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Schools, Education and Social Exclusion

Schools, Education and Social Exclusion

Research suggests that the development of a quasi-market in education has created a powerful set of institutional processes and incentives which work against the goal of an inclusive education system. Key aspects of the reform include the right of parents to express a preference for a school of their choice. In the education quasi-market place, school funding is largely determined by the schools ability to attract pupils, and schools compete with one another for pupils on the basis of published performance indicators (league tables). Research (West et al., 1994) has shown that many parents find the league tables difficult to understand. Such difficulties are concentrated among parents with lower levels of educational attainment. Where the mother was educated to GCE A level, 67 per cent of respondents reported that they understood the league tables; this compared with 31 per cent of respondents where mothers had GCE O level or below. This has significant implications for the equity of informed choice. Research (Noden et al., 1998) on patterns of parental choice at the secondary transfer stage in London found that middle class parents’ first choice schools scored more highly in the DfEE’s performance tables. Middle class parents identified first choice schools averaging 53 per cent five or more A* – C at GCSE, whilst working class parents chose schools averaging 40 per cent. The realisation of choice is also differentiated by family socio-economic status. Fitz, Halpin and Power’s (1993) study of two LEAs found that households in which the father was not in paid employment were the least likely to gain access to their preferred school choice. In contrast those in professional occupations were the most successful.
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Personal, social, health and economic education in schools (England)

Personal, social, health and economic education in schools (England)

Measures to legislate for these proposals were included in the Children, Schools and Families Bill before Parliament shortly before the 2010 General Election. For background see Library research paper 09/95 on the Children, Schools and Families Bill, Session 2009-10 (pages 23-27). Many of the Bill’s provisions, including the introduction of compulsory PSHE education and the provision that all children receive at least one year of sex and relationship education were removed during the consideration of Lords Amendments on 8 April 2010 immediately before the dissolution of Parliament for the General Election. The provisions in the Bill that did survive are now contained in the Children, Schools and Families Act 2010.
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Special needs education   awareness and perspectives in the community and schools

Special needs education awareness and perspectives in the community and schools

According to UNICEF’s Report on the Status of Disability in India 2000, there were around 30 million children suffering from some form of disability. The Sixth All-India Educational Survey by NCERT, 1998 reports that of India’s 200 million school-aged children (6–14 years), 20 million require special needs education. The 2011 Census of India reveals that 92 percent of the nearly 25 crore households in the country had no people with disabilities. Over 2 crore households had one or more people with disabilities. Shockingly, almost 71 percent of these households were in rural areas while the remaining households were in urban areas. Further, 2011 Census reveals that among the five types of disabilities in India on which data has been collected, disability in seeing (48.5 percent) is the highest, followed by disability in movement (27.9%), Mental (10.3%), Speech disability (7.5%), and Hearing disability (5.8%). The India's Disability Act of 1995 provides facilities for both children and adults with disabilities. Under this Act, children with disabilities have the right to free education until they reach the age of 18 in schools that are integrated or in ‘special’ schools. Presently, there are 4 national laws in India that pertain to people with disabilities. These are –
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Confessional christian schools and education in Brazil

Confessional christian schools and education in Brazil

Socratic philosophy the act of teaching becomes the task of the "friends of wisdom" (philosophers). Several centuries have passed until, in middle age, or Scholastic, the production of knowledge and training of clergy, besides the aristocracy, had become responsibility of the monastic and convent schools directly linked to the Catholic Church. In the 16th century, the social changes triggered transformations of scientific, cultural, political, economic, etc., caused crises in various institutional segments, finished in major reforms as the Protestant and the Catholic Counter-Reformation. The changes that passed European society and the Renaissance spirit of blossoming together with the colonizing process of Spain and Portugal, finished promoting advances in popularization of knowledge. In colonial Brazil, the Society's of Jesus priests (Jesuits) have begun to establish educational institutions and from the mid-18th century come new congregations and Catholic religious orders, and several Protestant denominations that come to weave the confessional education Brazilian lands. Keywords— Reform; Counter-Reformation; Christian Education; Curriculum Jesuit; Protestants Schools.
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Special education as social control : the historical development of industrial schools and special classes : a thesis submitted to the Education Department, Massey Univeristy [i e  University] in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of M

Special education as social control : the historical development of industrial schools and special classes : a thesis submitted to the Education Department, Massey Univeristy [i e University] in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts

Special Education as Social Control: The historical development of industrial schools and special classes ... A thesis submitted to the Education Department Massey univeristy in partial [r]

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Personal, social, health and economic education in schools (England)

Personal, social, health and economic education in schools (England)

Private Members’ Bills have been tabled during both the 2010 and 2015 Parliaments to introduce compulsory SRE (sometimes within proposed statutory PSHE), and Labour and Green Party MPs tabled amendments with this aim during the passage of the Children and Families Act 2014 . The previous Labour Government had proposed legislation prior to the 2010 General Election to ensure that all children receive at least one year of sex and relationship education, but the relevant measures did not pass (see section 3.1 of this briefing for more information). There have also been calls from across parties for the Government’s SRE guidance, which has been in place since 2000, to be updated to better equip teachers in the world transformed by the internet. The Coalition Government argued that supplementary advice for schools published by the PSHE Association, the Sex Education Forum and Brook, “Sex and relationships education (SRE) for the 21st century”, performed this function. 15
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Personal, social, health and economic education
in schools (England)

Personal, social, health and economic education in schools (England)

Alongside questions about sex and relationship education, the call for evidence asked for views on the most important topics under the umbrella of PSHE for teaching at primary and secondary level, and also what level of flexibility should be given to schools in teaching PSHE. A separate call for evidence published simultaneously asked young people about what teaching in PSHE they had found most useful, and which subjects not covered they would like to have been taught about. The call for evidence was open until February 2018.

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Personal, social, health and economic education in schools (England)

Personal, social, health and economic education in schools (England)

Measures to legislate for these proposals were included in the Children, Schools and Families Bill before Parliament shortly before the 2010 General Election. For background see Library research paper 09/95 on the Children, Schools and Families Bill, Session 2009-10 (pages 23-27). Many of the Bill’s provisions, including the introduction of compulsory PSHE education and the provision that all children receive at least one year of sex and relationship education were removed during the consideration of Lords Amendments on 8 April 2010 immediately before the dissolution of Parliament for the General Election. The provisions in the Bill that did survive are now contained in the Children, Schools and Families Act 2010.
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Social innovation in education: BRAC boat schools in Bangladesh

Social innovation in education: BRAC boat schools in Bangladesh

It seems unacceptable that children cannot access their educational rights due to some unprecedented factors mentioned in education. The logic of emergence for launching “Shikkha Tari” is thus considered to be a vigorous social innovation for mitigating the so- cial issues confronted by locality. Certainly, BRAC boat schools target an impoverished area to ease the access of education for unprivileged children that can ameliorate the so- cioeconomic status of victims (Nussbaumer and Moulaert 2004). The schools are operat- ing under the BRAC education program and are initiated by the already established NGO. Therefore, acting as an agent of gearing social innovation, BRAC institutionalizes the idea of a boat school in a short span of time to implement it in a real context (Mulgan et al. 2007). BRAC has been operating in Bangladesh since 1971 and it has already gained pro- fusion of public esteem all over Bangladesh for its wide spread services target to people laying at the bottom of the pyramid in the society. It creates acceptance in the perception of people to catalyze the educational paradigm change in based society. A unique delivery system of education along with different school structure is portrayed in BRAC boat schools that are well adapted to the changing circumstances in filling the basic demand of a distress community. Thus, BRAC boat schools are arguably a vehicle of social mechan- ism of change (Heiskala and Hämäläinen 2007).
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IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON SOCIAL SCIENCES EDUCATION IN  SECONDARY SCHOOLS

IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON SOCIAL SCIENCES EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Education is fundamental issue for development. It is an integrated part of modernization process. Modern knowledge is articulated with the idea of global education. Globalization has definitely influenced on education system in different countries. It is also a key instrument of development. To achieve the target of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) it is obviously important that right to education should be ensured from the secondary level of every country .The globalization process has greatly influenced on the educational system, which is largely considered as an outcome of modernization process. The study investigated globalization and its influence on social sciences education in secondary schools in Rangareddy district in Telangana state. The study determined how globalization influences social sciences contents, teaching methods and instructional materials/resources. The research questions were to what extent does globalization influences social sciences contents, teaching methods and instructional materials/resources. Descriptive survey design was employed in which five secondary schools were chosen and ten students were randomly selected from each of the schools making a total of fifty students. A 21-item studied questionnaire comprising of the following sub-sections: social sciences contents, social sciences teaching methods and social sciences instructional materials/resources were used to collect the needed data for the study. The collected data were analysed using chi-square analysis.
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Problems and challenges of implementation of physical education in schools in west bengal

Problems and challenges of implementation of physical education in schools in west bengal

 95-99% of the physical education teachers (PET) of the schools, worked during the period 1974-1995, were happy for receiving equal status to physical education like other school subjects. They feel very positive in getting equal salary like other subject-teacher, but they deny about their inefficiency and spend very little time for implementing physical education programmes. They also questioned about the behaviour of the Heads of the schools and expressed that the heads treat them rudely like a step son in comparison with other subject-teacher. Considering the behaviours of head of the institution, the teachers of other subjects also behaves likewise and a sense of isolation is evident. They agreed that many of them possess hefty body. However, they experienced that the Heads orders to give good marks to the talented students in the final examination of the subject of physical education, even though they never attended physical education classes throughout the year. The PETs also reported that the Head’s disrespectful attitude debarred them to conduct physical education classes rather he engages the PETs to take classes of other theory subject. Although physical education (PE) periods are mentioned in the time table, but during this PE class the PET are assigned for teaching other theory subjects so that PE classes are not commenced. The PETs also opine that almost all the heads are responsible for the down fall of physical education in the state. It seems both the PETs and Heads of the secondary schools were responsible for down fall of physical education in West Bengal.
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Mental Health and Social Exclusion

Mental Health and Social Exclusion

Gateshead Council, in partnership with South of the Tyne and Wearside Mental Health Trust and the voluntary sector, is currently modernising its day services for people with mental health problems. The focus of the modernisation programme is to facilitate recovery and social inclusion and enable people with mental health problems and their carers to engage in meaningful, integrated, community activities and lead ordinary lives. Support will be provided for opportunities related to employment and meaningful occupation, education and social and leisure activities, based upon individual aspiration and taking account of different religious, spiritual and cultural needs. The Council will continue to provide a traditional day service on a limited basis for current users who will also be offered the opportunity to engage in more mainstream integrated opportunities. The modernisation and reprovision programme will also allow for the further development of a Crisis Response and Acute Day Treatment service and for investment in user-led and carers services, in accordance with emerging priorities. Day services, Redcar and Cleveland Mind
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Transport, social exclusion and the internet: Could virtual mobility help to alleviate social exclusion?

Transport, social exclusion and the internet: Could virtual mobility help to alleviate social exclusion?

Examples of virtual mobility include: working from outside of the office (teleworking); looking for and applying for jobs online; conducting business online; creating new and maintaining old social networks online, in virtual communities and networked communities, via email and personal web pages; accessing medical information and advice; formal and informal education; online banking; and shopping for goods (teleshopping). Through virtual mobility, it is possible to access information about almost anything, without travelling to or needing the skills and confidence to use a library. It is possible to communicate with and attempt to influence people in power, from central and local government to pressure groups or your social worker, through email, as an individual or a group and through knowledge and support gained online. One can access alternative forms of credit, for example, local exchange and trading schemes (LETS) and credit unions; make new friends and keep in touch with old ones; and ‘double count time’, allowing more activities to be conducted in the day, through the elimination of travel time and the ability to conduct more than one activity at once – for example, shopping online whilst supervising a child’s play.
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Vol 19, No 6 (2020)

Vol 19, No 6 (2020)

According to Bourdieu (Haralambos et al., 2014), the affluent groups effectively oppress their less privileged peers by dictating their understanding of the world as final and inarguable, and, therefore, arrogantly imposing penalties on less privileged groups for not deferring (whether willfully or by default) to their self- proclaimed preconception of the world (Haralambos & Holborn, 2008). As noted above, besides securing middle-class cultural continuity, the function of education is to barricade the less privileged from entering higher levels of education (cf. Bourdieu; (Bilton, Bonnet, James & Sheared, 1989). Barrier mechanisms are examination failure and self-elimination (Haralambos & Holborn, 2008). The barriers may be depicted by high low pass rates and high dropout rates in mathematics in rural areas. The efficacy of the first of these barriers resides in the lack of cultural capital by the bulk of learners in rural schools who are less-privileged. The second, related barrier is the dropout rate, which makes failure self-induced, again for lack of cultural capital, which imparts the appearance of an unscalable height to the prospect of entering the realm of higher education. In these circumstances, failure at mathematics examinations seems preordained for the less-privileged who are conditioned to believe that the system will not tolerate their entry into higher levels of mathematics education (Haralambos et al., 2014). The point is driven home by Bourdieu in the following statement:
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Every child matters: leading schools to promote social inclusion : a study of practice

Every child matters: leading schools to promote social inclusion : a study of practice

A socially critical analysis of cultural inclusion may suggest that this can only come about if minority groups are provided with opportunities for reflecting on and acting against discrimination that are reflected in aspects of a divided society and which education through schools reflects. It assumes that those at local level are policymakers (Ozga 2000) and that alternative improvement strategies can be developed (Hollins et al. 2006), not least with the inclusion of children as policymakers (Smyth 2006, Thomson and Gunter 2006, 2007). Educationally this may mean providing space within the curriculum to develop critical pedagogies (Thomson, 2002) where minority young people and their communities are provided with an opportunity to develop an empowering critical capacity for engagement and change (Smyth & McInerney, 2006). It may also be about the extent to which schools engage with democratic forms of governance that reflect and represent varying cultural values of the community in the mission and strategy of the school (Dean et al 2007). In other cases it might be to critical examine the way the disabled are included in mainstream schools but within
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Mental Health and Social Exclusion. Social Exclusion Unit Report Summary

Mental Health and Social Exclusion. Social Exclusion Unit Report Summary

“So we are perceived as a social burden. We lose sight of our potential, and when we try to move on, discrimination and stigma prevent us getting jobs that use our skills and experience and push us out of housing and education. The jobs we do get are poorly paid, and don’t utilise our skills and experience. And there are practical considerations – we stand to lose our financial security, whether state benefits or private insurance, when we attempt to rebuild our lives. We also stand to lose the health and social services that we find helpful, so that at the time when we most need support, our coping mechanisms are undermined. Moving back into society becomes a risky business.”
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LSDA responds : social exclusion unit consultation on young runaways

LSDA responds : social exclusion unit consultation on young runaways

■ The impor tance of strong connections between schools and other organisations. Schools need to link with other local authority services and with exper tise outside mainstream education and training - in voluntar y and community-based schemes, for example. This is par ticularly impor tant where schools are working with young people who have multiple problems, for example, those in/leaving care. A recent Ofsted repor t Improving Attendance and Behaviour in Secondar y Schools found that ‘few schools were in a strong position to identify vulnerable groups such as children in public care and to work systematically with relevant agencies on their needs’. Teachers and schools may need substantial help to make these systematic links. They may also need access to services that provide specialist suppor t for families. Connexions Personal Advisers have a pivotal role to play in ensuring that schools are ‘well connected’.
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SOCIAL EXCLUSION

SOCIAL EXCLUSION

In the USA, young people placed with Casey foster carers who did well as adults were likely to have completed their high school education, attended college or job training, acquired life skills and independent living training, participated in youth clubs or organizations while in care and were less likely to be homeless within 1 year of leaving care (Pecora et al. 2004). As well as providing stability, Casey families were also able to offer a comprehensive package of practical, financial, emotional and social support, which contributed to positive educational outcomes (Pecora et al. 2006). There is also evidence from a French study that adults who grew up in care with stability and counselling to assist them had better mental health outcomes than those with unstable care careers (Dumaret et al. 1997).
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Social Exclusion and HIV A Report

Social Exclusion and HIV A Report

As can be seen in work undertaken by the Social Exclusion Unit of the Cabinet Office on areas such as rough sleeping and teenage pregnancy, cross-cutting Government work is vital to bringing about any real long-term change. Currently, the Departments of Health, Work & Pensions, Education & Skills and the Home Office all have a distinct role to play but the lack of co-ordination between them on HIV is conspicuous. Even within Health, there is no clear co-ordinated lead on the issue. Closer working ties need to be established in all relevant areas with a lead on HIV health strategies and services from Health, educational initiatives and employment programmes from Education & Skills, a more flexible approach to benefits systems for people with long term chronic conditions from Work & Pensions and more appropriate asylum and immigration regulations and practice from the Home Office. Unless these areas are co-ordinated in a similar manner to teenage pregnancy work, clear messages and workable solutions will not happen and the direction of work in one Department will continue to cut across the strategic plans of another.
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Poverty and social exclusion in Britain

Poverty and social exclusion in Britain

Britain is at a crossroads of social development in terms of adopting effective measures to stop and then reverse the damaging structural trend which has increased poverty. During the 1980s incomes substantially diverged and in the late 1990s were continuing to diverge. The growth in poverty is the most critical social problem that Britain now faces. Problems of dislocation, insecurity, multiple deprivation, conflict, divided loyalties and divided activities all result. Major questions are being posed for the future of social cohesion. High rates of poverty and social exclusion have the effects of worsening health, education, skills in the changing labour market, relationships within the family, between ethnic groups and in society generally. The structural problem has to be addressed in a concerted national strategy. The construction of a scientific consensus - to improve measurement, explain severity and cause so that the right policies are selected, and show how the role of public and private services can be extended to underpin national life - is a key step in achieving the objectives set by the Government.
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