Top PDF Selection of instruments for level measurement in the process industry

Selection of instruments for level measurement in the process industry

Selection of instruments for level measurement in the process industry

Ključne riječi: Mjerenje razine, metode mjerenja razine, mjerni pretvornici i osjetila razine Abstract: In this graduate thesis, the methods of measurement and the devices used to measure the level of liquids and liquids in the process industry are described. Knowing the operating principles of some level measuring devices, it is possible to choose the appropriate measurement method for each application. Proper selection can significantly reduce investment costs, increase reliability of production processes, and reduce montage and maintenance costs. In each particular case of application, selection of instruments is influenced by a number of factors. The selection of measuring transducers and sensors depends on the expected extent of the change in the measured size, its frequency, expected metering accuracy, type and level of the standard output signal, its own consumption, influence or interaction of the measured size with other physical sizes. When selecting measurement instrumentation, it is useful to conduct conversations with experts who have practical experience and who will contact technologists, service providers, contractors and automation companies.
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Electronic Measurement Instruments. Selection Guide

Electronic Measurement Instruments. Selection Guide

Frequency Range from 9 kHz up to 7.5 GHz Min. -161dBm Displayed Average Noise Level (DANL) Min. < -98dBc/Hz @ 10kHz Offset Phase Noise Level Measurement Uncertainty up to < 0.8dB Up to 10Hz Minimum Resolution Bandwidth (RBW) Up to 7.5GHz Tracking Generator (DSA8XX-TG) Advanced Measurement functions (Opt.) EMI Filter & Quasi-Peak Detector Kit(Opt.) VSWR Measurement Kit(Opt.)

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Measurement instruments and policies in Africa

Measurement instruments and policies in Africa

Surreptitious policies During the 1990s, foreign interventions were “depoliticised” and based on technical criteria managed by international actors, bypassing local powers (Ferguson, 1990). Contemporary intervention methods still have a technical focus but take into account institutions and the political context. Actions are seen as being more effective when adapted to the local context. Moritz Hunsmann’s article is a clear illustration of this idea. He studies an experimental project, E4A (Evidence for Action), promoted by the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development (DFID). This project seeks to identify the reasons why maternal and neonatal mortality are not made visible, so it can engage in evidence-based advocacy. Here, the issue is voluntarily politicised, on the basis of the argument that health actions are a key element of a country’s political economy. It is no longer a question of refusing politics to dominate through techniques, but of politicising health problems. The aim is to encourage political commitments to fight maternal mortality through movements on different scales (local, national and international). Evidence is produced as part of a constant process that involves collecting and summarising data at the international level; establishing good governance and performance indicators to evaluate, compare and promote “effective” actions and experiments. Hunsmann’s admirable analysis shows the ambiguous and particularly invasive effects of this project, which reveals a new method of social engineering.
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An Anlytical Study of Attitude of Workers in Scientific& Electronic Instruments Manufactring Industry at Ambala Over Role of Recommdendations in Recruitment-Selection Process in Their Organizations

An Anlytical Study of Attitude of Workers in Scientific& Electronic Instruments Manufactring Industry at Ambala Over Role of Recommdendations in Recruitment-Selection Process in Their Organizations

The main objective of this study is to know the attitude of workers working in scientific instruments manufacturing units of Ambala regarding significance of recommendationsand reverences in the recruitment and selection process. In other words to know their perception over getting employment only on the basis of their ability, without any recommendation or approach.

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SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY: A SUPPLIER SELECTION MODEL WITH THE ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS

SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY: A SUPPLIER SELECTION MODEL WITH THE ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS

In this paper, there are three vendors chosen in the suiting category who produce garments for a global apparel company based in the United States (US). Two of its vendors are located in Turkey and the third vendor is located in Egypt. The goal is to select the supplier that can provide the best material aligned with company strategies and is willing to build a collaborative relationship in the long-term. This goal is placed on the first level of the hierarchy. The competitive priorities proposed by Watts are adopted with the addition of “trust” as the criterion in the supplier selection model. Thus, six criteria—namely cost, quality, delivery, flexibility, innovation and trust—are identified to achieve this goal, and constitute the second level of the hierarchy. The third level of the hierarchy involves the subcriteria that are chosen regarding the success factors for the apparel supplier (Chan & Chan, 2004).
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Measurement and control of level using load cell in de-inking process

Measurement and control of level using load cell in de-inking process

Recycling is an old tradition of the paper industry. The first papers were manufactured from old rags, and recovered papers have always been a source of fibres for the paper industry. Nowadays, out of the nearly 370 Millions tons paper and board produced worldwide, more or less half of them are but since 15-20 years there is a drastic increase of the use of recovered papers to produce, through deinking, white grades such as newsprint, tissue, market pulp and also more recently magazine papers (SC&LWC)…Deinking is indeed a sophisticated way of recycling, high grade papers can be produced by using this technique. By using the dinking technology, where grade papers can be produced from post-consumer or post-industrial recovered papers. This means that the components which cause a reduction of brightness- the inks- must be removed, but also that the additives are contaminants. They include various grades of adhesives (such as binding materials, labels, tapes), staples, plastic firms, links, varnishes, and
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Applying measurement standards to evolution education assessment instruments

Applying measurement standards to evolution education assessment instruments

In 2016 and 2017 we (LM, CK, AW, KS) carried out searches of Google Scholar, ERIC, and Web of Science using the following keyword searches: “student under- standing of evolution”; “student understanding of natural selection”; “student acceptance of evolution”. We com- piled a list of papers that referenced these key phrases, focusing on ones that were aimed at college undergradu- ates. We reviewed abstracts to identify papers that spe- cifically mentioned measuring student understanding or acceptance of evolution using the following criteria: population—undergraduates; level/course—any; content assessed—evolution understanding, evolution accept- ance, natural selection, genetic drift. If the information could not be readily assessed from the abstract, we exam- ined the methods section of the paper in more detail. In this initial review of the published literature it became clear that many of the papers we reviewed referenced using some portion of an earlier published instrument or set of questions. For example, many studies reported using portions of the original assessment developed by Bishop and Anderson (1990). We used this information to identify a set of 13 instruments that would become the focus of the remainder of our research, and that appeared to form the basis of many studies.
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Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process for the selection of maintenance policies within petroleum industry

Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process for the selection of maintenance policies within petroleum industry

Abstract. The selection of the maintenance policies is considered to be a complex matter at the strategic level and a trade-off between the criteria that should be considered is required to achieve the optimum maintenance selection. The purpose of this study is to develop a Fuzzy-Analytic Hierarchy Process multi criteria decision making model for the selection of maintenance policies within the petroleum industry. The model enables practitioners to decompose the structure of the hierarchy which assists in identifying the main criteria, sub-criteria and alternatives that impact on the selection of maintenance activities. The proposed AHP model is validated and in addition a comparison between classic and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process is conducted in terms of different derivation methods. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is performed to validate the response of each derivation method at different inconsistency ratio which proved that the proposed model can be considered as the most accurate presentation of the criteria, sub- criteria and alternatives that should be used to decide upon the strategic maintenance policies within petroleum industry.
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The Measurement of Quality Performance with Sigma Measurement and Cost of Poor Quality as a Basis for Selection Process of Quality Improvement

The Measurement of Quality Performance with Sigma Measurement and Cost of Poor Quality as a Basis for Selection Process of Quality Improvement

For Sigma measurement, the result is 1.4%, for which there are 388 defect products out of observed 27880 products. This percentage of 1.4% is equal to yield (27780-388)-27780=0.986, or DPMO 14000. From σ table, quality performance for yield 0.986 is around 3.625σ to 3.7σ. That Sigma quality performance can be analyzed through comparison either with company standard, or industrial standard. Since there is still no industrial standard in galvanized industry in Indonesia, this Sigma performance will be compared to company standard, i.e. the standard that company has set as a target of quality performance. That quality performance is a little bit higher than average quality performance that become company standard, that is 3.5 σ. Thus by this measurement method, the quality performance of inconsistent galvanized defect still in range of good performance. Besides measuring defect with Sigma, it is also conducted a measurement of cost of poor quality. The components of cost of poor quality measurement for product with inconsistent galvanized defect are listed below.
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Selection of Method in Construction Industry by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)

Selection of Method in Construction Industry by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)

6 The delay in IBS implementation and acceptance in the construction industry in Malaysia is largely driven by the lack of knowledge of IBS in the industry. In addition, the lack of exposure to IBS technology has contributed to the structure analysis and design of the poorly installed components in the manufacturing plant [18]. It further leads to problems when assembling the components resulting to difficulty prior to fitting the installation process [19]. According to [20] many small contractors are in hesitant to embrace IBS system and choose to remain employed the conventional method. The rationale of this lies in the fact that, contractors are formerly adapted with the conventional system and they presume that the available technology system are appropriate and suitable for them in handling with small scale projects. In similar vein, among the constraints and challenges identified in implementing IBS for construction projects are the financial problems and constraints faced by small contractors who have made it difficult for them to build a manufacturing plant that is in desperate need of high and demanding capital investment. Eventually, it was also reported some contractors in Malaysia is affected from poor efficiency and financial performance to commit in IBS [21]. Figure 8 below illustrates the sensitivity analysis of each construction method with respect to the alternatives i.e. the grade of contractors. From the figure, observable remark can be made that contractor G7 dominates in embracing the IBS technology and design and build rather than the conventional method. Thus, it can be presume that with the higher financial capabilities borne by the contractor (G7), the higher their willingness to adopt new technology than the conventional method. Additionally, low- grade contractors (G1), their level of readiness to adopt the latest technology is also relatively low. This can be seen from the diagram where G1 contractors embrace more on conventional methods rather than design and built and IBS.
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Scale Construction: Developing Reliable and Valid Measurement Instruments

Scale Construction: Developing Reliable and Valid Measurement Instruments

Bass’ work in this area began in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Initially, Bass and his colleagues utilized both an inductive and deductive approach for generating items to assess the transformational leadership construct. Bass began inductively deriving a taxonomy of the transformational leadership process, and then he developed a questionnaire for future inquiries in this domain. In his first study, Bass asked 70 industry executives from a variety of work organizations to describe individuals whom they had encountered in their own careers who “raised their awareness about issues of consequence, shifted them to higher level needs and influenced them to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the group or
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Recruitment and Selection Practices in Business Process Outsourcing Industry

Recruitment and Selection Practices in Business Process Outsourcing Industry

Various studies revealed that attrition rate in BPO firms are at the highest because of better opportunities elsewhere. Employee leaving the job is considered attrition by one organization, it is looked at as talent acquisition by the other organization and to the individual it most often means a career move, economic growth and enhancement of the quality of life. In addition, most employees works with a company in a short period of time or attrition happens in first 120 days of hiring (Radhika, 2008) due to high stress level at the job, monotonous nature of the job, loss of identity, demand-supply disparity, vague values and vision, lack of positive direction, wrong hiring policies, mismatched measures and rewards, overwork and burnout. Attrition rate is a burning issue for HR department because an organization faces problems. This is because today businesses are more dependent than ever before on their top performers to innovate and provide services that differentiate a company from its fierce competitor (Anantharaja, 2009). According to Verma and Pooja’s (2011) research, the causes of attrition are different in relation to the gender. Results show that female employees feel more stressed because of work life imbalances and tend to leave jobs at an early stage of their career.
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Applying Analytical Hierarchy Process to Supplier Selection and Evaluation in the Hospitality Industry: A Multiobjective Approach

Applying Analytical Hierarchy Process to Supplier Selection and Evaluation in the Hospitality Industry: A Multiobjective Approach

items on the initial list. Based on analysis of survey results, the initial factor lists were refined, and a final set of hierarchical factors was selected. The expert panel provided an important resource of information throughout the entire study. Aided by the panel and published studies and using the AHP and Delphi method, an initial hierarchy of six first-level factors and some supporting second-level fac- tors was created. To minimize bias with respect to individual factors, a factor was deleted from the hierarchy if all members of the panel believed that it should be de- leted and retained if at least one panel member considered that it should be retained. Once selected, the elements of the hierarchy were incorporated in the creation of the survey instrument whose purpose was to validate and refine the initial hierar- chy. In total, 235 surveys were sent out to survey respondents, who were drawn from the management of Taiwanese hotels and restaurants that are well known and appear to provide high quality service. Of the 235 surveys sent, 23 were considered invalid and so were discarded, leaving 212 valid responses. When returned, the contents of the survey were analyzed via Expert Choice 2000 software. Duncan’s multiple range test was employed in testing significance of first-level factors of the hierarchy to adjust for use of multiple second-level factors. Moreover, Cronbach’s α was calculated for each of the six first-level factors in order to test for consist- ency of agreement among respondents as to the factor’s importance. The resulting hierarchy was then analyzed by way of Expert Choice 2000. Global numerical priorities were calculated for each first-level factor, and global and local priorities were calculated for each second-level factor. In this way, the relative importance of each factor in the process of selecting a seafood supplier was determined.
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Introduction. Selection of Instruments for Inclusion in this Brief 1

Introduction. Selection of Instruments for Inclusion in this Brief 1

Similarly, grantees should consider whether the purpose of the observation is for reflective supervision, professional development, evaluative purposes, or overall programmatic improvement, as this may aid selection of an appropriate tool. An observational measure for use in evaluating home visitor skill level primarily for supervisory purposes or other formative assessment should be detailed and descriptive so that it can help direct development and improvement. In contrast, a measurement tool used for research purposes or summative assessment should easily produce a quantifiable score or rating so that scores or ratings can be compared across families, home visitors, and time. Other important considerations include the qualifications required of the individual responsible for administering the
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Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process for the selection of maintenance policies within petroleum industry

Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process for the selection of maintenance policies within petroleum industry

Abstract. The selection of the maintenance policies is considered to be a complex matter at the strategic level and a trade-off between the criteria that should be considered is required to achieve the optimum maintenance selection. The purpose of this study is to develop a Fuzzy-Analytic Hierarchy Process multi criteria decision making model for the selection of maintenance policies within the petroleum industry. The model enables practitioners to decompose the structure of the hierarchy which assists in identifying the main criteria, sub-criteria and alternatives that impact on the selection of maintenance activities. The proposed AHP model is validated and in addition a comparison between classic and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process is conducted in terms of different derivation methods. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is performed to validate the response of each derivation method at different inconsistency ratio which proved that the proposed model can be considered as the most accurate presentation of the criteria, sub- criteria and alternatives that should be used to decide upon the strategic maintenance policies within petroleum industry.
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Protocol of the COSMIN study: COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments

Protocol of the COSMIN study: COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments

The Delphi procedure is basically a series of sequential questionnaires or 'rounds', interspersed by controlled feedback, that seeks to achieve consensus of opinion among a panel of experts [37]. The Delphi procedure is a tool that can be used to generate a debate and to structure and organize a group communication process [37]. It is not a method for creating new knowledge, but rather a process for making the best use of available information [37]. The first round consists of a questionnaire with a large item pool, to identify issues to be addressed in later rounds. An item pool is a set of items regarding all possi- ble issues on a subject. In our study, for example, these issues concern all proposed measurement properties, standards and criteria to judge these with. All panel mem- bers are asked to give their opinion about each item, and they also have the opportunity to add additional items. The second and subsequent questionnaires are more spe- cific and aim to converge opinions and to reach consen- sus.
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PROCESS AUTOMATION LEVEL MEASUREMENT VIBRATION AND GUIDED MICROWAVE

PROCESS AUTOMATION LEVEL MEASUREMENT VIBRATION AND GUIDED MICROWAVE

This universal vibration level sensor series has worldwide certifications for safe and hazardous areas with explosion-proof and IS approvals. It is suitable for a variety of industries including chemical, pharmaceutical, water treatment, and food processing including industry-leading 3A certification for dairy applications. The unit is impervious to temperature fluctuations, high-pressure cleaning, sterilization, and disinfection. It is not affected by alternating media, sediment build-up, abrasion, turbulence, solid or gas components, or foam. Corrosion-resistant versions are available, as well as those with customizable tube lengths.
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Level Measurement ISA

Level Measurement ISA

r o o c c e e s s s s e e a a • • A T A T arg arg et et Det Det ect ect or on or on t t he he O O pp pp osite osite side Measures t side Measures t he he Radiation Field Strength and Infers a Level in the Vessel Radiation Field Strength and Infers a Level in the Vessel •

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Flow & Level Measurement

Flow & Level Measurement

Chemical seals, or diaphragm pressure seals, are available with fill liquids such as water, glycol, alco- hol, and various oils. These seals are used when plugging or corrosion can occur on both sides of the cell. A broad range of corrosion-resistant diaphragm and lining materials is available. Teflon® lining is often used to minimize material build-up and coating. Level measurement accuracy does suffer when these seals are used. Capillary tube lengths should be as short as possible and the tubes should be shielded from the sun. In addition, either low thermal expansion filling fluids should be used or ambient temperature com- pensation should be provided, as discussed in connection with wet legs. If the seals leak, maintenance of these systems is usually done at the supplier’s factory due to Figure 7-3: Differential Pressure Cell Designs
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Flow & Level Measurement

Flow & Level Measurement

D iscussed in this chapter are various types of mechanical flowmeters that measure flow using an arrangement of moving parts, either by passing isolated, known volumes of a fluid through a series of gears or chambers (positive displacement, or PD) or by means of a spinning turbine or rotor. All positive displacement flowme- ters operate by isolating and count- ing known volumes of a fluid (gas or liquid) while feeding it through the meter. By counting the number of passed isolated volumes, a flow measurement is obtained. Each PD design uses a different means of iso- lating and counting these volumes. The frequency of the resulting pulse train is a measure of flow rate, while the total number of pulses gives the size of the batch. While PD meters are operated by the kinetic energy of the flowing fluid, metering pumps (described only briefly in this article) determine the flow rate
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