In addition to community pharmacies, other identified bases for drugs choosing used by the respondents for self-medication were previous doctor prescription, my own experience and Opinion of friends. These other bases for choosing drugs, apart from pharmacists, could also pose serious risks to the consumer’s health. However, in another study in Ethiopia textbooks were reported as the most common source of information 24 . Self-medication with antibiotics has been reported as 24% to 90% of university students from different regions and countries 12, 25, 28, 29 . In the present study, more than half of those self-medicated used antibiotics. This may due to the availability of antibiotics from pharmacies without prescription though they are prescription only medicines. Self- medication with antibiotics can lead to the emergence of the dangerous worldwide problem of antibiotics resistant micro-organisms. Moreover, Arzi A et al, (2010), claim that people may abuse antibiotics by using them for such wrong indications as common cold or infections of non- bacterial origin 30 .
2.9–3.7 % death in hospitals . It was found that drug use is influenced by the socio-demographic character- istics such as gender and age and some socio-cultural aspects, like attitudes about life and health, stress, and social bindings of the consumers . The availability of medicine to the consumers increases the quantities and varieties of pharmaceuticals worldwide and thus is mis- used. This situation has been reported in Nigeria . Even self-prescribed medicines are also prevalent among practicing physicians [15, 16]. In New Delhi, India, it was observed that self-medication was considerably high amongundergraduatemedical and paramedical students in India and this situation was increased with medical knowledge . The supply of medicine without prescription by the pharmacist can prevent the growing trend of self-medication . In a study from Portugal it was observed that there was lack of general knowledge on using antibiotic correctly amongstudents . It was found in a telephone based population survey in the USA that, 58 % of the participants were not aware of the pos- sible health danger associated with antibiotic use . According to a study in Sri Lanka, antibiotic consump- tion was associated with students’ academic background . Many studies are found on self-medication, among which university students represent an interesting sample for several reasons as they use self-medication very often [22–25]. Therefore, they can be divided into two groups according to the assumption of some certain character- istics such as, the presence of medical subjects in their curricula or lack of that knowledge. Previous studies have shown that medical knowledge can have an important impact on self-medicationamongstudents , although the general influence is not clear among them [26, 27].
Manipal College of Medical Sciences (MCOMS), Pokhara, Nepal is the first private medical school in Nepal and admits 150 students annually mainly from Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, and Maldives to the undergraduatemedical (Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MBBS) course. The course is divided into two years (four semesters) of integrated basic sciences, two and half years of clinical sciences, and one year compulsory residential rotating internship. During the integrated basic sciences the six subjects (Anatomy, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Pathology, Pharmacology and Physiology) are taught in an integrated organ system-based manner along with Community Medicine and Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM). A hybrid approach of didactic lectures, problem based learning (PBL), and practical sessions are used . There is a paucity of studies on self-medicationamong basic science medicalstudents in Nepal. Hence the study was planned with the following objectives: 1) to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of self-medicationamong second and fourth semester basic science undergraduatemedicalstudents; and 2) to study differences in
Although multivitamin-multi mineral and similar terms (e.g., multisormultiples) are commonly used, they have no standard or defined meaning and can refer to products with widely varied compositions and characteristics . Multivitamin an over-the- counter and often self-prescribed nutritional supplement contains lipid-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) and water-soluble vitamins (thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6, B12, C, folic acid, niacin, pantothenic acid and biotin). Multivitamins may also contain minerals—e.g., calcium, phosphorus, iron, iodine, magnesium, manganese, copper and zinc. Many multivitamin formulas contain vitamins C, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9, B12, biotin, A, E, D2 (or D3), K, potassium, iodine, selenium, borate, zinc, calcium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, beta-carotene, and/or iron . Multivitamins are typically available in a variety of formulas based on age and sex, or (as in prenatal vitamins) based on more specific nutritional needs . Reasons for taking MV include to treat or prevent disease, to improve physical performance, sports performance, immune function, mental/memory, ormedicinal treatmentsbeing too expensive, orfamily and friends’recommendation . Excessive use of vitamins could lead to vitamin poisoning. MVMs providing nutrients at recommended intake levels do not ordinarily interact with medications, with one important exception . People who take medicines to reduce blood clotting, such as warfare (Coumadin®), should talk with their health care providers before taking any MVM or dietary supplement containing vitamin K. Vitamin K is involved in blood clotting and decreases the effectiveness of warfarin and similar drugs. The dose of medication is determined in part by the amount of vitamin K routinely consumed. The excessive use of MV amongst students has become a serious problem [10,11].
Self-medication is defined as medication of oneself especially without the advice of a physician. The objective of the study is to evaluate the self-medication practices amongmedical, pharmacy, nursing, paramedical students in Malappuram district. For the study, students were asked for their one-year illness recall and answer to the questionnaire. A questionnaire consisting of demographic profile, illness and treatment strategies was prepared were investigated and analysed. Of a total of 330 students, 313, (94.85%) reported that they have practiced self-medication. Most of the self-medication practices were obtained from the pharmacy field and the most commonly used drugs were nasal-decongestants, vitamins, analgesics and antibiotics Headache and nasal congestion (93.94% each) were cited to be the most common ailment for which self-medication was practiced closely followed fever (92.73%). About 310 (94%) students prefer self-medication to them and their family members. Knowledge from health magazines, internet, and books were major sources of self- medication. About 45% were using other system of medicine like Ayurveda as self- medication. Reason behind self-medication is ease of availability and fast onset of action. Drug regulatory authorities and health care professionals have to educate medicalstudents about their side effect and adverse drug reaction.
Another perceived factor of self-medication was the use of own and others’ experiences. In this regard, the results of a study showed that, previous history of personal use of medications and counseling was one of the main factors behind self-medication in medicalstudents . In another study, 38% of medical stu- dents used the experiences of the elderly and class- mates as sources of information on self-medication, and 63.6% of them prescribed drug to others, espe- cially family members, friends and peers . Results of another study showed that, more than half of the medicalstudents used their old prescription to treat the same illness . Using others’ experiences can be highly hazardous and lead to exacerbation of the disease and drug resistance, as individuals may have inadequate knowledge about drugs and their compli- cations. Symptoms and illnesses may also be similar and differential diagnosis of them is only possible by a valid physician.
Counselling is a critical therapeutic intervention in the management of personality disorders. Knowledge of the core characteristics of these disorders allows physicians to recognize, diagnose, and treat affected patients (Ward, 2004). As Morrison et al (2013) observe, cognitive therapy has a Abstract: This paper is based on a study carried out in 2015. The study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the counselling services provided in addressing personality disorders amongundergraduatestudents in Kenyan Universities. It employed the ex-post facto cross sectional research design. The study was carried out in four universities (2 public and 2 private) in Kenya. The universities were selected through the lottery method of random sampling. From the four universities, a sample of 384 students, 4 deans of students, 4 medical officers and 12 counsellors were drawn. The target population was undergraduatestudents, deans of students, medical officers and student counsellors in all universities in Kenya. Prior to the study, a pilot study was carried out in one university that was not included in the main study. This was to allow pretesting of the research tools for validity and reliability. Data for the study was collected using an online questionnaire, observation schedule, interview schedule, focus group discussions and an evaluation form. Data from respondents was analyzed using descriptive statistics together with computer Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Results indicated that of the 16% students who attended counselling, 14% were satisfied with the services which resulted in less emotional stress, capacity to regulate emotions and improved interpersonal relationships. Generally the overall counselling services were rated as effective by the users.
Among 250 participants in this study, 181 (72.4%) stu- dents were female. The mean age of the respondents was 22.07 ± 3.84, 209 (89.3%) of them were single and 218 (87.2%) were under insurance coverage. In terms of academic level, 138 (55.2%) students were undergraduate (BSC), 12 (4.8%) master degree (MSC) and 100 (40%) were Ph.D. As for major, 83 (33.2%) participants were medicalstudents and 65 (26%) of them were studied in paramedical branch. Also, 224 (89.6%) of the sample had a history of SM over the past 6 months prior to the study. The maximum and minimum levels of SM were found for medical disciplines (n = 78, 94.1%) and midwif- ery (n = 15, 83.3%). The conditions to run the chi-square test were not met in order to analyze the relationship between SM and major (Table 1).
This cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted from January to June, 2017, and comprised undergraduatestudents of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Women Medical College, International Medical College and Frontier Medical College in Abbottabad, Pakistan. The study was approved by the ethics committee of COMSATS Institute of Information and Technology, Abbottabad. Verbal consent was taken from all those included. Sample size was calculated by using sample size calculator. 21 The population of district Abbottabad is
Psychological Stress Among Undergraduate Medical Students ORIGINAL ARTICLE Psychological Stress Among Undergraduate Medical Students M S Sherina, MMed, L Rampal, PhD, N Kaneson, BSc Department of Comm[.]
Self- medication (SM) is a very important concern for all Health care professionals and various regulatory authorities. Self- medication (SM) in simple words is taking a medicine without consulting a doctor. Over the counter drugs are a part of SM. William Osler once commented, "The desire to take medicine is perhaps the greatest feature which distinguishes man from animals". The practice of SM has been regarded as a part of self- care.  SM is a process by which, an individual uses drugs to treat self-diagnosed minor symptoms or disorders like headache, fever, sore throat, acidity and other similar complains, having the potential to do good as well as harm as it involves use of drugs.  The practice of self-medication must be based on relevant medical information otherwise it can give rise to irrational use of drugs which can cause significant wastage of resources, increased resistance of pathogens, and can lead to serious health concerns like adverse drug reactions and prolonged morbidity and in extreme cases mortality also.  The SM practice has been observed worldwide, both in developed and developing countries due to lack of medical facilities in rural and in certain urban areas also. SM provides an individual a low-cost option, for those who cannot afford the high cost benefits of clinical service. On the other hand if SM is practiced
11.3%, non-medical 13.9%). Comparable results obtained that amoxicillin was the most commonly self-medicated antibiotics . The main factors influencing the choice of antibiotics were previous experience with the same illness and advice from pharmacy staff. Diarrhea, sore throat and common cold were the major reasons for self- medication with antibiotics.
Knowledge in decision making in undergraduatestudents is mostly concentrated on clinical management of present- ing problems. Students seem to be less focused on patient management specific to family medicine, ie, a holistic and comprehensive approach, and primary care management with preventive and counseling activities. Undergraduatemedical education should devote more time to teaching the comprehensive approach to consultation, especially the modification of health behavior of patients and opportunistic health promotion to patients. The sex differences found in this study are difficult to explain, and require further focused research. Also, the effect of the family medicine approach to teaching on decision making should be evaluated in prospec- tive intervention studies.
symptoms, the intermittent or continued use of a medi- cation previously prescribed by a physician for chronic or recurring disease or symptom, or the use of medication recommended by lay sources or health workers not enti- tled to prescribe medicine” . Self-reliance, convenience and low cost are perceived benefits of self-medication. Potential risks are incorrect diagnosis, delay or failure to seek medical advice, risk of adverse effects, development of resistant microbes and incorrect prescribing . A Spanish study revealed females, students, lonely people, urban dwellers, people with better education and aged more than 40 are more likely to self medicate .
Caffeine, a well-known adenosinergic receptor antagonist, is one of the most widely consumed psychoactive substance mostly taken to restore low levels of wakefulness, modulate the activities of brain and improve task performance. Our study reveals that caffeine consumption is prevalent among the undergraduate university students of Karachi. Majority of the poor sleepers are tea consumers, though it did not reach statistical significance, which corroborate with a similar study (Hindmarch et al., 2000). The study also revealed that 3 out of 10 respondents consumed energy drinks, which is found to be strongly associated with sleep quality. This is in general agreement with prior studies (Aslam et al., 2013; Lemma et al., 2012; Reissig, Strain, & Griffiths, 2009; Velez et al., 2013). Besides caffeine, which is the main stimulant of energy drink, it may also contain other stimulating ingredients. The amino acid, taurine, a frequent ingredient in energy drinks, is thought to increase the effects of caffeine (Rath, 2012).
Abstract: This study investigated the influence of family background on prostitution tendency among 1040 female undergraduatestudents in three (3) universities located in the South-South geopolitical region of Nigeria. The study was carried out during the 2004/2005 academic session of three universities. The total male population was 22, 976 against female population of 20,829 bringing the grand total population to be 42,905 students. From a target population of 20,829 female undergraduates a sampling technique of stratified random sampling was used in a sample size of 1,040 (one thousand and forty students). Research instrument used was female students opinion questionnaire (FSOQ) designed by Ibu (2010). The instrument had four parts Likert-type scale measuring 1,2,3,4. Two hypotheses (the null and alternate hypotheses) were tested for influence of family background on female prostitution which was done on a four scale point 1 to 4. The results were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with SPSS statistical package. A post hoc comparison of multiple groups data was carried out using Fisher’s Least significant difference (LSD) multiple comparison analysis. Differences were accepted as significant when P<0.05. The results indicate that family structure significantly affects the prostitution tendency.
Although responsible analgesic selfmedication practices as a part of self care is an easy and effective way to treat mild to moderate pain, students should be made aware of the potentially dangerous side effects, drug interactions and toxicity. Educational awareness programmes about concepts and principles of selfmedication and healthy sleep habits should run parallel to academic curricula. There is also an urgent need to form a stricter drug policy by concerned health authorities to curb the peaking trend of analgesic selfmedicationamong youth.
Despite a general awareness of the importance of phy- sician empathy in patient care, some studies in the North-American context have found a decline in self- reported measures of empathy of undergraduate stu- dents throughout medical school [8-10] and post-gradu- ate training . In those studies it is suggested that “ erosions ” in empathy can be associated with the learn- ing context, the “ hidden curriculum ” , student difficulties in dealing with stressors in medical education, and poor role modelling in the academic and clinical workplaces [12,13]. The disturbing possibility is that medical educa- tion might be injuring instead of nurturing empathy. Most of the evidence for a decline in empathy originates from studies developed in medical schools in the USA [8-10]. There is only one study outside the USA con- ducted in Trinidad and Tobago that shows a decrease of self-reported empathy . The generalization of find- ings within the USA or elsewhere is uncertain, since the studies were restricted to one medical school and were based on self-reported measures of empathy - usually derived from physician scores on instruments completed in the absence of patients. Recent cross-sectional studies in Japan and Korea found the highest values for mea- sures of empathy, by year of medical school, in senior students [15,16]. A cross-sectional study in Iran did not find variations in empathy . The effect of undergrad- uate medical training on the development of medicalstudents’ empathy remains unclear.
Although self-medication practice was high among stu- dents, they showed some awareness about the use of medica- tions. For instance, nearly half of our participants reported that they read medication instructions every time they bought a new pack of medicine, an attitude that was unsurprisingly more prevalent with medicalstudents. In addition, students were willing to see physicians whenever the medicine is not working for them. Nevertheless, awareness and knowledge about self-medication and its good and bad consequences have to be enhanced among university students. Medication and health awareness campaigns and educational sessions in the university campus may be appropriate.
DISCUSSION: Our study shows a high prevalence of self–medicationamong dental students. Globally, the prevalence of self-medication is as low as 38.2% (Ethiopia) to as high as 98% (Palestine) 11, 2 . These differences can be attributed to regional differences in factors such as differences in demographic characteristics, socioeconomic conditions and drug availability. In congruence with other studies, prevalence of self-medication was more among senior students as compared to junior students, as they are exposed to knowledge about drugs and disease 5, 15 . In a study by Gutema et al, pharmacy students practiced self-medication more frequently than medical and paramedical students. 16 Many studies have found an association between academic year of study and self-medication practices 3, 8, 16 . In contrast, studies by da Silva and Sontakke et al found no difference in the prevalence of self-medication between junior and senior students 5, 10 . The extensive practice of self-medication could be explained in part, by the higher level of education and self-care orientation among the students, though studies argue that these attributes are an insignificant predictor of self-medication practices 17 .