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School meals and nutritional standards (England)

School meals and nutritional standards (England)

If the government continued to offer free school meals to all children whose families claim universal credit, around two million children from poor and low-income families in England would benefit once roll out is completed. Under the benefits system that universal credit is replacing, only families where parents are working too few hours to claim working tax credits are entitled to free school meals. The government proposals will mean that just 700,000 of the 1,700,000 school children in poverty who could be helped, will receive free school meals. 19
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School meals and nutritional standards (England)

School meals and nutritional standards (England)

Nutritional standards for school dinners were first established in the 1940s in England but were abolished in 1980. Subsequently, the School Standards and Framework Act 1998 gave the Secretary of State the power to make regulations prescribing nutritional standards and other nutritional requirements for school meals. It also placed a duty on LEAs and the governing bodies of schools maintained by LEAs, when they provide lunches, to provide them for registered pupils in line with the standards. In April 2001, statutory nutritional standards for school lunches were reintroduced by the Education (Nutritional Standards for School Lunches) Regulations 2000 (since superseded).
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School meals and nutritional standards (England): Briefing Paper: Number 04195: 4 November 2016

School meals and nutritional standards (England): Briefing Paper: Number 04195: 4 November 2016

Nutritional standards for school dinners were first established in the 1940s in England but were abolished in 1980. Subsequently, the School Standards and Framework Act 1998 gave the Secretary of State the power to make regulations prescribing nutritional standards and other nutritional requirements for school meals. It also placed a duty on LEAs and the governing bodies of schools maintained by LEAs, when they provide lunches, to provide them for registered pupils in line with the standards. In April 2001, statutory nutritional standards for school lunches were reintroduced by the Education (Nutritional Standards for School Lunches) Regulations 2000 (since superseded).
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School meals and nutritional standards

School meals and nutritional standards

Nutritional standards for school dinners were first established in the 1940s in England but abolished in 1980. Subsequently, the School Standards and Framework Act 1998 gave the Secretary of State the power to make regulations prescribing nutritional standards and other nutritional requirements for school meals. It also placed a duty on LEAs and the governing bodies of schools maintained by LEAs when they provide lunches to provide them for registered pupils in line with the standards. In April 2001, statutory nutritional standards for school lunches were reintroduced by the Education (Nutritional Standards for School Lunches) Regulations 2000 (since superseded).
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School meals and nutritional standards

School meals and nutritional standards

Nutritional standards for school dinners were first established in the 1940s in England but were abolished in 1980. Subsequently, the School Standards and Framework Act 1998 gave the Secretary of State the power to make regulations prescribing nutritional standards and other nutritional requirements for school meals. It also placed a duty on LEAs and the governing bodies of schools maintained by LEAs, when they provide lunches, to provide them for registered pupils in line with the standards. In April 2001, statutory nutritional standards for school lunches were reintroduced by the Education (Nutritional Standards for School Lunches) Regulations 2000 (since superseded).
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House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 04195, 7 December 2018 : School meals and nutritional standards (England)

House of Commons Library : Briefing paper : Number 04195, 7 December 2018 : School meals and nutritional standards (England)

If the government continued to offer free school meals to all children whose families claim universal credit, around two million children from poor and low-income families in England would benefit once roll out is completed. Under the benefits system that universal credit is replacing, only families where parents are working too few hours to claim working tax credits are entitled to free school meals. The government proposals will mean that just 700,000 of the 1,700,000 school children in poverty who could be helped, will receive free school meals. 19
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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 04195, 21 November 2017: School meals and nutritional standards (England)

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 04195, 21 November 2017: School meals and nutritional standards (England)

Research carried out in 2004 by the then Department for Education and Skills (DfES) and the Food Standards Agency showed that while schools and caterers responded positively to the standards, in practice, children and young people continued to make unhealthy choices. Statistics from the Annual Health Survey for England 2004 showed that the levels of obesity for children had risen over the previous 10 years. Ongoing concerns led to the publication in 2004 of the DfES’s guidance, Healthy Living Blueprint for Schools , and the Government’s white paper,

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 04195, 8 November 2018: School meals and nutritional standards (England)

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 04195, 8 November 2018: School meals and nutritional standards (England)

Research carried out in 2004 by the then Department for Education and Skills (DfES) and the Food Standards Agency showed that while schools and caterers responded positively to the standards, in practice, children and young people continued to make unhealthy choices. Statistics from the Annual Health Survey for England 2004 showed that the levels of obesity for children had risen over the previous 10 years. Ongoing concerns led to the publication in 2004 of the DfES’s guidance, Healthy Living Blueprint for Schools , and the Government’s white paper,

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 04195, 8 February 2018: School meals and nutritional standards (England)

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 04195, 8 February 2018: School meals and nutritional standards (England)

Research carried out in 2004 by the then Department for Education and Skills (DfES) and the Food Standards Agency showed that while schools and caterers responded positively to the standards, in practice, children and young people continued to make unhealthy choices. Statistics from the Annual Health Survey for England 2004 showed that the levels of obesity for children had risen over the previous 10 years. Ongoing concerns led to the publication in 2004 of the DfES’s guidance, Healthy Living Blueprint for Schools , and the Government’s white paper,

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House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 04195, 5 April 2018: Schools meals and nutritional standards (England)

House of Commons Library: Briefing paper: Number 04195, 5 April 2018: Schools meals and nutritional standards (England)

We will introduce an annual net earnings threshold of £7,400, which will typically equate to an overall household income of between £18,000 and £24,000 once benefits income is taken into account, depending on individual circumstances. Eligibility will be verified by using an equivalent monthly check verified from the household’s most recent Universal Credit assessment periods. Our threshold is comparable with that introduced by the Scottish government for free school meals eligibility, and we consider it fair and appropriately targeted.

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School Meals in Secondary Schools in England

School Meals in Secondary Schools in England

Food groups for inventory and tray check analysis were based on a combination of nutrient databank food group allocations (e.g. “white bread”, “egg dishes”, “sausages”, “peas”) and inventory food group descriptions (“main meals”, “salads”, “jacket fillings”, “bread (unfilled)”, “dessert”). Using the two sets of groupings together facilitated distinction between, for example, bread offered on its own and a burger bun accompanying a beefburger offered as a main meal. This helped to avoid double counting when describing the options offered and the types of meals consumed. The crosstabulation of the two sets of groups yielded 116 easily identified groups of food and drink. These were aggregated into 17 groups, which highlighted the key groups (e.g. chips and potatoes cooked in oil, baked beans, low fat or high fat main dishes (see section 6.1) likely to make up the bulk of children’s choices at lunchtime, and facilitated a presentation of food group profiles that linked to the nutritional standards and the CWT guidelines.
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Promoting good nutrition through healthy school meals

Promoting good nutrition through healthy school meals

2.13 One of the functions of Nutritional Standards Coordinators has been to facilitate the training of school catering staff. Training is essential to ensure that catering staff have the necessary skills and knowledge to confidently produce healthy school meals and influence the approaches to healthy eating throughout the schools. We found that the nutritional standards training programme has been implemented at a varying pace across the five Boards and the findings of the Nutritional Associates suggest that there are still some staff with an inadequate understanding of the nutritional standards. Although all school Catering Supervisors and Cooks have been trained, the inspections carried out by the Nutritional Associates (paragraph 2.1) have consistently drawn attention to the menu planning difficulties experienced by some school Catering Supervisors. The Nutritional Associates have identified some uncertainty among Catering Supervisors as to which foods can be served together, for example, deep-fried foods or other high fat foods being served too frequently; lower fat desserts not always being available on days when high fat foods are served; and keeping the use of high fat or sugar toppings to a minimum.
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Nutritional value of school meals and their contributions to energy and nutrient intakes of rural school children in Enugu and Anambra States, Nigeria

Nutritional value of school meals and their contributions to energy and nutrient intakes of rural school children in Enugu and Anambra States, Nigeria

School meals should provide at least one third (an equivalent of 33.3%) of the daily recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for energy, protein and other nutrients [27]. The foods consumed by school children in these schools provided more than one third of the RNI for protein, zinc, vitamins A and C but failed to meet a third of the RNI for calcium, iron and energy. These findings are in agreement with the outcome of other researches. Nelson et al. [28] showed that 4 – 18-year-old pupils in England who received free school meals derived a sig- nificantly greater proportion of their daily energy and nutrient intakes from their school meals than those who did not have a free school meal. School canteen lunches provided the most nutritious lunch for Scottish school children, with street lunches providing the least nutritious lunch [29]. A study by Owusu et al. [30] in Ghana also showed that the meals provided by Non-Governmental School Feeding Programme (NSFP) had larger portion sizes and contributed 28 and 24.6% to energy and protein intakes of the children, respectively. Other researchers [31 – 33] have reported similar findings.
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Improving the take up of free school meals

Improving the take up of free school meals

This short exploratory study reveals substantial evidence of parents and pupils not taking up their entitlement to free school meals. Schools often fail to tackle the problem of poor take up in the mistaken belief that low take up reflects parents reticence to apply because of pride and concerns about stigma. Whilst this may be true for some parents who fear that their child will be marked out as different at school, for many the overwhelming reasons relate to the quality of the meal offered and a lack of information about how the free meals system works. The study has highlighted the diversity of meal provision, whether free or paid, which is currently on offer to pupils. The evidence within this report raises questions of how compulsory nutritional standards for school meals will impact on the school cafeteria, and more importantly, on pupils. In addition to the introduction of the new standards, there is a recommendation that a two course meal should be available for pupils on free school meals. If school meals are to play a role in promoting good health and addressing social disadvantage, then perhaps now is the time for substantive study, in terms of scale and scope, to identify successful strategies and models of good practice for the take up of healthy balanced meals by all school pupils.
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A nutritional survey of Sheffield school meals

A nutritional survey of Sheffield school meals

school boards were set up. The boards were given the power, if they chose to use it, to compel attendance at school by making byelaws to that effect. By 1876, 50% of the popu­ lation were under such compulsion although this varied from area to area. The 2,568 school boards in England at this time were more or less compelled to provide meals in the poorer areas of the country, as otherwise the childrens* attendance at school would not have been possible due to their poor nutritional status. At this time, there was a scheme in progress called the *code of grants*: schools received their next quota of money based on the present educational achievements of the pupils. Many children were so badly fed that they arrived at school faint with hunger and this impaired their learning abilities. Thus,
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Implementing the free school meals pilot

Implementing the free school meals pilot

Schools adapted well to issues arising during early implementation, initial teething problems were addressed quickly and schools soon settled into efficient lunchtime routines. Where ongoing issues persisted beyond the early weeks of delivery, effective strategies involved using a ‘trial and error’ approach to testing out different systems for managing the lunch service. Gathering ideas for new practices from a diverse range of school staff was felt to support the most creative and appropriate strategies. The success of this approach was reflected in a range of innovative practices designed to improve the efficiency and management of lunch breaks. For example, catering staff described testing out menus and being attentive to what was popular and unpopular amongst pupils (whilst always adhering to nutritional standards) in a bid to ensure pupils chose their meal and ate it quickly. In a further example, a pre-ordering system introduced in several schools with the aim of more accurately predicting demand for each menu option was effective only where the process was adapted to prevent pupils from taking the wrong meal at the point of service.
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Nutritional quality and marketing strategies of fast food children’s combo meals in Guatemala

Nutritional quality and marketing strategies of fast food children’s combo meals in Guatemala

We found that nutrition information was not easily accessible and only available for two out of six fast food restaurants. Five out of 21 children’s combo meals (Table 2) had nutrition information and all were classified as “less healthy” according to the NPM. Regarding the National School Lunch and Breakfast Program and the Model Ordinance for Toy Giveaways at Restaurants (Table 3), combo meals had more sodium, calories from fat, and saturated fat than either of the nutrition standards (not statistically sig- nificant). Moreover our results were similar to those of a study from the United States with a similar de- sign (Table 3). Three of the children ’ s lunch combo
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School meals and educational outcomes in rural Ethiopia

School meals and educational outcomes in rural Ethiopia

Two main results stand out: first, most of the implementation characteristics do not appear to matter much. This is mainly because the links found being not strong and systematic enough to yield coherent patterns across the different learning outcomes considered, rather than due to having no link whatsoever. On the other hand, two programme characteristics stand out. Take-home rations and serving food early in the morning are found to be important and show the most systematic patterns across all the estimates. Supplementing on-site meals with take-home rations is found to be positively associated with concentration, reading, writing and arithmetic skills. The results obtained also given some evidence that take-home rations benefit not only girls targeted by the programme, but also all children in beneficiary households. This may be due to the value transfer to members of benefiting households, which is likely to improve children’s nutritional status and school attendance. This finding is in line with Kazianga et al. (2014) and Fafchamps et al. (2008).
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Is Frequency of Shared Family Meals Related to the Nutritional Health of Children and Adolescents?

Is Frequency of Shared Family Meals Related to the Nutritional Health of Children and Adolescents?

suggests that children and adoles- cents in families that share at least 3 family meals per week have a 20% re- duction in the odds of eating unhealthy foods than those in families that have fewer than 3 shared family meals to- gether. The fail-safe N revealed that there would have to be 74 studies lo- cated for the results to be nullified. Be- cause there was a significant Q value for heterogeneity, we tested age as a potential moderator. There were 2 studies that examined younger children (primary school– and junior high– aged) 5,18 and 4 that examined older

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Healthy school meals and educational outcomes

Healthy school meals and educational outcomes

The last exercise we propose is a back-of-the-envelope costs and benefits analysis. Note that since we do not have detailed informa- tion about health outcomes, our estimates probably provide also a lower bound on the overall benefits of the program. As indicated by the relative fall in absenteeism, it is likely that children’s health improved as well, which could also have long-lasting consequences for the children involved not only through improved educational achievements but also in terms of their life expectancy, quality of life, and productive capacity on the labour market. We can only provide an estimate of the long-term benefits accrued through bet- ter learning and better educational achievements. The effects we have identified are comparable in magnitude to those estimates by Machin and Mcnally (2008) for the “Literacy Hour”. The “Liter- acy Hour” was a reform implemented in the nineties in the UK to raise standards of literacy in schools by improving the quality of teaching through more focused literacy instruction and effective classroom management. They found that the reform increased the proportion of pupils reaching level 4 or more in reading increased by 3.2 percentage points, an effect very similar to the effect we have estimated.
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