Top PDF A Self-Determination Theory perspective on the motivation of pre-registration nursing students

A Self-Determination Theory perspective on the motivation of pre-registration nursing students

A Self-Determination Theory perspective on the motivation of pre-registration nursing students

Literature to date supports the concept of SDT as a useful tool for researching motivation as a predictor of performance outcomes, relational outcomes, and wellbeing outcomes [44, 50, 53-57]. To date, very little research has been done using SDT to understand the motivation of pre-registration nursing students. Recovery Camp offers pre-registration nursing students an opportunity to combine the theory component of the baccalaureate nursing program with the practical component in a safe and supportive environment [20, 38, 40, 58]. From a conceptually-aligned perspective, students are given opportunities and encouraged to participate with the consumer’s in activities that increase the student’s autonomy, competence and relatedness, while increasing their emotional control in a clinical experience that at times in an acute care clinical setting can be difficult to achieve.
Show more

7 Read more

Autonomy, competence, and intrinsic motivation in science education : a self-determination theory perspective

Autonomy, competence, and intrinsic motivation in science education : a self-determination theory perspective

monkeys of food for 22 hours. He then baited the puzzle latch with a bit of food in the presence of the deprived animals, and returned it to them. The monkeys reportedly began playing with the previously mastered puzzle without regard to the manipulations necessary to open it. When it was opened and the food eaten, the monkeys demonstrated no interest in continued play with the puzzle. Harlow found that if the monkeys were rewarded they actually made more errors and solved the puzzles less frequently. “Introduction of food in the present experiment served to disrupt performance, a phenomenon not reported in the literature” wrote Harlow et al. (1950). Of this new drive, intrinsic motivation, he said, “It would appear that this drive...may be as basic and strong as the [other] drives. Furthermore, there is some reason to believe that [it] can be efficient in facilitating learning” (pp. 233- 234).
Show more

79 Read more

Motivation in humanitarian health workers: A self determination theory perspective

Motivation in humanitarian health workers: A self determination theory perspective

Preliminary findings of a recent study suggest introjected motivation may be inversely related to burnout, while identified motivation may be positively related (Tassell 2010). This contrasts with results of previous SDT studies showing more autonomous motivations are negatively related to burnout and positively related to well-being indicators (e.g., Deci and Ryan 2008b; Ryan, Rigby and King 1993; Sheldon et al. 2004). Further examining these relationships could provide another explanatory dimension for the aetiology of burnout, in addition to the mental health implications associated with certain types of motivation. This knowledge may be useful for humanitarian organisations in terms of designing and implementing pre- and post- deployment training and psychological coping programs that have the aim of facilitating certain types of motivation in health workers who engage in these settings.
Show more

30 Read more

Assessing and mapping reading and writing motivation in third to eight graders : a self-determination theory perspective

Assessing and mapping reading and writing motivation in third to eight graders : a self-determination theory perspective

RMSEA = 0.049, SRMR = 0.078], we proceeded with the analysis of four separate measurement models: (a) academic reading motivation, (b) recreational reading motivation, (c) academic writing motivation, and (d) recreational writing motivation. Based on CFA of the SRQ-Reading and Writing Motivation data, the fit of the expected two-factor model was good in both academic and recreational contexts (see Table 2). More specifically, CFI values were above 0.90 (i.e., values ranging from 0.918 to 0.956), RMSEA values were close to 0.06 (i.e., values ranging from 0.055 to 0.080), and SRMR values were lower than 0.08 (i.e., values ranging from 0.058 to 0.064) indicating an acceptable fit. The items of the SRQ-Reading and Writing Motivation are presented in Table 3, along with standardized factor loadings for these items. Factor loadings for autonomous reading and writing motivation were acceptable and ranged from 0.47 to 0.89. The factor loadings of the majority of the controlled reading and writing motivation items were acceptable (i.e., ranging from 0.59 to 0.78), except for the items regarding motives for reading and writing in terms of getting good grades (i.e., factor loadings ranging from 0.36 to 0.49). Furthermore, reliability analyses revealed good internal consistencies ranging from Bentler’s ρ = 0.80 to Bentler’s ρ = 0.94 (see Table 4). We refer readers interested in the structure and reliability of the SRQ-Reading and Writing Motivation scales in middle and upper elementary, and/or lower secondary education to the Supplementary Tables. More specifically, the fit statistics per grade level are presented in Supplementary Table 1, the standardized factor loadings of the scales for each grade level are presented in Supplementary Tables 2–5, and the reliability measures per grade level can be found in Supplementary Table 6. Furthermore, we studied MG-MI across gender, general achievement level, and grades. Tables 5, 6 present a summary of goodness-of-fit statistics for the SRQ-Reading Motivation and SRQ-Writing Motivation, respectively. Small changes in the CFI and satisfying overall model results revealed strong invariance for the measurement models across gender and general achievement level ( 1CFI values ranging from 0.000 to 0.006). It was, however, not possible to confirm strong invariance for the measurement models across the different grades ( 1CFI values ranging from 0.015 to 0.026) indicating that third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth graders interpreted the SRQ-Reading and Writing Motivation items differently. Based on this finding, we additionally investigated whether students within the same grade level (i.e., middle elementary: third and fourth grade; upper elementary: fifth and sixth grade, and lower secondary grade: seventh and eighth grade) interpreted the items in a conceptually
Show more

17 Read more

Supervisory practices for intrinsic motivation of doctoral students: a self-determination theory perspective

Supervisory practices for intrinsic motivation of doctoral students: a self-determination theory perspective

lines have facilitated design of many interventions to train teachers at schools and coaches in physical education to enhance their motivating styles for academic and personal gains, such as enhanced en- gagement, motivation and learning achievement as well as psychological well-being (Cheon, Reeve, & Jang, 2014; Cheon et al., 2016; Cheon & Reeve, 2015). However, these interventions and studies to date remain mainly focused on autonomy need satisfaction and are limited to school settings. Evidence suggests that studies have significant effort in exploring social-contextual factors that either facilitate or inhibit the satisfaction of the three basic needs in field of physical education (e.g., Cur- ran , Standage, Ng, & Lubans 2017), workplace and organization (e.g., Van Den Broeck, Ferris. Chang, & Rosen 2016), and parenting (e.g., Aunola, Viljaranta, Lehtinen, & Nurmi, 2013) to gain deeper understanding on the role of need satisfaction. Given the significance of psychological need satisfaction and its beneficial outcomes, it is meaningful to explore and identify supervision practices that can lead to need satisfaction of students at the tertiary level. Hence, this inquiry was guided by the research question:
Show more

15 Read more

AUTONOMY AND MOTIVATION: A SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY PERSPECTIVE ON ESP MOTIVATION

AUTONOMY AND MOTIVATION: A SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY PERSPECTIVE ON ESP MOTIVATION

In the language education research, the interest in the concept of autonomy has been growing even though it has often been approached differently than in SDT. In language education autonomy is a concept which mostly focuses on developing students‟ ability to learn by themselves and for themselves, i.e. the ability to make independent and responsible decisions about their own learning. However, drawing on SDT and other theories in educational psychology, several authors have explored the relationships between motivation, autonomy and self-processes of the learner (Dornyei, 2001, 2011; Noels, 2001; Ushioda, 1996, 2008). This represents a considerable shift from the earlier research which regarded autonomy only as an important characteristic of a good learner. Ushioda (2008) presented an alternative view of motivation noting that “motivation has traditionally been regarded as something that teachers “do” or “give” to learners through a variety of motivational tricks and strategies, whereas current insights emphasize the importance of fostering learners‟ own motivation and sense of self-determination” (p. 28). According to Dornyei (2001) teachers‟ motivational skills are central to teaching effectiveness. However, teachers should aim to become „good enough‟ motivators rather than „supermotivators‟, striving for quality rather than quantity and creating a positive motivational learning environment (Dornyei, 2001, p. 116).
Show more

12 Read more

Self-reported motivation for choosing nursing studies: a self-determination theory perspective

Self-reported motivation for choosing nursing studies: a self-determination theory perspective

The students’ answers to the open question were analysed using qualitative methods [36]. Two independent evalua- tors (the first and third authors of this study) scrutinised and coded the content of the open questions. LM is a psychologist and researcher, an expert in cognitive and clinical psychology, conducting research on education and motivation, and is familiar with the literature on SDT. LS is a PhD researcher, an expert in applied mathemat- ics, data analysis and modelling, and is familiar with the literature on cognitive sciences. The process of category selection followed four phases. In the first phase, after an in depth reading of students’ responses, the two evalua- tors independently carried out an analytic segmentation of the contents, with the aim of identify distinct nuclei of meaning. To describe the content, they suggested some categories. In this phase, each evaluator added a brief explanation to the category and some phrases extracted from the students’ answers, to highlight the meaning of the category. In the second phase, the two evaluators compared their categories in order to select a common bundle. During the phase three, the evaluators read all the answers again independently, selecting one or more among the categories previously defined for each subject. On average three categories were selected for each sub- ject (M = 2.82, SD = 1.17). Finally, the two evaluators met to compare their selection. The few discrepancies revealed were resolved through discussion. An initial set of 18 categories was developed. Tables 2 and 3 summarise the results of thematic analysis with a description of the inferred categories.
Show more

14 Read more

Understanding students' experiences in a PE, health and well-being context : a self-determination theory perspective

Understanding students' experiences in a PE, health and well-being context : a self-determination theory perspective

Framed by Self-Determination Theory, this investigation explored student experience as they engaged in their Physical Education (PE), Health and Wellbeing curriculum in Scotland for the first time. We aimed to uncover the features of various learning environments that appeared to impact upon student motivation in PE over the period one academic year. We carried out focus group interviews with students from one state secondary school (secondary 1 and 2; ages 12-14) and its feeder primary schools (primary 7; age 11 years) immediately after a selection of PE lessons throughout the year. Furthermore, to provide some additional context for our analysis, the students in each year completed a questionnaire (pre-post) to identify and understand their motivation for PE over time. The results from the interviews indicated that students had a number of positive and negative PE experiences. However, the results from the questionnaire demonstrate that the students’ experiences during the first year of this ‘new’ curriculum had little impact on their motivation for PE. The findings highlight the importance of mixed methods research to provide context-specific account of student experience. This detail may be critical for the development of informed and effective pedagogy that supports student learning, health and wellbeing.
Show more

32 Read more

Adolescents’ Motivational Support in School: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

Adolescents’ Motivational Support in School: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

Over the last forty years, a rich body of theoretical and experimental work on the nature of motivation and its implication in students’ academic and social functioning has developed (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002; Wigfield & Wentzel, 2007). While there are many definitions of motivation, this concept is often understood as the state of wanting to perform a specific activity in a given situation, and is often defined as either intrinsic or extrinsic (Schiefele, 2009). Motivation is central to understanding adolescents’ success (or lack of success) in school because it refers to the energy they bring to the tasks, beliefs, values and goals that determine which activities they devote themselves to, their persistence in achieving them, and the standards they set to determine when a task is completed (Wentzel & Wigfield, 2009). While earlier research focused on individual characteristics (e.g., goals, standards for performance, values, interest), more recent studies included frameworks specifying developmental, ecological and socialization factors (e.g., parent, peer and teacher influences on student motivation) (Wentzel & Wigfield, 2009). The interest is now about mixing those two perspectives on human motivation. One theory that explores the important interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is self-determination theory (SDT).
Show more

10 Read more

AN EXPLORATION OF THE SHIFTING IDENTITIES OF PRE-REGISTRATION NURSING STUDENTS ACROSS A BSc ADULT NURSING PROGRAMME

AN EXPLORATION OF THE SHIFTING IDENTITIES OF PRE-REGISTRATION NURSING STUDENTS ACROSS A BSc ADULT NURSING PROGRAMME

During the time this research was undertaken the impact, ramifications and implications of the Francis Report (Francis, 2013) on the whole of the NHS were still being examined and deliberated. The seismic effect of the Report and the reflection, self-examination and self- analysis that it generated within the Health Service in the UK, the various health professions - not least nursing - and in the main stream media and wider society in general was occurring at the same time that the students were progressing through their academic and practice careers. The Francis Report felt the need to explicitly reaffirm nurses’ need to commit to compassionate and considerate patient care and emphasise the practical hands-on training and experience as a pre-requisite to entry into the nursing profession (Francis Report Executive Summary, 2013). Moreover the Report also confirmed that recruits to the nursing profession needed ‘possession of the appropriate values, attitudes and behaviours’ - and the ‘ability and motivation to enable them to put the welfare of others above their own interests’ (Recommendation 185). This was to be in some way assessed by an aptitude test created by the NMC and universities together. Furthermore in The Shape of Caring review (Raising the Bar) (Health Education England, 2015) Lord Willis expressed his disappointment that the issues that he felt were most pressing in his initial Commission Report three years earlier were still widespread (Willis, 2012). The main problem areas that the Report highlighted as lacking for the future nursing workforce were the development and maintenance of high quality mentorship - as mentorship was not necessarily seen as ‘badge of honour’ (p.46) and the improvement of practical learning experiences. Students needed to feel that the culture and environment of the clinical placement respected and acknowledged their views and acted upon them where necessary. Willis reiterated Francis’ observation that students and trainees were ‘invaluable eyes and ears’ in clinical settings and should therefore be encouraged to ask questions and be inspired by their colleagues to act with honesty, integrity and compassion.
Show more

261 Read more

The role of narcissism in sport coaching: a self-determination theory perspective

The role of narcissism in sport coaching: a self-determination theory perspective

According to self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2002), individuals in positions of authority may display a controlling interpersonal style of communication, which is likely to be motivationally detrimental to those with whom they interact. Controlling interpersonal style is an example of controlling socialization reflecting pressure from outside of a person (e.g., deadlines, punishment, or rewards imposed by individuals in positions of authority; i.e., between-level variables in a multilevel framework) or pressure from within a person (e.g., guilt-induction, shame; i.e., within-level; Soenes & Vansteenkiste, 2010). In sport, controlling coaches frequently act in a forceful pressuring manner, coercing ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving upon their athletes (Bartholomew et al., 2009). These coaches use numerous strategies to influence their athletes, such as yelling, imposing opinions, making normative comparisons, issuing calculating statements, and offering contingent affection (Bartholomew et al., 2009). Such a controlling interpersonal style can frustrate athletes’ basic psychological needs, undermine their self-determined motivation, and produce maladaptive affective, cognitive, and behavioural outcomes, including favorable attitudes toward doping (Bartholomew et al., 2009; Hodge, Hargreaves, Gerrard, & Lonsdale, 2013).
Show more

250 Read more

Motivational dynamics of eating regulation: a self-determination theory perspective

Motivational dynamics of eating regulation: a self-determination theory perspective

A third group of studies examined the association between one’s general self-determined motivation and the endorsement of the thin-ideal as well as eating regu- lation outcomes (paths E and F in Figure 1). Pelletier and colleagues [43,51] found that young women’s gen- eral disposition to act in a self-determined way protects them against the adverse effects of sociocultural pres- sure to be thin and is negatively predictive of their ten- dency to endorse the thin-ideal. As a consequence, those who function in more self-determined ways were found to be less likely to engage in disordered eating behaviors (e.g., bulimic symptoms) and more likely to engage in healthy eating behaviors (e.g., amount of vege- tables eaten). In a similar study, Kopp and Zimmer- Gembeck [52] reported negative associations between general self-determination and perceived sociocultural pressures to be thin and adoption of the thin-ideal. In line with these studies, Mask and Blanchard [53] found that women who are in general more self-determined, did not report body image concerns when exposed to a video portraying the female body as an object, whereas women low in general self-determined motivation reported more negative self-appraisals, body shame, and internally pressuring motives for eating when faced with such a body-objectifying situation [see also Mask L, Blanchard CM: The Differential Role of Autonomous and Controlled Motivation Against Body-Object and
Show more

16 Read more

Predicting Career Indecision: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

Predicting Career Indecision: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

Career indecision has been a focus of vocational research over the last few decades. It is defined as an inability to make a decision about the vocation one wishes to pursue. Career indecision has been related empirically to various intraindividual constructs. For example, personality traits such as perfectionism, self- consciousness, fear of commitment (Leong & Chervinko, 1996), and anxiety (Fuqua, Newman, & Seaworth, 1988) were positively associated with career indecision. In contrast, rational decision- making style (Mau, 1995), self-efficacy beliefs (Betz & Luzzo, 1996), and level of ego identity (Cohen, Chartrand, & Jowdy, 1995) were negatively related to career indecision. Moreover, research has drawn attention to the interpersonal factors related to career indecision. For instance, positive family and peer interac- tions (e.g., Felsman & Blustein, 1999; Guerra & Braungart-Rieker, 1999) have been negatively related to career indecision. However, little is known about how intraindividual and interpersonal factors interact to produce career indecision. That is, how do contextual factors such as parents and peers affect career indecision? What psychological processes are involved? A potentially useful theo- retical framework for understanding these critical questions in career indecision research is self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Deci, 2000). Specifically, SDT focuses on the social– contextual conditions that facilitate the natural pro- cesses of self-motivation and healthy psychological functioning.
Show more

13 Read more

The Theoretical Component of a Professional Nursing Programme is Pivotal to Nurse Registration: A Pre-Registration Student Nurses Perspective

The Theoretical Component of a Professional Nursing Programme is Pivotal to Nurse Registration: A Pre-Registration Student Nurses Perspective

32 Newton et al (2009) explored motivation within the nursing profession; the study included 29 undergraduates and 35 registered nurses, some of whom were senior managers. Data was gathered via interviews, surveys and field work. Four themes were identified, which centred on the need to care for people; they did however draw conclusions from their findings that non-traditional students rather than the traditional students demonstrated a keen interest in wanting to study to be a nurse. Although the research has tended to focus on the motivation which was the need to care for people, rather less attention was made to the motivational factors required to complete a programme of study. In comparison, within Murphy’s (2006) case study approach (which included just one student) an attempt was made to understand the motivational issues surrounding the motivational needs of this failing student undertaking education as a specialist nurse. Murphy interlaces learning theories and Maslow’s theory of human motivation to her case study emphasising the importance of relationship building between teacher and student in discovering the motivational needs of a student. As explained earlier each tier of motivation needs to be achieved if learning is to take place. Murphy’s participant, within her case study, was presented with challenges to all tiers of Maslow’s theory. Through discussion, encouragement and confidence building, each tier of Maslow’s theory was addressed; the participant then became re-motivated and became re-engaged with the learning process. Although post registration education was highlighted within this study, many of the challenges faced by the participant can be related to undergraduate PRSNs. Through shadowing the journey of the participant, Murphy related the topic of motivation to the learning process and strengthened the importance and necessity of motivation and the possibility of re-motivation throughout a student’s programme of study. It can be concluded from what Murphy (2006) has stated that motivation is paramount to a student’s learning and an educational establishment involved with the delivery of professional programmes needs to look at how motivation is developed and maintained throughout that programme in order to promote student engagement.
Show more

154 Read more

Carrying hope; pre-registration nursing students' understanding and awareness of their spiritual needs from their experiences in practice: a grounded theory study

Carrying hope; pre-registration nursing students' understanding and awareness of their spiritual needs from their experiences in practice: a grounded theory study

For the purpose of the study spirituality is defined as ‘wider than religion, the inner ‘self’ that arouses feelings of love, faith, hope and trust that provide meaning, inner peace and purpose in life’; adapted from (Meyer 2003; Narayanasamy 2006). It is known that when individuals are exposed to emotional stress, illness and death; consciousness of spirituality is brought into focus (Narayanasamy et al. 2004). Standards for the education of pre-registration nursing students (Nursing and Midwifery Council NMC (2010)) recognise spirituality as a principle of person-centred care. Nonetheless, the relevance of spirituality in pre-registration nursing education is often ignored (McSherry and Ross 2002; McSherry 2010). In addition, the relationship between experiences in the clinical environment and personal spirituality, is recognised as being poorly understood (Ross 2006), particularly given that incidents can expose student nurses to the unpredictable and unexpected nature of clinical practice (Morrissette 2004). T A grounded theory study, as part of the requirements of a Clinical Doctorate (Nursing) sought to explore any interrelation between students’ understanding and awareness of their spirituality and clinical experience. This paper details the findings and implications of the study.
Show more

12 Read more

Analyzing Motivation Factors for NASCAR Spectators with Self-Determination Theory

Analyzing Motivation Factors for NASCAR Spectators with Self-Determination Theory

The study was conducted through three steps including content development, data collection, and data analysis. At the first step, a broad review of relative literature and interviews were conducted to generate theoretic foundation and imperial opinions for the model and instrument development. As a result Inventory for Motivation of Auto Racing Spectators (IMARS) was drafted. An expert panel including eight faculty of sport management, sport psychologist and the managers of NASCAR sport marketing were asked for content verification and assurance. With agreement rate 75% the content (face) validity was obtained. An initiative model of five factors (three derived from SDT components) including Affiliation (AFF), Experience (EXP), Gratification (GRA), Socialization (SOC), as well as Substance (SUB) and survey instrument containing 20 drafted motivation items were developed. The survey package contains informed consent, demographic information, and 20-item survey questions led by “I attend the race because I like to …” A 7-point scale was positioned at the end of each question (item). At the second step the predesigned survey packages were distributed to voluntary participants with assistance of faculty, management team of the facility, and trained sport administration graduate students at pre-set survey tables near three entrances and the exhibition area during a three-day NASCAR event. The spectators who were approaching the entrances and counted in even number were asked if they were willing to participate in the survey. Participants who agreed were given an explanation of the purpose of the research and then completed the survey voluntarily. A gift for appreciation was presented to the participant upon completion of the survey. The returned surveys were then interpreted and the data was entered into the computer database for analyses at the next step.
Show more

10 Read more

Investigating Students’ Basic Needs and Motivation in College Chemistry Courses with the Lens of Self-Determination Theory

Investigating Students’ Basic Needs and Motivation in College Chemistry Courses with the Lens of Self-Determination Theory

Similar to autonomy support, the effect of relatedness on intrinsic motivation has also not been uniform. On one hand, SDT suggests that relatedness plays a role (Pat-El, et al., 2012) – albeit a more “distal” one (Deci and Ryan, 2000) – in the maintenance of intrinsic motivation. For example, secondary vocational education students studying commerce and business administration from the Netherlands undertook collaborative group work, whose relatedness to peers positively predicted their interest in the project (Minnaert, et al., 2011). Another study with psychology undergraduate students found that relatedness was positively associated with prosocial interest (Pavey, et al., 2011). On the other hand, research results sometimes fail to show the theoretically anticipated significant relationships between relatedness and other constructs in SDT. For example, a path analysis with data gathered from ninth graders in Korea did not indicate this significant effect (Jang, et al., 2009). Students in pre-vocational secondary education in the Netherlands showed a positive effect of relatedness on their intrinsic motivation for a familiar task but a negative effect six months later (Van Nuland, et al., 2012). In several studies relatedness was not included (Williams and Deci, 1996; Black and Deci, 2000; Guay, et al., 2001) and its effect on intrinsic motivation was unknown. The SEM literature is sparse in studies of all three basic needs and intrinsic motivation in college level settings.
Show more

196 Read more

The Role of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Focusing on Self-Determination Theory in Relation to Summer Bridge Community College Students

The Role of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Focusing on Self-Determination Theory in Relation to Summer Bridge Community College Students

Community colleges throughout the United States are beginning to develop summer bridge programs in order to prepare incoming freshman for their new academic environment. Adams (2012) reported that the typical summer bridge program runs four to five weeks, offers intensive academic instruction, and is directed towards at-risk students. Previous research also suggested that summer bridge programs should be evaluated over a longer period of time and should incorporate additional measures rather than relying solely on pre-test/post-test data (Garcia 2009, Taylor 2009). This current study conducted at a community college in Southern California, contributes to the previous research by examining four summer bridge programs. The first cohort of summer bridge students enrolled in 2010, followed by additional cohorts in 2011, 2012, and 2013. This study examined intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors that may be a determining factor in student success. Previous research has relied on faculty interpretation of student motivation and success. In
Show more

159 Read more

Teachers motivation to teach national education in Singapore: a self-determination theory approach

Teachers motivation to teach national education in Singapore: a self-determination theory approach

Torney-Purta, Lehmann, Oswald and Shultz’s (2001) research on citizenship and education highlighted the fact that while teachers across 28 countries were confident about their abilities, and that they aimed to help students develop critical thinking skills and would like to conduct analytical discussions about such issues, in practice, however, they often fell back on transmission of factual knowledge from the textbook. In Singapore, NE is compulsory at all levels, and has been established in both the formal and informal curriculum. To have a realistic chance of achieving the objectives of NE, it is important for teachers themselves to be convinced of the value of NE. If teachers are good role models for their students, the message of NE will be disseminated to them. In contrast, if teachers have negative perceptions of NE and view it as government propaganda, their scepticism will rub off on their students and they will not be able to instil the core values of the Singaporean way of life. Hence understanding teachers’ motivations for teaching NE in schools is worthy of study. In this study, the self-determination theory (SDT) framework was used to examine pre-service teachers’ motivations for teaching NE.
Show more

16 Read more

Financial rewards and intrinsic motivation: a self-determination perspective

Financial rewards and intrinsic motivation: a self-determination perspective

Epistemology is the second key component to discuss in relation to the philosophical stance of this study, and it refers to the researcher’s view of what constitutes acceptable knowledge and “the best ways of inquiring into the nature of the world” (Easterby-Smith et al, 2012, p.60). At one end of the epistemological spectrum lies social constructionism, which, building on the assumption that reality is socially constructed and given meaning to by people (Easterby-Smith et al, 2012), seeks to generate fresh insights from individual subjective experiences, rather than test the general applicability of pre-determined hypotheses. To this end, research methods such as interviews and focus groups that seek to uncover deeper meanings and insights from the study participants are considered most appropriate, revealing individual perspectives that the more objective means of enquiry would otherwise not be able to probe into. At the other extreme, the positivist epistemology assumes that the outcome of research should be generalisations similar to those produced by the natural sciences (Benton and Craib, 2011; Hughes and Sharrock, 1997). In this sense, positivism maintains that solid knowledge can only be established through empirical experience, and that all inferences about reality should come from studying observable (factual) phenomena (Benton and Craib, 2011). As such, positivism aims to use existing theory to develop hypotheses and test these hypotheses through the rigor and technique of scientific methods, rather than enquire into the nature of subjective experiences. Studies using experimental designs are typical examples of research that adopts this scientific approach, aiming to reveal causal relationships between variables, although studies using inferential surveys also fall under the positivist paradigm.
Show more

275 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...

Related subjects