are generalis- able to rural areas and other cities. In each OSHC service, data were collected for a single after-school session. Whilst services were encouraged to continue with their normal programming, it is possible that they may have modified their activities due to aware- ness that they were being observed. In the director ’ s survey, directors sometimes reported on their staff ’s participation in physical activity-related training in- curred in roles independent of their employment as OSHC staff, and it is not possible to confirm whether this training indeed took place. OSHC visits only oc- curred on days when rain was not forecast, thus find- ings are not generalisable to rainy days. For the exploratory analyses examining possible predictors of MVPA and screen time, the OSHC service was the unit of analysis ( n = 23), and thus these analyses had limited statistical power. While we increased the alpha to 0.10 in an attempt to compensate for this, there is still a risk of type 2 errors (i.e. failure to de- tect relationships that truly exist).
162. A number of comments have been received on this issue, in response to the consultation exercises that have been undertaken, many of which were opposed to the Commission being funded through fees. The policy position paper The Way Forward for Care acknowledged this opposition, but re-affirmed the Executive’s position. It did, however, indicate that there may be exceptions to this where full cost recovery through fees runs counter to other policy objectives. 163. Concern about funding the Commission through fees stems from the increase in existing fee levels that would be required. A survey of registration and inspection units, conducted early in 2000, confirmed that the cost of regulation currently far outstrips fee income. In 1998-99 only around 17% of the cost of regulating residential care for adults and early education and day care for children in Scotland was met from fees. For that reason it is proposed that, as originally suggested in Aiming for Excellence, funding for the Commission in 2002-03 and 2003-04 should be a mixture of central funding and fee income.
Based on a sound analysis of the scientific literature, we recognize other factors that play an indisputable role in empowering the family-school relationship. One of them, according to Raffaelle, L. & Knoff, M. (1999), is the organization and system that requires, among other things, family and school cooperation. These authors argue that the effectiveness of such cooperation should be based mainly on prevention rather than on reaction. That is, educators in the pedagogical process should refer to all families and not only to those whose children are facing school or learning difficulties. This means that the school should acknowledge and value the important contribution of parents, regardless of their educational or/and socio- economic background. Moreover, and according to Comer (2005), children need emotional support in order to learn. This support seems to develop efficiently when the family and school educators work together for the benefit of children. In addition, Bali, Demo & Wedman (1998), and Griffith (1996) emphasize the improvement of children's behavior, as well as parental and pedagogical relationships, which arise because of parental participation in developing school curricula. In other research, such as that of Epstein (2001), the importance of parents' participation in the education of their children from preschool to adolescence, as well as its relationship to the positive socio-emotional development of the children is documented, while also highlighting the positive impact on their school performance. Conclusively, research recognizes the beneficial role of an enhanced family–school relationship for the school community and, more importantly, for the students.
disconnected. A summary of the complete responses to the survey questions (n = 440) is provided in Table 2, including questions relating to satisfaction with aspects of the program, student concerns, parental preference for school vaccination program services, and the parents’ ability to find their child’s previous MMR vaccination record. Figure 2 provides an overview of parent responses by LHD, with response rates ranging from <1% to 21% across different districts; 59% of the total number of responses came from three LHDs. A quarter of the responses (24%) came from parents in LHDs where, according to the ACIR, routine childhood immunisation coverage rates appear to be lower than other areas of NSW (Nepean Blue Mountains, Mid North Coast, Northern NSW and Northern Sydney). 4