kosovo.rit.edu Page 30 of 61 b. Primary Data Collection
Part 1: Semi-structured interviews
I have completed an extensive qualitative analysis on the ground by conducting 12 semi- structured interviews with scholars who have done work on Kosovo’s security sector or are members of the public institutions who either conduct security oversight or are subjects of classified information. Due to anonymity principle of conducting research more detailed information about the interviewees nor the institutions they represent is not disclosed. The process of reaching the individuals at steak was very lengthy and stressful because of their unwillingness to disclose relevant information. The interview requests were sent via email to 22 different individuals and institutions, however, only 5 of them responded and became part of the sample. Ten of the interviews were conducted in-person, whereas only two were conducted via email. The interviews were scheduled across 2 months due to the difficulties in reaching the interviewees. Each interviewee was provided a consent form, while the permission to record the interview was obtained only from five of the interviewees. The interviews were structured so as to get insights into various aspects of the securityvetting in Kosovo, its challenges and
This study focuses on the monitoring of compliance by business organizations in Kosovo with the International Financial Reporting Standards and Kosovo Accounting Standards as appropriate , and the impact that this compliance or non compliance has in the economy. In addition this study examines compliance with International Standards of Auditing by auditors and reviews the quality of the audit process in the broader context of the requirements for audit quality assurance. It is found that there are weaknesses in almost all elements of Kosovo’s corporate financial reporting and auditing regime, which is not dissimilar, linked to larger challenges faced by all former Yugoslav economies in transitioning to the new market economic system. The economies of former Yugoslavia face similar challenges in integration with the European Union’s economic and financial system, because of the unique shared characteristics of the former Yugoslav system. In parallel with the economic transitional reforms undertaken within the region, the global financial reporting and auditing system has been changed, with a convergence to International financial reporting standards, international standards of auditing and a new emphasis on audit quality assurance and external oversight mechanisms to sustain it. Though Kosovo is not alone within the region in addressing the reforms required to integrate the economy fully into the EU system, the study reveals both opportunities and challenges unique to Kosovo and makes recommendations for reform.
The project addressed challenges and opportunities of startups and new businesses in Kosovo and how they could be seen as one of the main tools to drive economic, political and social change through benefiting the society in various aspects. The study aims to emphasize the imperative role of startups and instead of viewing startups and issues as two different aspects, we can correlate the two, and ‘use’ startups to overcome these issues, namely innovate in areas where the most critical issues are prevalent in our society. The first objective of this study was to pinpoint the current economic, political and social situation and conditions in Kosovo while introducing the main issues that come along with such aspects. The second objective was to relate such issues to startups and introduce the idea of startups contributing into overcoming such issues mostly through providing evidence from research and various types of data. And lastly the third objective of this study was to provide examples from other countries through providing insights about their innovation and startups environment.
FDI is the main source of external financing in Kosovo. Foreign direct investment can increase the formation of fixed capital and assist in the balance of payments. FDI has the potential to generate employment, productivity growth, transfer capability and new technology, increase exports and contribute to the development long-term economic development of Kosovo. It means that we present impact of FDI-s economic development and growth in Kosovo, and the factors that have affected the changes that occurred in the periods presented. FDI impact on economic growth and functions of economic growth based the data used belong to the period from 2007- 2016, the main factors influencing the adaptation of FDI in Kosovo, analysis of the perspectives mentioned.
THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY
Understanding and implementation of environmental education within the Kosovo curriculum framework Schools had difficulties in understanding and implementing the new Kosovo curriculum framework, and specifically the environmental education embedded in specific subjects of the curriculum, and environmental education addressed through topics or themes in the curriculum that are addressed in an inter-disciplinary manner. There were convergent and divergent teachers attitudes about environmental education, especially the way in which it was introduced in all curricula and in terms of the tendency to address values, ethics, attitudes and behaviours. Asked about the advantages of environmental education embedded in specific subjects of the curriculum, a teacher tells that „teaching ERL across subjects gives students an understanding of environment in connection with science, art, technology, citizenship, language, etc. Students are stimulated to learn across all subjects, and develop literacy, numeracy and personnel learning and thinking skills‟.
Abstract. Kosovo, as a new state in the region and Europe, has a relatively new, with serious allegations towards achieving upward-trend sustainability. After a deep transformation from a centralized economy, in an open market economy, with all the destruction made during the war, Kosovo has managed to create the basis for economic development, in parallel with regional developments. Goals that the relevant institutions have set themselves about the economy, related to enhancing the competitiveness of the economy on the regional, European and global trade, by reducing trade deficit, increasing exports, absorption of the foreign direct investments, membership in regional and global organizations, by being already a member of CEFTA, IMF, World Bank, EBRD, ECB and aspires to the WTO. As a new country for business development, facing all the current challenges, Kosovo offers numerous opportunities and a wide range of business activities, such in agriculture, tourism, viticulture, extraction and processing of metals, technological innovation, food industry, etc. But particularly, it is worth mentioning great opportunities for economic development, which are linked with many natural resources owned by Kosovo, then a relatively young age workforce, with an average age of about 30, suitable climatic conditions, very favorable fiscal policy, where taxes are the lowest in the region, the geographical position, which makes Kosovo a regional economic crossroad, modern institutions in supporting business, the euro, which avoids the risk of the Eurozone and financial stability, assisted in particular by the IMF. With these features, Kosovo represents an ideal model, which can be used in the best way for investment. However, the relevant institutions should work further to promote investment opportunities in parallel with overcoming the challenges that are damaging the image of the state.
aspects that are hardly possible to be reached through traditional marketing means. 3
One of the main challenges for traditional methods is measuring the marketing efforts and return on investment. Whereas, digital marketing tools can provide accurate, detailed results of the various types of mediums used. 4 Moreover, it can easily be measured which campaign, medium, approach is working better based on these detailed results offered by digital marketing tools. Return on investment can be easily measured through these tools which help it increase providing the ability to reach large, targeted audiences in a short time.
physical protection of witnesses, temporary relocation, change of residence, financial support etc. 9 , in practice it does not feel or felt little spirit of the implementation of this law, it reflects the refusal of witnesses to testify, even for security reasons. But this spirit of insecurity felt self prosecutors for not excluding- corruption, unprofessionalism, nepotism; political interference is exactly the element of uncertainty that affects the inefficiency of the prosecution. This was best demonstrated by the fact, when prosecutors refuse to apply to Kosovo Special Prosecution Office, which is responsible for the prosecution, investigation and indictment of serious crimes 10 . So even in the best case, when a prosecutor has the will to implement the law, can not guarantee success in the prosecution of crime, the prosecutor lacks security. Referring to the writing and electronic media, civil society, there can not be even a single day is not called upon the prosecutor, directly or indirectly, that we have to deal with suspected violations of the law. On the institution of prosecution in Kosovo crimes plaguing many free bleached, reflecting uncertainty civilians and lack of cooperation in the future with the justice system. Precedents have no negative cases in the prosecution's work, for example. a prosecutor from the Kosovo Special Prosecution, which for 24 months of work from the state budget gets nearly 50 thousand euros, in this period has raised only one indictment, and it was for having in a possession a gun without permission. So it is obvious that this institution is not consistent with the events taking place in society.
Building the case for automation
One problem with this multi-layered approach is the seeming complexity of the result- ing system. Even with all security processes and policies properly documented and the datacenter personnel trained, there is far too much information to be left to manual processing. Hence the security processes need to be automated and implemented as part of the management system that oversees the cloud environment in all datacenters and compute nodes. A centralized management system for command and control can ensure systematic and consistent implementation of security.
The obvious lesson is that national capacity for data collection must be taken into account and made a feature of programming. This will likely involve engaging a range of national institutions, both within the security and justice sectors (e.g. police research departments) and more generally (e.g. national statistics offices and national planning and development agencies), and also non-governmental bodies such as universities, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the media. Securitysystem institutions may need support to improve routine collection of administrative data, much of which will be activity- and output-focused (e.g. recorded crime, personnel attendance rates, numbers of arrests and detentions, etc). National bodies such as planning ministries and audit offices may over time provide more qualitative, outcome-focused data. Civil society can provide an alternative source to official data, providing its own information and analysis or demanding data from institutions. Ultimately, the goal should also be to strengthen the capacity of oversight actors, ranging from the executive to parliaments, the judiciary and civil society, all of whom can contribute their own evaluations and reports on the securitysystem and on particular programmes. The scope and purpose of such reports may be framed to suit national rather than donor purposes and will probably be subject to problems arising from low capacity. Nonetheless, reports by these institutions will often carry greater political weight than the average donor-backed evaluation, especially if they are independent from both the programmes they are evaluating and the national security and justice system more generally.
The Najaf-based Badr Organisation and the Baghdad-based Mahdi militia have, since the US occupation of Iraq, battled each other both politically and militarily for the control of the Shia community in Iraq. 29
As a result of the January 2005 elections, the SCIRI rose to power and became a major player in Iraqi politics together with the Kurds. In fact, the two main Kurdish formations, the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK), joined efforts with the SCIRI to form the two successive governments in Iraq in 2005 and 2006. Relations between President Jalal Talabani’s PUK and Mustafa Barzani’s KDP and the Shia-dominated Badr Brigades (the SCIRI’s military arm) go as far back as the Iran-Iraq war. Both Shia and Kurdish groups enjoyed the backing and military support of the Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guards in their fight against Saddam Hussein. A senior SCIRI official described the relationship between Shia and Kurds as follows: ‘Racism prevented the Kurds from joining the political system, sectarianism prevented the Shiites, while tyranny repressed Kurds and Shiites alike’. 30
The hybrid cloud model is a merger of two or more kinds of cloud deployment models such as private, public or hybrid. The participating clouds are bound together by a standard set of protocols. It enables the involved organization to serve its requirements in their own private cloud and in the case of critical needs cloud bursting for load-balancing occur they can avail services from the public cloud. It caters the virtual IT enabled services through a mixture of both public and private clouds services. Hybrid cloud provides more secure control of the data & applications and allows various clients to access data/information over the Internet. The hybrid cloud has an open architecture that allows interfaces with other management systems. Hybrid cloud can describe configuration combining a local computing device, such as a Plug computing system with cloud working administrations. It can also depict configurations combining virtual and physical, collocated virtualized environment that requires physical servers, routers, or other hardware components. Cloud architects need redundancy across data centers to moderate the impact of failure in a single data center in the cloud. An absence of repetition can turn into a genuine security hazard in the hybrid cloud when redundant copies of data are not distributed across data centers. It is convenient to shift instances of the virtual machine within data centers rather than between large sets of data. Cloud architects can implement redundancy using multiple data centers from a single provider, multiple public cloud providers or a hybrid cloud when you
In addition to network-centric security methods, a few user-centric ML technologies have been applied in recent years to analyze, predict and make personalized decisions. The rapidly expanding sensor networks and smartphones have subjected citizens to many privacy and security con- cerns. Lee and Lee  adopted SVM to design a multi- sensor-based authentication system for smartphone users. The key idea was to learn users’ behavior patterns and cor- responding environmental features. In 2017, researchers  developed a novel permission mechanism for mobile plat- forms based on ML technology. However, similar efforts, such as  and , have a common problem, that is, the data used for analysis cannot avoid of the subjectiveness of participants and may not sufficient reflect the situation in a real IoT environment.
Which means more sources that help to flood the chosen target they attack. DDoS is also categorized under Indirect attacks.
Which means that malicious software code is spread to multiple computers, which in turn are used to perform the DDoS attack, that is, a third party is used in the attack to achieve the target. The threat that consists of DoS strategies is something that is relevant to many industries today . The threat is more serious for cloud services than for local solutions in two different sentences. Should the DoS or DDo attacks happen from a cloud environment, it would cause a lot of it potential computing power of the cloud supplier to exploit the attacks. This means, however, that those who perform the attack must manage to control more virtual machines with the cloud provider, which would normally happen through malicious software spread. Alternatively, the cloud service itself is the target of the attack, which would cause the effect to be much greater. Instead of affecting only the selected service being affected, the system of the cloud provider would be affected.
3.2. Vehicular Cloud
The vehicles can connect together forming a vehicular cloud that will offer storage space, computing resources, sensor readings, etc. as an on-demand service to clients. The clients could be individuals, corporations, or government departments such as the meteorology department, police, or highway authorities. Moreover, with cameras onboard vehicles and high-speed connectivity, the police or emergency services can even request images from vehicles for an area that they want to monitor such as the site of an accident. Ericsson has already developed its own Connected Vehicle Cloud (CVC) for vehicle telematics and is behind Volvo Cars Sensus, which is an infotainment system for Volvo vehicles . The CVC is designed to open new business opportunities by providing the vehicle data to companies, allowing developers to develop new applications by giving them an open platform, and facilitating the drivers by connecting them to the manufacturers and other service providers.
Rain water harvesting during the surplus periods for use during the critical periods has become a feasible strategy in different parts of the world. This is to bridge dry spells through supplemental irrigation of rain fed crops in smallholder farming systems to improve the lives of rural people at low cost and with minimal outside inputs. This could be achieved with water harvesting system, which involves collecting runoff in small storage structures. Water harvesting can reduce the risk of crop failure by facilitating early planting which allows the maximum use of the rainfall, thereby insuring the crop against rainfall irregularities. Efficient collection and storage of rainwater is critical in food insecure areas with increasing pressure on land. Capturing of more runoff from rainfall and the efficient storage and use of the water has become the component of the national strategy in combating drought and famine (OFS,
The shifting of organizational and technological responsibilities to the private sector also prompts related questions about liability. If private sector technologies do not deliver, what does this mean from a legal perspective? For example, let us assume a sophisticated network of chemical sensors fails to detect a toxic agent in the Washington, DC-area Metro system. Who gets the blame? Absent indemnification agreements, can government sue the firm? Is it more appropriate for citizens’ litigation to be directed toward government or the business itself? Joint action means sharing accountability for successes and failures in homeland security. Security, however, is the state’s first duty. It is government, not business, that must ultimately make critical decisions and take decisive actions in homeland security. How to reconcile these positions? Does public-private sector collaboration mean mutual or individual culpability for mistakes? These lines of inquiry require further investigation.
Keen city models should support improvement while not trading off on information protection and security. Brilliant city arrangements include multi-faceted improvements, completed by a differing biological community of suppliers including front line innovation including basic and complex ICT executions.
Notwithstanding, expanding ICT unpredictability infers expanding powerlessness, both to malignant assaults and accidental occurrences. By having hearty security and data insurance system and strategies set up, wellbeing for the two nationals and endeavors can be guaranteed. It is presently imperative to build up the great practices distinguished up until this point, to expand on and thoughtfully improve the recommended arrangements. When the arrangements are sent by and by, these should be assessed thusly and continuous learning mechanism should be connected.
16. However, any form of public intervention in the satcom commercial market should not distort it. Any governance and ownership model of any dual use Satcom system may not be able to take Copernicus or Galileo as a blueprint. For instance, while institutional control & guarantee of service are mandatory for GOVSATCOM, different options may be considered for the ownership of infrastructure, including infrastructures privately owned by service providers.
If the security and military situation is analyzed, the estimates are that Kosovo does not face any serious and direct threats from the Western Balkan countries except Serbia, which has territorial claims and often threatens to use force.
"The only threat to Kosovo is derived from Serbia's hostile defence and security policies, which give its military forces political direction. Therefore, it is difficult to believe that Belgrade does not have military planning for unforeseen situations against Kosovo. Indeed, it is clear that Kosovo does not even present a military threat to Serbia, whether in the foreseeable future or in any foreseeable future, regardless of the "security" of this non-existent issue from Belgrade, which, in essence, is a consequence of Belgrade's unwillingness to recognize Kosovo's statehood. In addition to this, the Pristina-Belgrade dialogue, assisted by Brussels, has not touched confidence-building measures between the two countries on security and defence issues. Achieving a significant normalization of relations between Kosovo and Serbia that would even go to mutual recognition is unpredictable without addressing the current doctrinal confrontation between the two countries and without their move towards defence co-operation" (Peci, 2014, p. 64).