Top PDF Screening of Breast Cancer Based on Age

Screening of Breast Cancer Based on Age

Screening of Breast Cancer Based on Age

With our ever expanding knowledge of breast cancer and age related effects, there are many improvements in the detection and survival rates have improved a lot by the introduction of screening methods. With the application of the screening methods, the mortality rates of breast cancer are very much decreased. Although in the younger patients, the applicability of the screening methods like mammography to the younger women is less, so with the addition of the resonating techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to the mammography, detection of the breast cancer is made easy to the younger women. As the more research work is focused on the genetic factors, the screening of the breast cancer is decreased with the patients related to the ageing factors. So the research must also be focused towards the age related factors causing the breast cancer. With these, the better outcome is seen in terms of screening and diagnosis considering the age.
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Breast cancer screening practices for women aged 35 to 49 and 70 and older

Breast cancer screening practices for women aged 35 to 49 and 70 and older

Results The response rate was 36%. For women aged 35 to 49 years, more than 80% of physicians reported using practices judged adequate, except for the teaching of breast self-examination and referrals to genetic counseling (60% and 54%). For women 70 years of age and older with good life expectancy, only 50% of general practitioners prescribed screening mammography. For the 70 years of age and older age group without good life expectancy, for whom screening is not indicated, nearly half of physicians continued to do the clinical breast examination and more than one-third reviewed family history. The main determinants for the practice of prescribing mammography are a favourable attitude to screening, screening skills, peer support, belief in the efficacy of mammography, and sufficient knowledge of the issue and of recommendations.
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What Are the Recommended Timing and Screening Modalities for Women at Higher Risk of Developing Breast Cancer? A Clin-IQ

What Are the Recommended Timing and Screening Modalities for Women at Higher Risk of Developing Breast Cancer? A Clin-IQ

A cross-sectional study comparing screening mammography in women with history of breast cancer in one or more first-degree relatives against those of similar age without such history found more cancers in the first group (6.1/1,000 vs. 4.0/1,000), corresponding to that in average-risk women a decade older. However, the sensitivity of mammography increases with age (87.0% for age 60–69 years; 67.9% for age 30–39) and is less beneficial in younger women. Nevertheless, mammography has a higher positive predictive value (3.7% in the first group vs. 2.9%, P=0.001) in those with a family history positive for breast cancer. 12
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CYP17 MspA1 Gene Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Patients According to Age of Onset in Cancer Institute of Iran

CYP17 MspA1 Gene Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Patients According to Age of Onset in Cancer Institute of Iran

In Iran, highest incident of BC is among women aged between 40 to 49 yr old. The early age breast cancer is associated with worse prognosis, rapid disease progression and poorer response to treatment necessitates early screening tests and treatments base on the age of the patients (2). Altogether, an unopposed prolonged lifetime ex- posure of estrogen enhances the risk of breast cancer (17, 18). Studying the prevalence of SNPs in genes such as CYP17 shows a significant cor- relation with age oriented group of breast cancer patients that suggests a screening marker for risk group can be developed.
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Screening mammography beliefs and recommendations: a web based survey of primary care physicians

Screening mammography beliefs and recommendations: a web based survey of primary care physicians

This survey took place from June 2009 to December 2009. We observed differences in screening mammogra- phy recommendations between specialties before the release of the USPSTF update on breast cancer screen- ing in November 2009 [4]. It is unclear how the revised USPSTF guidelines, which provoked considerable debate in the media, may have affected these differences. To the extent that USPSTF guidelines have more influence on the mammography recommendations of family phy- sicians and general internists, compared with OBG, the observed differences in perceived effectiveness and recommendations for women aged 40-49 years in Table 3 may further increase after publication of the revised USPSTF guidelines. The revised guidelines did not address mammography use for older women or women with comorbid illnesses, so the analysis in Table 2 should not be affected.
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Screening for breast cancer : medicalization, visualization and the embodied experience

Screening for breast cancer : medicalization, visualization and the embodied experience

The field work for this paper was undertaken in the UK which has a publicly funded mammography screening programme inviting all women aged 50-70 years for mammography every three years (Advisory committee on Breast Cancer Screening, 2006). This population screening programme is run independently of responsive health care, such as general practice, with the letters of invitation and results going direct to women. A similar system is found in a number of other countries e.g. Denmark, Canada and Australia (Jørgensen and Gøtzsche, 2006). In the UK, the programme was established in 1987 following a national report demonstrating that early detection and treatment would reduce the rate of early death from breast cancer (Forrest, 1986). Three quarters of women invited for mammography screening take up the invitation (Cancer Research UK, 2004; Advisory committee on Breast Cancer Screening, 2006) and the national screening programme estimates that the programme saves 1400 lives each year in England. This means ‘for every 400 women screened regularly over a 10 year period, one woman fewer will die from beast cancer than would have died without screening’ (Advisory committee on Breast Cancer Screening, 2006: 1).
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Body size in early life and risk of breast cancer

Body size in early life and risk of breast cancer

KARMA, this result was not replicated in LIBRO1. In addition, our results showed that among breast cancer cases, a larger body size at age 7 was associated with smaller tumor size, although this association was not sta- tistically significant. However, the association with tumor size was significant and was stronger for body size at age 18. A likely explanation is that body size at age 18 is in- versely associated with mammographic density, which is the amount of radiographically dense tissue in the breast [42]. High mammographic density has the propensity to mask tumors on a mammogram during screening. Large body size at age 18 is highly correlated with higher BMI in adulthood, which is in turn highly correlated with less dense breasts, making it possible to detect tumors at an early stage when they are still relatively small [43]. In our data, body size at age 18 is negatively associated with per- cent mammographic density, after adjusting for age, BMI at questionnaire response, and menopausal status at breast cancer diagnosis ( β coefficient (95% CI) in linear regres- sion comparing large to small body size: − 1.48 ( − 2.03 to − 0.93)). Stratifying the analyses by high ( ≥ 25%) or low (<25%) percent mammographic density revealed a stron- ger inverse relationship between body size at age 18 and tumor size among women with low mammographic dens- ity (Table 7), suggesting that while mammographic density is likely to affect tumor size, body size at age 18 might be also associated with smaller tumor size through other mechanisms.
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Failure to Engage in Breast Screening and Risk Assessment Results in More Advanced Stage at Diagnosis

Failure to Engage in Breast Screening and Risk Assessment Results in More Advanced Stage at Diagnosis

The uptake rates of utilization of existing screening programs are influenced by socioeconomic factors, ease of access, advertising and public awareness. However, not all studies show a positive relationship between fa- milial breast cancer risk and mammographic uptake [16] [17]. There has been a lack of published data assessing enrolment and uptake of breast screening and risk assessment in patients with a known family history risk and or those of breast screening age who should have undergone breast screening [18]. Some countries, such as Ireland and Estonia, have higher breast cancer mortality than the European on average. This is a multifactorial issue with many potential explanations including public awareness, organization and access to services as well as treatments employed. Understanding the stage of presentation of breast cancer may identify opportunities to im- prove outcome [1]. It is clear, however, that tumor size at presentation predicts long term survival [19].
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Knowledge, Attitudes and Breast Cancer Screening Practices among Market Women in Thika Town, Kiambu County, Kenya

Knowledge, Attitudes and Breast Cancer Screening Practices among Market Women in Thika Town, Kiambu County, Kenya

The incidence of breast cancer in African countries is lower compared to the developed countries (32, 37). The survival rates are also poor and mortality rates are as high as the industrialized nations (6, 32). Most of the developing countries are characterized by inadequate funding and unavailability of treatment facilities as well as staff. African women have also been found to present at a younger age (35-49 years) and with a more aggressive type of breast cancer (1, 6). Patients in developing countries also present in advanced stages of the cancer; 64% of patients with cancer in Kenya presented at stages III and IV (7) while 77.8% of patients in Angola were diagnosed with breast cancer in the advanced stages (8). Survival from breast cancer is dependent on various important genetic and clinical factors. One of the key factors is the stage and grade of the tumour when the diagnosis is made (1, 31). For this reason, chances of survival are improved greatly when breast cancer is detected early, especially through screening.
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Trends in incidence and detection of advanced breast cancer at biennial screening mammography in The Netherlands: a population based study

Trends in incidence and detection of advanced breast cancer at biennial screening mammography in The Netherlands: a population based study

aged 50 years or older with a 2-year versus 1-year screening interval [38,39]. Moreover, annual screening will be more expensive and the concomitant larger numbers of false positive referrals probably increases patient anxiety and thus may have a negative impact on future screening adherence. For these reasons, investiga- tors still argue about the optimal screening interval [40]. In the Netherlands, the incidence of breast cancer is still increasing, with a current lifetime risk of 13% [41]. Although screening may be effective in reducing breast cancer mortality, a possible future decrease in breast cancer mortality in screened women may rather be the result of advances in breast cancer treatment than the result of improved detection at screening mammogra- phy. Moreover, the rate of advanced cancer after imple- mentation of screening mammography was comparable to pre-screening rates. Another detrimental effect of screening is the generation of false positive referrals, leading to increased levels of anxiety and additional diagnostic workup costs [42,43]. Although the positive predictive value of referral in our population was con- siderably higher than the one found in other European and US screening studies, 60% of referrals turned out to be false positive and almost 10% of false positively referred women had undergone excisional biopsy at diagnostic workup. Finally a potential harmful effect of
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The Applicability of the Gail Model in Iranian Population

The Applicability of the Gail Model in Iranian Population

Gail model was originally developed to assess breast cancer risk in white females in the United States and it seems necessary to be studied in other countries. Vari- ous studies have indicated its inapplicability in the Re- public of Czech [15], Spain [16], Italy [17], and among African-American females of the United States [18]. In the present study, breast cancer risk for the patient was calculated and the results were compared with females of similar age who had attended BCRC with normal screening mammography in the Iranian popu- lation. No significant difference was observed between breast cancer patients and the control group regarding the age of menarche. This result disagrees with those of two large-scale studies which indicated that premature menarche is associated with breast cancer [19, 20], and concurs with those of Mckarem et al. which studied 124 patients with invasive breast cancer and found that the
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Modeling of Sic Power Semiconductor Devices For Switching Converter Applications

Modeling of Sic Power Semiconductor Devices For Switching Converter Applications

Death rates for breast cancer have steadily decreased in women due to earlier detection, such as mammography, and improved treatments (4-9). Mammography is the single most effective method of early detection for breast cancer. It can identify the cancer at an early stage, when treatment is more effective (1). The American Cancer Society screening guidelines recommend that average-risk women aged 40 and older receive mammography screening on an annual basis (1). About 38%-54% of women do not maintain annual adherence to screening mammograms (10, 11), and only 49% having received screening when using a biennial schedule (11). Annual mammography with adequate follow-up is estimated to result in reductions in mortality ranging from 25% to 44% (6, 7, 12-15). Mammography is a highly accurate screening tool, but like most medical tests, it does not have perfect sensitivity and specificity. Generally, reported positive predictive values ranges from 78% to 90% (1, 16, 17). One drawback of mammography is the false positive results. One large study found that over a 10-year period of annual mammogram screenings, the chance of having a false positive result was close to 50% (18).
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Breast cancer screening: evidence of benefit depends on the method used

Breast cancer screening: evidence of benefit depends on the method used

Despite these improvements, a major problem that arises if the case-control study is conducted within the context of a population screening program is that women who do not participate in screening generally have a poorer outcome [14-17] for reasons that are not related to screening, thus inducing an observed lesser exposure to screening among the cases [18]. A growing number of data documents that, compared with women participating in screening mammography, non-participating women have characteristics associated with a higher risk of dying from breast cancer, such as higher rates of obesity and lower compliance to treatments, and the influence of these characteristics on the risk of breast cancer death exists in the absence of screening [19-21]. So, although a number of non-participants die from breast cancer for reasons unrelated to screening, results of case-control studies may suggest that these deaths are due to not having been screened. This bias in results has been termed the ‘ self- selection bias ’ . As the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Handbook on Breast Cancer Screening concluded, ‘ Observational studies of screening, such as cohort and case-control studies, may give biased measures
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Comparing breast cancer mortality rates before-and-after a change in availability of screening in different regions: Extension of the paired availability design

Comparing breast cancer mortality rates before-and-after a change in availability of screening in different regions: Extension of the paired availability design

The data in [5] were reported in terms of person years of receiving screening. Dividing person years by the length of the time period we obtained the approximate number of persons eligible for screening in each region and group, n iz++ . Using these data, we estimated the change in the average yearly death rate of incident breast cancer among type C subjects ages 40–69 due to receipt of breast cancer screening as -9 per 100,000 with 95% confidence interval of (-14, -4) per 100,000 for k = 0 and similarly -9 per 100,000 with 95% confidence interval of (-14, -5) per 100,000 when k equaled the fraction screened. See Table 1 and Figure 1. The estimates were similar for the two val- ues of k because only in Vastmanland County was there substantial screening in time period 0, and that was only 14%. We caution that Assumption 2 may not hold due to improvements in available systemic therapy over the peri- ods of interest [14]. Therefore the results must be inter- preted with caution, as they may overestimate the benefit of screening.
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INCIDENCES, SCREENING AND CHEMOTHERAPY OF BREAST CANCER

INCIDENCES, SCREENING AND CHEMOTHERAPY OF BREAST CANCER

treatments are available, some are recognized as standard and some are still under the evaluation. National Cancer Institute of USA generally recommend six different treatment options either use alone or sometime in the combination. These six treatments include; surgery (lumpectomy, partial mastectomy, total mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy), senile lymphnode biopsy then followed by surgery, radiation therapy, chemo or pharmacotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy by monoclonal antibodies (Abs) or protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However our main focuss is on chemo/pharmacotherapy, hormone therapy and targeted therapy. If the disease is in the stage 2-4 then chemotherapy is imperative and is used for the period of 3-6 months in the combination. Most of the chemotherapeutic agents work by destroying the DNA of fast growing cells. The new approach is management of breast cancer by HER-2+ve case. 15- 20% cases of breast cancer are HER-2 gene overexpression. The development of monoclonal antibody enhances the 5 years survival in HER-2+ve cases treatment significantly up to 95%. [6] Monoclonal antibodies are the antibodies made in the laboratory. These antibodies identify at molecular level changes in the tumor cells, once they find the molecule which is leading towards cancer, they start to kill them as well block their growth. These antibodies are given in the form of infusion and sometime in combination with anticancer drug, toxin or radioactive agent to detect the site of tumor. Herceptin is monoclonal Abs which acts by blocking the proliferative protein HRE2 and use in combination with chemo/pharmacotherapy. In the similar war protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor also blocks the HER2 protein as well as other proteins involve in the development of cancer
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Mammography screening in Nigeria – a critical comparison to other countries

Mammography screening in Nigeria – a critical comparison to other countries

Evidence shows that mammography screening is of optimal benefit to women from 47 years to 73 years, as periodic screening within this age range reduces the women’s chances of dying as a result of breast cancer 22 . More breast cancers were found in women within this age group, and the breast tissues are better visualised on mammograms, as it changes from being glandular to fatty tissue in older women 1 . Currently, the United Kingdom invites women from 50-70 years of age to attend the program; but they are in the process of extending screening to women between 47 and 73 years by 2016, due to the potential benefits of screening at these ages 17 . The Australian screening program invites women within 50-74 years to participate in their
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Assessment of trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer screening services in Korea, 1998–2012

Assessment of trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer screening services in Korea, 1998–2012

Model and determinants of health care utilization from previous studies [25–27]. The Andersen’s Health Behav- iour Model is a conceptual model introducing a wide range of factors associated with use of health care services. In this model, the use of health services is determined by three dimensions including predisposing factors (e.g., age, gender, education, employment status, etc.), enabling factors (e.g., income, health insurance, and a regular source of health care, etc.), and need factors (e.g., objective and subjective needs). Based on included various socio-demographic variables for decomposition analysis, we identified need and non-need factors. The need factors (i.e., age (continuous), sex, and self-rated health (good; fair; poor)) generally reflect an individual’s health care needs, representing difference in need of health services. The non-need factors include various socioeconomic factors such as marital status (single; married), educational level (elementary school; middle school; high school; university & above), employment status (manual; non-manual; others including unemploy- ment and out of labour market), income (quintile), region (metro Seoul areas; non-metro Seoul areas), place of resi- dence (urban; rural) and type of national health insurance (NHI, Medicaid; neither).
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TP53 p.R337H prevalence in a series of Brazilian hereditary breast cancer families

TP53 p.R337H prevalence in a series of Brazilian hereditary breast cancer families

It has been suggested that TP53 genetic testing should be considered for women diagnosed with breast cancer under age 30 after they have previously tested negative for muta- tions in BRCA1 and BRCA2 [31]. However, given similar mutation rates in early breast cancer, Lee et al. (2012) [15] proposed that these women should undergo genetic testing for mutations in all three genes at the same time. Taking into account the high frequency of the TP53 p.R337H mu- tation in Brazilian women with breast cancer [17,18,20,30], and given that the TP53 p.R337H genetic test (single nu- cleotide change at codon 337) is easy, fast and inexpensive, we suggest that the TP53 p.R337H mutation screening should not be restricted to early breast cancer patients, but to all Brazilian breast cancer patients with a family his- tory that includes other LFS/LFL tumors.
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KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES TOWARDS BREAST CANCER SCREENING PROGRAMS AMONG IRANIAN RURAL FEMALE POPULATIONS IN NORTH OF IRAN

KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES TOWARDS BREAST CANCER SCREENING PROGRAMS AMONG IRANIAN RURAL FEMALE POPULATIONS IN NORTH OF IRAN

Participants were consisted of Iranian rural women, 20 years of age and above. Using our previous statistical data [14], we estimated that 896 subjects were required for each stratum. Individuals in each stratum were selected by a multistage random sampling method. Participants were assigned to one of four strata; consisting of 1) rural women living in eastern areas of Mazandaran state, including Behshahr and Sari; 2) rural women living in the central area of Mazandaran state, including Ghaemshahr and Kiyakola; 3) rural women living in poorly developed areas and more native regions of Mazandaran state, including Juibar; and, 4) rural women living in western areas of Mazandaran state including Amol township. For each stratum, we randomly selected five rural Health-Medical Centers (HMCs) as major clusters. Finally, 180 women aged 20 years and older attending each HMC were randomly selected and invited to participate in this study. Women agreeing to participate were given a three-page self-administered questionnaire. Those with difficulty in reading the questionnaire were given help. Women with a known diagnosis of breast cancer were excluded from the study. All participants gave written informed consent.
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How Level of Education Relates to Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Breast Cancer and Its Screening Methods

How Level of Education Relates to Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Breast Cancer and Its Screening Methods

There are several contributing risk factors to the disease. Well established risk factors include; older age, family history of the disease, exposure to radiation, use of oral contraceptive pills, first child birth at a age greater than 30 years and irregular menstrual cycles among others [4]. A survey of the U.S. population showed that 47% of the total reported cases indicated a strong connection to these established risk factors [5]. Studies have shown a huge gap between the acceptance of the importance of BSE (Breast Self Exam) education and the actual awareness of the procedures and methods of BSE in the masses. This problem is particularly true for Asian and African countries [6-8]. The lack of knowledge, however, did not always present as the reason for the lack of BSE practice. Studies among the nurses of Lagos, Nigeria; school teachers of Buraidah, Saudia Arabia and lady health workers of Tehran, Iran suggested that regardless of women being educated in the field of science, they had little knowledge of the breast cancer screening methods [9-11]. Religious misconceptions, social pressures, cultural barriers, lack of facilities and misguided beliefs contribute towards lack of breast cancer screening efforts and delayed help seeking attitudes of a lot of ethnic groups in different
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