CCS are developing at different paces depending on the region and country or state. Until 2010, the awareness and implementation of coastal adaptation was much more advanced in the UK and the Netherlands than elsewhere in Europe [ 61 ], including France, where local coastal risk prevention plans lagged. However, awareness can rise rapidly due to extreme events, as illustrated by the case of the Xynthia storm and surge in France in 2010, which caused more than 50 deaths and significant economic damages on the Atlantic coast [ 62 ]. After this event, the French risk prevention regulations were modified to improve coastal hazard maps [ 63 ] by defining standards to model coastal processes such as storm surge and wave setup [ 64 ] and to consider future SLR. To avoid heterogeneous responses along the coastlines driven by individual municipality selections, the scientific community concerned with SLR was consulted, and a standardized fixed sealevel projection of +60 cm by the end of the 21st century was defined and included into the regulation [ 65 ]. This resulted in additional constraints on land use planning policies, while stimulating research and development on coastal flood modelling [ 66 ]. In addition, non-binding regulatory frameworks were implemented to facilitate land use planning in coastal zones, and the insurance and reinsurance industry is considering the introduction of new insurance products to anticipate and favour adaptation. Despite the real progress in the development of CCS since 2010, there are still concerns due to the limitations of sealevel projections currently used, because uncertainties, temporal, regional and local variability are not considered. In this case, SLR projections are essentially used to limit further urbanisation in coastal zones, potentially creating a maladaptation trap in area where sealevel will exceed the threshold defined by the regulation [ 67 ]. Recently, an additional law for adaptation has been discussed in the parliament to institute construction regulations that consider the expected lifetime of engineered infrastructure together with shoreline change predictions. However, providing shoreline erosion predictions with a sufficient degree of confidence remains a research challenge today. This is illustrative of a situation where the implementation of an adaptation policy is limited by research.
According to various methodologies applied at the in- ternational level (Gornitz, 1990; Abuodha and Woodroffe, 2006), the assignation of scores to vulnerability classes was performed using a 1–5 scale. For each analyzed impact, this scoring method allowed the definition of relative rank- ings within the subset of vulnerability classes associated with each vulnerability factor. This means that the maxi- mum score 5 was always assigned to the most important (i.e. higher) vulnerability class and does not represent the maxi- mum vulnerability class in absolute terms (i.e. at the global scale). In the same way the minimum score 1 was assigned to the vulnerability class that was considered the least im- portant (i.e. the lowest vulnerability class) in the subset of classes defined for each indicator. Table 6 provides linguis- tic evaluations supporting expert(s)/decision maker(s) in the assignation of scores to vulnerability factors. According to Giove et al. (2009), the expert judgments should have a sound scientific and technical basis, while the decision-maker judg- ments are usually based on more subjective political and managerial considerations. Consequently, the integration of expert judgement is particularly important for the assignation of scores to physical, natural and ecological parameters (i.e. pathway and susceptibility factors) and the role of a decision maker is fundamental in the evaluation of socio-economic parameters (i.e. value factors). Finally, it is important to con- sider that the integration of expert/decision maker perspec- tive is significantly important in situations of uncertainty and data scarcity, such as environmental risk and vulnerability assessments (Giove et al., 2009).
Robert Repetto is author of the 2011 book “America’s Climate Problem: The WayForward.” He is a Senior Fellow in the United Nations Foundation’s climate and energy program. Previously, he was Professor in the Practice of Economics & Sustainable Development at the Yale University School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. Before that, he was a Senior Fellow of the Tim Wirth Chair at the University of Colorado and an advisor to Stratus Environmental Consulting, in Boulder, Colorado. He was a Pew Fellow at the Marine Policy Center of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, and for fifteen years was vice president of the World Resources Institute in Washington, DC. Earlier in his career, he was an Associate Professor in economics and public health at Harvard University, and before that an advisor on economic planning in Indonesia, Bangladesh and India.
v2.0 ECV has been generated thanks to the CNES/CLS DUACS production system with the same procedures as for the previous version v1.1 (Ablain et al., 2015) (ex- cept that the grids have been shifted by half a pixel in v2.0). The main processing steps (developed in Ablain and Legeais, 2014) are as follows: (i) acquire and pre- process data, (ii) perform input check and quality con- trol, inter-calibrate and unify the multi-satellite mea- surements and (iii) generate along-track and gridded merged products (based on a monthly optimal interpola- tion). A land–sea mask derived from the LandCover_cci project has been applied to all sealevel grids. The long- term stability and large-scale changes of the SL_cci v2.0 dataset are built upon the records from missions in the reference orbit (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2 for that period). All these satellites, called ref- erence missions, have the same 9.92-day orbital cycle at high altitude (1336 km), making satellite trajectories less sensitive to higher-order terms of the Earth’s gravity field. Data from the other missions (also called comple- mentary missions) that contribute to improving the sam- pling of mesoscale processes provide the high-latitude coverage and increase the product accuracy. More de- tails on the SL_cci ECV processing are provided in Quartly et al. (2017) and additional general information on the altimeter data processing can be found in Pujol et al. (2016).
This study utilises estimates of the impacts of future SLR that in- corporates impact/cost data of track incidents derived from an em- pirical-based trend that is extrapolated forward based on projections of future SLR (Lowe et al., 2009; Dawson et al., 2016). This approach quantiﬁes the costs of increased disruption based on estimated damages to the defences (using historic records) and monetary costs of increased passenger disruption using the value of travel time (VTT) as demon- strated in other studies and guidance (Metroeconomica, 2004; Dawson et al., 2016; Penning-Rowsell et al., 2016). We demonstrate how as- sessment of alternative adaptation responses to these projected climate risks can be aﬀected by updates in estimation of sea-level parameters over time that potentially resolve some of the uncertainties reﬂected in these risk estimates. Although other studies provide national and re- gional level examples that are useful in illustrating the method, (e.g. Kontogianni et al., 2014; Linquiti and Vonortas, 2012; Woodward et al., 2013), the local focus of this paper oﬀers insight to the future appli- cation of new climate knowledge and the ROA method at a scale ap- propriate to many real-world infrastructure decisions. The “ real option ” tested in this study is the option to delay adaptation investment relating to the London-Penzance railway line until improved knowledge results in the partial resolution of uncertainties in sea-level projections. The beneﬁts of waiting for this information will be calculated through an updated climate impact assessment (eight years later), which can then be compared to the costs of waiting for that information (e.g. damages & repairs from overtopping events).
Abstract: Climatechange (CC) has negative effects such as higher frequencies of stronger storms, floods, or droughts. In addition, sealevel rise (SLR) poses a major threat to the coastal areas. Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam is an important coastal province in many aspects, located in the extreme-east of the Red River Delta. Recent studies predict an increment of sealevel by 9% in this area and it will cause enormous damages to land, properties and people living here. This work predicts the impact of CC and SLR on the floodplain of Nam Dinh Province. The CC & SLR scenarios (A2, B1 & B2) were adopted, and expected future floods were simulated. The maximum sealevel rise (65cm for B1, 75cm for B2 and 100cm for A2) were applied to compute the water levelchange in the river system. The results predict that at least 14.9~17.4% of lands will be lost and farmers will be the most-affected victims.
A variety of methods to better handle uncertainties in adaptation responses to climatechange risks has been proposed, including, for example, Real Options Analysis (ROA), Portfolio Analysis (PA) and Robust Decision Making (RDM) (Watkiss et al., 2015; Dittrich et al., 2016). Indeed, there is a recognition in a number of user communities that these methods may have some merit; an often-cited example is the UK guidance on economic appraisal of adaptation published in order to stimulate uptake of such methods (HM Treasury, 2009). Of the poten- tial alternatives to traditional appraisal methods such as CBA, ROA is promoted on the basis that it incorporates the concept of ﬂexibility in responding to changing patterns of uncertainty and learning over time (Dittrich et al., 2016). ROA gives two types of results (or value) that set it apart from conventional economic analysis (Watkiss et al., 2015). Firstly, through the identiﬁcation of deferred beneﬁts of waiting for new information, rather than investing immediately, it can promote the delaying of adaptation responses. This is possible if the beneﬁts of the new information outweigh the costs of waiting. Alternatively, in pro- jects which fail conventional CBA it can promote initial action or the potential for future investment by providing an economic tool to in- corporate the value of ﬂexibility, e.g. to expand, contract or stop adaptation measures.
North Carolina, United States
Until now, most costal defense along the German Baltic coast is focused on infrastructure protection against flooding; with respect to erosion and land loss problems, however, cities are hot spots of vulnerability. Most communities along the Bay of Kiel, with the state capital Kiel (population 250,000) at its southern end, are facing this problem. Kiel and 20 smaller communities formed a regional Climate Alliance to develop a coordinated approach to adaptation. Goals of the Alliance are to find joint answers to the high costs caused by coastal erosion, develop a climate-friendly tourism destination, educate residents about climatechange and adaptation, reduce CO2 emissions, and lobby for the necessary financial and political support. Achievements to date include a feasibility study of using bicycle-carrying vehicles to create a more climate-friendly region; climatechange Infotainment; discussions of retreat options for the community of Strande, public awareness raising and garnering support for a political declaration on creating a climate-resilient region.
Simultaneously, a downward trend of the Royal Bengal Tiger population and its prey species (i.e., spotted deer, wild boar and rhesus macaque) density is observed in these mangroves (Dey et al. 2015). Tiger density is found highest in the low saline zone but human-tiger conflict incidents are highest in high saline zone. Both local communities and experts contemplate that prey depletion and frequent intensive cyclones mainly cause the population reduction. Conversely, my hydro-climatic data, literature review and field observations indicate that climatechange and its impacts like sea-level rise and salinity increase are contributing to degrade the quality tiger and its prey habitat requirements (i.e., drinking water sources, prey population and vegetative cover) in the Sundarbans (Chapter 4). Tiger incidences (i.e., stray, injured and dead) are potentially related to reduced fresh water influx and salinity increase, particularly in May. This indicates drinking water scarcity for the tigers in the mangroves. Changes in mangrove vegetation due to increasing salinity (Chapter 3) possibly affect key activities of the tiger, such as resting, breeding, stalking, ambush, scratch, drinking, feeding, defaecation and movement. In addition, salt induced vegetation changes affect prey habitat. As tigers prefer the comparatively low saline zone mangrove woodlands probably for availability of prey, drinking water sources and suitable vegetative cover to perform their necessary activities. Also tiger’s principle prey (i.e., spotted deer) needs fallen fruits, leaf litter and grasses as fodder. All these are accessible mainly in the low saline mangroves. Besides, spotted deer drink fresh water frequently and need shade, particularly in summer. Thus, climatic signals, like rising air-temperatures during summer and late onset of monsoon, will all create stress on physiological activities of spotted deer. Hence, further changes in climate, fresh water availability and vegetative cover will affect not only the Bengal tigers, but also their prey habitat to degrade.
“On April 4, 2013, HUD Secretary Shaun Donovan joined then DOT Secretary Ray LaHood to announce a minimum flood risk reduction standard that protects investments in Sandy-affected communities. This minimum flood risk standard addresses the increased flood risk that results from rising sea levels, more
Additional support for CCSLRI - CCSLRI is one of several efforts on campus to initiate collaborations
across colleges. To help with that effort Ms. Elizabeth (Liz) Smith has been hired on a part time basis to help mainly with CC/SLRI but also the Modeling and Simulation Certificate Programs and Geospatial Studies in the future. Liz has a BSc in Marine Science from the University of South Carolina and an MSc in Physical Oceanography from Florida State University. Early in her career she was a Project Scientist at the California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Lab. More recently she was the Coastal Research Program Manager for the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA) and still helps manage a multi-institutional, environmental modeling testbed program for SURA. Liz can be reached at
promote vegetation productivity but simultaneously can increase de- composition of soil organic matter (Charles & Dukes, 2009; Kirwan & Blum, 2011; Kirwan, Guntenspergen, & Lanley, 2014). While el- evated temperatures during the winter season can be beneficial to vegetation productivity, during the summer temperatures in the fu- ture may begin to exceed physiological optima resulting in decreased productivity (Hatfield & Prueger, 2015; Schlenker & Roberts, 2009). Similarly, elevated summer temperatures are likely to result in more rapid decomposition of unburied litter (Wu, Huang, Biber, & Bethel, 2017), depriving the marsh of organic matter on the marsh surface. The quicker disappearance of above- ground plant litter could po- tentially reduce sediment deposition (Rooth, Stevenson, & Cornwell, 2003), leading to lower accretion rates. The effects of elevated year- round soil and water temperatures on buried organic matter decom- position are less certain, but have the potential to also reduce the amount of organic matter sequestered (Davidson & Janssens, 2006; Kirwan, Guntenspergen, & Lanley, 2014). Whether temperature has positive or negative impacts on the sustainability of coastal wetlands depends largely on which of these effects will dominate. On the other hand, rising atmospheric CO 2 concentration can act as fertilizer to promote vegetation productivity and therefore has the potential to increase coastal wetlands’ resilience to SLR (Cherry, McKee, & Grace, 2009; Langley, McKee, Cahoon, Cherry, & Megonigal, 2009; Ratliff, Braswell, & Marani, 2015). When we account for the medium ferti- lization effect of higher CO 2 concentration, that is, 39% increase in above- ground productivity and 33% increase in below- ground pro- ductivity by 2100, we find the threshold of SLR rate increases from 8.4 mm/year to 10.3 mm/year for 2100
Climatechange processes have affected the biophysical life support system including land surface (vegetation), water resources, soil and atmosphere which constitute the elements that support the long term sustainability of life on earth. Climatic challenges have stressed, destroyed and depleted natural resources to the extent that land and water are in shorter supply. A lot of communities that are heavily dependent on natural resources seem to find no solutions to climatechange as it has continued to significantly undermine their livelihoods and growth. There has also been increasing concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the earth’s atmosphere that absorbs and emits infrared radiation or heat through the use of fossil fuels. These greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrogen dioxide (N2O), and a rise in these gases has caused a rise in the amount of heat from the sun withheld in the earth’s atmosphere, heat that would normally be radiated back into space. This increase in heat has led to the greenhouse effect, resulting in climatechange. There have been increases in average global temperature (global warming); changes in cloud cover and precipitation particularly over land; melting of ice caps and glaciers and reduced snow cover; and increases in ocean temperatures and ocean acidity – due to seawater absorbing heat and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Nigeria as a part and parcel of the world is not immune to climatechange hazards. Essentially, climatechange in Nigeria has over time disrupted the normal functioning of the ecosystem that interacts with humans, and affects how they access certain vital resources for their survival. When climatechange hazards such as heavy droughts and famine, erratic weather seasons and, in some areas like in the north, prolonged dry spells occur in Nigeria, it is normally viewed in relation to environmental degradation, natural resource scarcity, migration and food shortage. In this vein, conflicts between cattle herders and farmers over these scarce resources have led to incessant and escalating bloody clashes culminating in the loss of life and wanton destruction of properties. Basically, the frequency and scale of these conflicts have become alarming. Conflicts between farmers and cattle herders have constituted serious threats to the means of survival and livelihoods of both the farmers and cattle herders and what both groups are tenaciously protecting and projecting. This movement downward to the southeast coast due to climatechange has generated serious disturbance for the host communities.
Water level data measured since the early 1920s in Charleston, South Carolina, indicate a slow increase in sealevel (see graphs below). Five flood-producing tides (defined as seven feet or more above mean lower low water, or MLLW) were predicted for 2010. However, these types of predictions are based strictly on astronomical tides and don’t take into account the increased extent of the flooding made likely when other factors such as rainfall and winds are added. Observed hourly records indicate that water levels reached 7 feet MLLW or higher 16 times in 2010, and the number of instances has been steadily rising in tandem with sealevel. Eventually, today’s occasional coastal floods will become regular events.
almost in opposition to the phase of the mass component: as a consequence, the amplitude of the total annual cycle in West Arkona is signiﬁcantly smaller than in the other subbasins, as seen in Figures 6 and 7. The information coming from the climatology gives us key information to interpret the annual cycle derived from satellite altimetry. It is evident that there is a strong mass component that inﬂuences the total annual cycle of the sealevel, given that the steric cycle is not able to explain entirely the annual signal from altime- try, neither in phase nor in amplitude. By subtracting the steric annual signal from the total annual signal, we have attempted to estimate the mass component. Figure 10 shows the three sinusoids for each subba- sin. The total annual signal was obtained using the ALES coastal time series within 15 km of the coast and the steric component comes from the climatological data just described. As expected, in all the subbasins, the mass component has a winter maximum, coincident with the season of strongest winds, with an ampli- tude ranging from 7 to 10 cm. The estimations farther from the coast are not shown because they have very similar values; an exception is made for Norwegian and Swedish Skagerrak, where the deeper areas of the Norwegian Trench have a later maximum. This could be due to the presence of an intermediate water layer between about 50 and 300 m, which is warmer in late autumn and early winter than in summer: this phenomenon has been described in Danielssen et al.  and is caused by the penetration of warmer mass from the Atlantic in the Skagerrak Sea and its longer residence time in the intermediate layer. The overall delayed steric height phase in a deep area such as the Norwegian Trench has a direct consequence on the total sealevel phase from satellite altimetry, as shown in Figure 8. The use of gravimetery-derived mass measurements by means of data from GRACE mission, which has recently been attempted in basins of similar scales (the Red Sea, in Wahr et al. ) could quantitatively assess the mass contribution to the annual cycle and help in validating our attempt.
Figure 1 Distribution by publishing year
3.2. Distribution by journals
After assessing the trend of studies, we need to assess the articles by the prospect of journals. We list the top journals, which means more than 2 articles, in Table 1. Among all articles, Climatic Change is the most contributed journal as it published 6 journal articles that were related to the topic. Other leading journals include Journal of Coastal Research, Natural Hazards, Coastal Engineering Journal, Journal of Geophysical Research, Ocean and Coastal Management, Ocean Engineering, Regional Environmental Change, Revista de Gestão Costeira Integrada, Sustainability Science. If the journals are with the same number of articles, we list them out by alphabetic order in the journal list. It is clearly seen that the topic has diversified features and attracts attention and interest from a wider audience from costal research, geographical science, ocean engineering and environmental and sustainability studies.
• The components needed to provide an appropriate infrastructure for climate science, such as networks, computational and storage
capabilities, and massive amounts of data, are similar but the actual realization of these components can be quite diverse around the world.
2. Local Mobile Service Providers
The increased internet and web presence in the mobile area motivates the possibility of using mobile subscriber terminals as a tool for delivering mobile broadband services. Many in developing countries are grappling with the idea of using the large penetration in mobile technology and services for the benefit of social and economic growth. A number of mobile projects for health, governance, banking and learning have been identified in the boundary region of mobile and web technologies. One important conclusion that can be deducted and has been highlighted in the W3C workshop and executive summary  is that, the current few mobile SMS based services, appearing on the scene are just a proof of concept and announce the beginning of the thousands of mobile data based services that will engulf the mobile economies of developing countries [1,7]. When these numbers of mobile services become available they can also be regarded as consumer products necessary to improve the life of billions of users.