I have completed an extensive qualitative analysis on the ground by conducting 12 semi- structured interviews with scholars who have done work on Kosovo’s security sector or are members of the public institutions who either conduct security oversight or are subjects of classified information. Due to anonymity principle of conducting research more detailed information about the interviewees nor the institutions they represent is not disclosed. The process of reaching the individuals at steak was very lengthy and stressful because of their unwillingness to disclose relevant information. The interview requests were sent via email to 22 different individuals and institutions, however, only 5 of them responded and became part of the sample. Ten of the interviews were conducted in-person, whereas only two were conducted via email. The interviews were scheduled across 2 months due to the difficulties in reaching the interviewees. Each interviewee was provided a consent form, while the permission to record the interview was obtained only from five of the interviewees. The interviews were structured so as to get insights into various aspects of the securityvetting in Kosovo, its challenges and
The aim of this research study was to investigate the startup ecosystem and entrepreneurship environment in Kosovo through analyzing their situation and the conditions in which they operate. The project addressed challenges and opportunities of startups and new businesses in Kosovo and how they could be seen as one of the main tools to drive economic, political and social change through benefiting the society in various aspects. The study aims to emphasize the imperative role of startups and instead of viewing startups and issues as two different aspects, we can correlate the two, and ‘use’ startups to overcome these issues, namely innovate in areas where the most critical issues are prevalent in our society. The first objective of this study was to pinpoint the current economic, political and social situation and conditions in Kosovo while introducing the main issues that come along with such aspects. The second objective was to relate such issues to startups and introduce the idea of startups contributing into overcoming such issues mostly through providing evidence from research and various types of data. And lastly the third objective of this study was to provide examples from other countries through providing insights about their innovation and startups environment.
This study tries to identify the challenges and opportunities of SMEs in developing countries in applying a sustainable business strategy as well as the barriers to doing business, through the example of SMEs in the Republic of Kosovo. In order to identify the opportunities and barriers in doing business in SMEs, research was conducted with 249 small and medium-sized enterprises. Out of the 250 surveyed enterprises, only one did not respond. The research additionally seeks to identify the challenges of developing adequate strategies for SMEs in developing countries, given the growing impact of large enterprises and corporations on the effects of the market economy. The research results were obtained in the period of September - December 2016. The research data show that the majority of registered enterprises are micro- businesses; the most preferred sector is trade; the most failed type of enterprise is individual business; the cost of the product represents the biggest obstacle in implementing the desired strategy; Kosovo's enterprises partially use Ansoff's recommendations for product development strategies, while most use market development strategies; the main bargains in doing business have been identified. These data and analysis will be useful for businesses, business owners, academics, students and policy makers.
As e new approach which started to be implemented in the last decade it involves a number of challenges and opportunities for building a sustainable system for organizing and implementation of the environmental education in order to raise the knowledge and awareness of youngster on environmental issues, environmental protection as well as skills, attitudes and values for sustainable development. In these regard, data for this study have been provided through the questionnaire with 630 teachers, who took part in the interview from six municipalities, school observation and focus group discussion.
From this work we have learned how to diverse business and what are the criteria for a business to be characterized as a small business? We also have learned which institutions are dealing with the economic issues of this kind of business such as, KBRA, TAK, USAID, the American Chamber of Commerce, Kosovo Chamber of Commerce and other chambers, and what are the opportunities offered by these institutions to get information, or how to get the information from their reports and have access to information for female entrepreneurs. The most valuable contribution is providing World Bank report "Doing Business" that provides undisputed assistance for published information that were used to compile the analysis of this paper.
Kosovo is undergoing significant construction period the state not only politically, but in the development and strengthening of the economy in general. Economic development and growth for the country's welfare is the primary goal. Foreign investments play an important role in this process. In Kosovo, these investments are necessary. Paper made a fundamental analysis of the field of foreign investment, to analyze their impact on the economy, and the challenges and opportunities for foreign investment. FDI is considered as an important mechanism in the development of a country's economy. Therefore, the paper aims to present a summary analysis of investments in the field of Kosovo to produce economic indicators that show the development of these investments and analyze current challenges and improve the economic and legal environment for investment in the future.
One of the main challenges for traditional methods is measuring the marketing efforts and return on investment. Whereas, digital marketing tools can provide accurate, detailed results of the various types of mediums used. 4 Moreover, it can easily be measured which campaign, medium,
not implemented properly. Moreover, Ms. Hashani states that, “ in one of the recent meetings organized by the Kosovo Chamber of Commerce, in regards to this issue, the employers have said that if this trend continues, they will not employ women any more or they will employ less ” . Thus, this is a very concerning fact that affects the position of women and their efforts towards career building. Also employers lately have been using different means just to avoid the compensation plan for maternity leave. According to Alush Berisha, who is a Coordinator for Labor and Social Issues Activities in Friedrich Ebert Stiftung Prishtina, employers are being more selective while hiring people. That being said, women that are in a relationship, or plan to get married are constantly discriminated and are short of job opportunities, since employees are trying to use all legal remedies in order to avoid the payment of the costs of maternity leave.
Abstract. Kosovo, as a new state in the region and Europe, has a relatively new, with serious allegations towards achieving upward-trend sustainability. After a deep transformation from a centralized economy, in an open market economy, with all the destruction made during the war, Kosovo has managed to create the basis for economic development, in parallel with regional developments. Goals that the relevant institutions have set themselves about the economy, related to enhancing the competitiveness of the economy on the regional, European and global trade, by reducing trade deficit, increasing exports, absorption of the foreign direct investments, membership in regional and global organizations, by being already a member of CEFTA, IMF, World Bank, EBRD, ECB and aspires to the WTO. As a new country for business development, facing all the current challenges, Kosovo offers numerous opportunities and a wide range of business activities, such in agriculture, tourism, viticulture, extraction and processing of metals, technological innovation, food industry, etc. But particularly, it is worth mentioning great opportunities for economic development, which are linked with many natural resources owned by Kosovo, then a relatively young age workforce, with an average age of about 30, suitable climatic conditions, very favorable fiscal policy, where taxes are the lowest in the region, the geographical position, which makes Kosovo a regional economic crossroad, modern institutions in supporting business, the euro, which avoids the risk of the Eurozone and financial stability, assisted in particular by the IMF. With these features, Kosovo represents an ideal model, which can be used in the best way for investment. However, the relevant institutions should work further to promote investment opportunities in parallel with overcoming the challenges that are damaging the image of the state.
These risks are more pronounced in the case of Internet banking. Firstly, the risk of technological changes has to be carefully watched. This is essential to update technologies and remain cost effective and customer friendly. The banks have to be careful about risks involved in agreements with third parties. The security is an important area of risk. In fact it will be very crucial for the expansion of Net Banking. Another important area will emerge out of cross-border implications as „E- Banking‟ breaks the geographical boundaries. Imposing regularity conditions on such transactions will be a difficult task.
The role of the courts in democratic countries, it is the final and decisive word of society. Kosovo society already known circumstances, there was a bitter experience with the judicial system in Kosovo last year, because in that system and let the justice never not given, but there were laboratories where servirë injustice. But today we have serious problems in the judiciary, even though a completely different nature. Factors that exacerbate and make inefficient judicial system in Kosovo are: corruption, political interference in the selection of staff and the decisions, nepotism, lack of professionalism, lack of courage and security to handle serious cases, the lack of an efficient mechanism ineffective punishment for personnel etc. Under the law, judges during the performance and decisions are independent, impartial, uninfluenced in any way from any natural or legal person, including public bodies 12 . So, if we refer
The first is academic manpower. Where are the professors who are able to teach computer security? Finding a instructor to teach crypto-math and protocols or to drone through a survey text is insufficient. Professors need to know, and students need to learn, the principles underpinning the design and implementation of secure systems — systems of computers — computers at the endpoints and multiple points in-between. Can sufficient talent be found to take this coherent approach? The lure of industry for those with advanced degrees and expertise in systemsecurity includes high salaries, interesting work, and, in start-ups, the possibility of fame and fortune. How can academe compete? Another challenge is academic advancement. At the 1997 Workshop on Education in Computer Security, one educator noted that the road to academic success does not include computer security: tenure committees are not conversant in this area and/or believe that the important research topics have already been mined. A young professor might think twice before choosing to hitch his wagon to the security star.
Information generated and delivered by medical devices are prone to security attacks. information might appear to be correct but it could be infected or corrupted by virus malware during data transmission. hackers may use this information to harm individual because on the basis of information generated by these sensor, caregiver take decision and makes treatment plan. So this corrupted information can cause life and death decisions. How then we can trust the treatment based on medical sensors data? This is a big challenge in IoT based health monitoring.
The vehicles can connect together forming a vehicular cloud that will offer storage space, computing resources, sensor readings, etc. as an on-demand service to clients. The clients could be individuals, corporations, or government departments such as the meteorology department, police, or highway authorities. Moreover, with cameras onboard vehicles and high-speed connectivity, the police or emergency services can even request images from vehicles for an area that they want to monitor such as the site of an accident. Ericsson has already developed its own Connected Vehicle Cloud (CVC) for vehicle telematics and is behind Volvo Cars Sensus, which is an infotainment system for Volvo vehicles . The CVC is designed to open new business opportunities by providing the vehicle data to companies, allowing developers to develop new applications by giving them an open platform, and facilitating the drivers by connecting them to the manufacturers and other service providers.
Like several developing economies, South Asian countries have a long history of establishment of Public Distribution System for provision of cheap food to the poor. An earlier version was rationing of food grains and other important food items under which the needy eligible households can by a certain maximum quantity at controlled price – lower than that in the open market. Overtime, all the countries in the region instituted sizeable Public Distribution Systems (PDS) to meet the minimum needs of the poor (FAO, 1998). The PDS are run through domestic procurement at pre-announced prices and often resorting to forced purchases and imports. The PDS involved massive subsidies and incidental costs. For example, incidental costs of private traders are much lower than those of the state- owned enterprises in Pakistan (Salam, 2003). Sri Lanka had to switch from cheap food delivery to food stamps programme due to heavy cost involved the earlier system. Similarly, India re-launched the PDS as Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) in 1997 due to high misuse of resources and widespread mismanagement (Kattumuri, 2011). Nepal‘s food distribution system has a very limited capacity to distribute cheap food in remote area of the country. The system is criticized for poor funding and inability to reach the poorest (Baidya, 2004). All this suggest that the initiatives were in right direction however, due to poor implementation only limited benefits reached the poor. The price differential and incidental costs involved not only increased burden on the government exchequers but also lead to leakage and rent seeking (Iqbal and Rashid, 2012).
This section discusses the criteria for potential participants, the number of people recruited, the location and the approach used. The recruitment was based on a number of data collection activities and the characteristics within the study population. Gaining access to schools to conduct a research study is usually difficult, mainly on the grounds of protection and safety for the young children. The head teachers of the selected schools were initially contacted by phone, followed by an email containing an attachment containing a one-page overview, the research objectives, an informed consent form (Appendix 5), a parent or carer consent pro forma (Appendix 6), ethical guidelines, a current Disclosure and Barring Service check (DBS) and a letter of introduction (Appendix 7). In return, the contacted schools agreed and interview dates were arranged. In addition, approval was granted by the university ethics committee vetting to ensure that the rules and regulations guiding the research were maintained. The university ethics committee has a responsibility to ensure that all research and teaching exercises carried out under university’s auspices are consistent with the established ethical principles. This study recognises that research is an on-going process. Therefore, the recruitment process was designed to be flexible enough to accommodate any changes that might occur, such as modifications to the research questions, the emergence of new issues on inclusion, a selected participant declining participation at some point, or their data proving not to be useful. It was important to work with the LA consultants at EMTAS in order to build trust with the selected schools. These consultants work extensively with the families and schools within the communities on issues of inclusion in education. When the consultants were identified, they were quite happy to participate and a meeting was scheduled. They advised on potential school participants and provided the contact names of head teachers of schools that might wish to participate. They forwarded emails to the head teachers to indicate their interest. In Stratop and Rivervalley LAs, ten head teachers were contacted (five from each). Four of the ten schools indicated an interest.
ABSTRACT. The focus of the Special Feature on “Multicriteria assessment of food system sustainability” is on the complex challenges of making and communicating overall assessments of food systems sustainability based on multiple and varied criteria. Four papers concern the choice and development of appropriate tools for making multicriteria sustainability assessments that handle built-in methodological conflicts and trade-offs between different assessment objectives. They underscore the value of linking diverse methods and tools, or nesting and stepping their deployment, to help build resilience and sustainability. They conclude that there is no one tool, one framework, or one indicator set that is appropriate for the different purposes and contexts of sustainability assessment. The process of creating the assessment framework also emerges as important: if the key stakeholders are not given a responsible and full role in the development of any assessment tool, it is less likely to be fit for their purpose and they are unlikely to take ownership or have confidence in it. Six other papers reflect on more fundamental considerations of how assessments are based in different scientific perspectives and on the role of values, motivation, and trust in relation to assessments in the development of more sustainable food systems. They recommend a radical break with the tradition of conducting multicriteria assessment from one hegemonic perspective to considering multiple perspectives. Collectively the contributions to this Special Feature identify three main challenges for improved multicriteria assessment of food system sustainability: (i) how to balance different types of knowledge to avoid that the most well- known, precise, or easiest to measure dimensions of sustainability gets the most weight; (ii) how to expose the values in assessment tools and choices to allow evaluation of how they relate to the ethical principles of sustainable food systems, to societal goals, and to the interests of different stakeholders; and (iii) how to enable communication in such a way that the assessments can effectively contribute to the development of more sustainable food systems by facilitating a mutual learning process between researchers and stakeholders. The wider question of how to get from assessment to transformation goes across all three challenges. We strongly recommend future research on the strengths, weaknesses, and complementarities of taking a values-based rather than a performance- based approach to promoting the resilience and sustainability of coupled ecological, economic, and social systems for ensuring food security and agroecosystem health in the coming millennium.
, and it includes various types of sensors and mobile devices. It enables communication between physiological sensors by incorporating Bluetooth protocol to exchange data. Different design principles are covered as system extensibility, interoperability, personalization to provide better functional features and monitoring services, used by both patients and HPs in a remote health monitoring system.The drawback of these systems is Such systems are difficult to use, extend and sustain.Uddin et al. proposed a tier-based End-to-End architecture that has a Patient-Centric Agent(PCA)to monitor the patient continuously. In their system, data is inserted into the personal blockchain, which does data sharing among health care professionals and integrates into electronic health records. PCA manages multiple block chains for the same patient, and the modiﬁcation of each block with a preﬁx tree to minimize energy consumption and incorporate secure transaction payments. The blockchain components preserve privacy during data collection from wearable body sensors. The architecture establishes a Body Sensor network by incorporating Smartphone(Sensor Data Provider), Patient Centric Agent, Blockchain, and Healthcare Provider Interface. Security and privacy issues are handled by using PCA based End to End architecture, Lightweight encryption and authentication. The less power consumption of devices and lightweight communication protocol makes it more adaptable. Sometimes infrastructure failure, operational errors and wrong data routing may create problems.Prabal Verma and Sandeep Sood have presented the remote patient health monitoring system for smart homes. They used the concept of fog computing to develop an intelligent gateway. They focus on the connecting network using the gateway in-
The percentage contribution of Primary sectors to total GSDP of the State has declined to 20.74 percent level in 2009-10 from 50.35% in 1980-81. Though there is a tremendous increase in absolute figure but the speedy development of secondary and tertiary sectors has lowered its comparative contribution to state domestic product. Himachal Pradesh being the least urbanized state of India, still keeps its people mainly dependent on agriculture and related pursuits. Though the contribution of the Primary sector in the State Domestic Product has declined but secondary and tertiary Sectors are now competing with each other for dominant share of the economy. However, 57% of the main workers are either cultivators or are agricultural labourers (Census 2001). This indicates the existence of low productivity per worker in the agriculture sector. The Agriculture sector has several challenges in the tough conditions specific to mountainous regions. Irrigation facilities are particularly underdeveloped, with more than 77% of the net sown area in the State being un-irrigated, compared to 61% at the All India level. Clearly, the Government has to intervene to fill critical gaps in accelerating the pace of agricultural development. Industrial activity in Himachal Pradesh is largely concentrated along the area bordering adjoining States of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh for obvious reason of better market accessibility. There is very little private investment in the interior areas of the State and this call for appropriate interventions by the Finance Commission, Union Government and the State government.
After the tragic incident of 9/11, flight-over and base forming rights were presented by Uzbekistan to ally powers and the U.S. Nevertheless, in May 2005, basing rights for U.S. at Karshi-Khanabad were ended when U.S. censure and other acts associated to the Uzbek government‟s supposedly aggressive onslaught on turbulence in the southern city of Andiron. It fortified event supported by the U.S. as per the government of Uzbekistan (Akiner, 2005, 10). Decision of Uzbekistan was supported by China and Russia, through the Declaration of SCO issued on July 5, 2005. In addition, Reintegration was performed for Uzbekistan on June 2006 into the CSTO (Laruelle, 2008, p-17). A media impression was formed by Uzbekistan, on 20 June, 2012, a note was sent to the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) telling them it was suspending its membership. For Uzbekistan, unluckily a verdict of the summit of CSTO made official in its lawfully obligatory documents specified that no any member republic might house the bases of military of a republic that was not member without the harmony of all the other member republics (Литовкин, 2012).