Accepted author manuscript, peer reviewed version Link to publication from Aalborg University
Citation for published version (APA):
Serup, D. E., Williams, R. J., Zhang, S., & Pedersen, G. F. (2020). SharedApertureDualS- And X-bandAntenna for Nano-SatelliteApplications. In 2020 14th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP)  IEEE. https://doi.org/10.23919/EuCAP48036.2020.9135774
A sharedaperture DBDP series-fed antenna operating at both S- and X-bands for SAR applications is presented in this paper. Single square-shaped element with microstrip line feeding is used as S-bandantenna, and four-groups of 2 × 2 subarrays are used as X-band elements. Inner edge elements in X-band 2 × 2 subarray are etched oﬀ, to make it 1 × 2 linear arrays, to accommodate the S-banddual-polarized square patch antenna. A prototype of this antenna is fabricated and experimentally measured. The measured results show that the SAA is in good agreement with simulated ones in comparison with both S-parameters and radiation characteristics including gain measurements. The S/X-DBDP SAA has narrow FBW of 9.3% at 3.2 GHz and 1.72% at 9.3 GHz, respectively. The total size of the S/X-DBDP sharedapertureantenna is compact and occupies an area of 100 × 100 × 1 . 6 mm 3 . The SAA is best suited for large size array antenna for the SAR applications. The proposed SAA has many advantages, such as single-layer structure, easy fabrication, low production cost and good isolation between the bands and between the polarizations. The proposed S/X-DBDP SAA is also suitable for synthesis of the array. In future, the authors intend to make a synthesis of the array for radar and reconﬁgurable ﬁeld applications with larger array conﬁguration.
Diﬀerent researchers have developed antenna designs for L/C [10, 11], L/X , L/S/X , and L/S  by aperture sharing. Independent dualband or triple band operations are obtained by designing and exciting individual antenna elements for each band and placing the antenna elements in stacked conﬁguration, thus increasing the overall size of antenna. In the present communication, an array antenna is designed for L and S bands using common aperture. One of the antennas shares the vacant space inside the other antenna on the aperture. The designed antenna is composed of a 2 × 2 array of planar annular rings of smaller and larger radii in shape of C. The array of larger rings surrounds the array of smaller rings. The optimized design is prototyped and tested for L and S bands.
Abstract: Over the past few decades, the evolution in new-fashioned wireless communication systems has actuated augmented exploration on uncomplicated dualband antennas. A compact dualband mono pole antenna for UWB and Ku BandApplications is proposed. The antenna consists of a corner truncated rectangular patch etched on cost effective FR4-substrate with thickness 1.6mm and is fed with 50 ohms feed line. The ground plane is truncated to enhance impedance matching and bandwidth. The proposed antenna has the ability to operate from 3.40 GHz to 10.67 GHz and 13.48 GHz to 15.87 GHz with return loss below -10 dB. The HFSS is used to design and simulate the antennas behavior over the different frequency ranges. The simulated results of the proposed antenna indicate higher gain at the two bands. The measured results demonstrated reasonable agreement with the simulated results.
Since the 1960s, spiral antennas have emerged as leading candidates for various commercial and military applications such as broadband satellite communication services and high-quality wireless communication systems. Moreover, planar spiral antennas have been extensively used in many fields due to their characteristics of broad bandwidth, circular polarization and small physical size. Circularly polarized antennas are more attractive because linearly polarized receiving antenna can only receive part or none of the circularly polarized signal, which significantly lowers the antenna’s efficiency [6, 7]. Consequently, many broadband and dual-band circular-polarized planar spiral antennas have been
Various methods for achieving circular polarization in microstrip antennas are available, such as using triple proximity-fed method by adjusting 120 ◦ phase shift between the feeds , circular polarization synthetic aperture radar (CP-SAR) operated in L-band by using the elliptical slot . In addition, truncation or corner stubs are the conventional methods for achieving UWB characteristics with circular polarization by coplanar waveguide feed (CPW) [23, 24]. However, there exist various methods for generating circular polarization in slot antennas such as square-ring slot antenna fed with an L-shaped coupling strip for Wi-Fi application at 2.5 GHz , dual-square-ring-shaped slot for WiMAX applications at 3 GHz , and two-slot rings for 1.6 and 2.5 GHz . CPW feed slot antennas are noticed for their facility of achieving circular polarization by means of two asymmetrical C-shaped strips with dual-band characteristics at 2.5 and 5.2 GHz  and corner truncated ground .
To tackle these challenges, various microstrip antenna configurations have been proposed including spiral, serpentine, circular and square stacked planar inverted-F antennas [2–6]. Dipoles and loop antennas are also used for certain biotelemetry applications [7, 8]. Several frequency bands are reserved by Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to regulate spectrum usage for medical implant communications . The Medical Device Radiocommunications Service (MedRadio) band (401–406 MHz) is the most commonly used medical band, especially for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes as well as on-body devices. Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands (433, 915, 2450, 5800 MHz) have also been preferred for some biotelemetry applications. Finally, FCC approved the Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) band (608–614, 1395–1400, and 1427–1432 MHz) mainly for remote monitoring of a patient’s physiological parameters (glucose level, blood pressure, body temperature, heart rate, chemical concentrations, etc.). Since then, several antennas are designed utilizing WMTS bands. In , an S-shaped PIFA is proposed for biotelemetry in MedRadio, WMTS, and ISM bands. Similarly, a tri-band Egret-Beak shaped implantable antenna is presented operating at the same frequency ranges . A meander line shaped patch antenna and a CPW fed spiral antenna are demonstrated in  and , respectively. Both designs are wideband and operate at 1395–1400 and 1427–1432 WMTS bands.
In the latest communication technologies, high-performance antenna is regarded as one of the important devices to be used. In 1983, DRA started its expedition as a substitute to patch antennas. Though DRAs and microstrip patch antennas have their own merit and potential, DRAs appear to be a possible replacement for the microstrip patch antenna, especially at millimeter-wave frequencies. A number of DRAs have been used because of their advantages such as small size, high radiation eﬃciency, ease of excitation, and low-temperature coeﬃcient. There are many reconﬁgurable microstrip patch antennas [1–8], but only a few reconﬁgurable DRAs have been reported in the literature. So more attention has been paid to frequency adjustable DRAs such as using multiple parasitic strips , shifting the spiral position along the DRA surface , and loading cap . Frequency tunable designs using a parasitic slot have been studied theoretically and experimentally , but they are used for the design stage rather than post manufacturing tuning. Tunable DRAs using varactor diode , pin diodes , water , and colloidal dispersion  have been proposed which are also complicated.
The reflectarray is a combination of a flat reflector and array of microstrip patch elements printed on a thin dielectric substrate. Printed reflectarrayantennascombine certain significant advantages of reflector antennas and phased array antennas due to less weight, less complexity, low cost and flat structure which is easily mounted on the top surface -. The use of the printed reflectarray antenna technology with significant innovative features allows possible solutions for mobile ground station antennas which is able to satisfy not only the radiation requirements but also reduced volume with ease of deployments . The compact antenna structures with broadband techniques and multiple functionalities have become more important in modern antenna designs .
making the design such as high gain, portable or fixed-point to ensure it is suitable for RFID system. Besides that, there are many invention of multiband RFID reader for multipurpose application. Combination between UHF and ISM band in single RFID reader was done for multi application system since ISM band also can be used for WLAN application. Therefore, Multiband antenna design is needed to fulfill this requirement.
Wireless local area network (WLAN) technology has been widely used for its mobile high-speed accessing. The standard for WLAN applications, IEEE 802.11b/g/a, covers frequency bands of 2.4 G– 2.484 GHz, 5.15 G–5.35 GHz and 5.725 G–5.825 GHz. A challenge in designing such wireless communication systems is to design compact, low cost, multiband and broadband antennas . Many designs of dual-band patch antenna have been demonstrated in recent years, and printed monopole antennas with all kinds of improvements to broaden frequency band or multiple resonances are very popular for such designs. For example, the antenna presented in  consists of a rectangular patch and straight strips with different length, and the antenna proposed in  comprises a direct-radiating patch and a parasitic C-shaped strip. Both of them cover multi bands. Modified Minkowski fractal geometry is used to get multiband frequency
Abstract—This paper presents a frequency reconﬁgurable dual-pole, dual-band waveguide bandpass ﬁlter. Varactor diode and chip capacitor loaded planar split ring resonators are placed on the transverse plane of a waveguide to form the ﬁlter. Numerical simulations are carried out using CST microwave studio (version 14). Measured tuning ranges of the bands are 8.12–8.58 GHz and 10.22–10.68 GHz, respectively. Measured result shows good agreement with the simulated one. The total length of the ﬁlter is 10 mm.
(2500–2690/3400–3600 MHz) applications. It is accomplished by using two omega particles, the first one printed on the top and the second on the bottom side of the monopole antenna. The omega particles are used for their metamaterials properties characterized by an ability to focus the electromagnetic wave  and to improve antenna’s performances [9–11]. In , it is shown that by implementing omega- like elements and split-ring resonators into the design of an antenna for an UHF RFID tag, the overall size of the antenna can be significantly reduced to dimensions of less than 0.15λ 0 , while preserving the
Fig 2 and fig. 4 shows the antenna geometry with two different ground structures. The antenna is fabricated on the FR4 substrate of dielectric permittivity ε r =4.4, and thickness h=1.6mm having dimensions of 37mm x 45mm. A patch of dimensions 15mm x 15mm with lower edge beveled is printed on one side and ‘V’ shape partial ground structure with central slot is printed on the other side. A circular slot followed by a rectangular slot is incorporated on patch. A rectangular strip is inserted in this slotted part of the patch to resonate over the Bluetooth band. The type of feeding used is the microstrip line feeding with dimensions of width 3mm and length 12 mm.
Fig. 4. E- and H-plane radiation patterns of the multi slot antenna at (a) 8.11 GHz, (b) 9.42 GHz.
Fig. 5. Proposed antenna (a) radiation efficiency and (b) gain.
pattern including the horizontal (E plane) and vertical (H plane) polarization pattern for the antenna at lower band of 8.11 GHz and upper 9.42 GHz. Due to the much symmetry in structure of the proposed wideband dual frequency slotted antenna, rather all symmetrical radia- tion are seen in the horizontal and vertical planes as de- picted in the plot. Typically, the radiation under the ground plane should be zero as same with the simulation radia- tion pattern. This is because the ground plane of the mi- crostrip patch antenna serves as a reflector for all the radio frequency.
Fig. 4 shows the simulated and measured return loss of the fabricated antenna. The simulated and measured results were obtained using an ANSYS HFSS full-wave simulator and KEYSIGHT E5071C vector network analyzer, respectively. The resonance frequencies of Modes I, II, and III were approximately 2.4 and 5.75 GHz, and were optimized for Mode I. The measured results were in good agreement with the simulation at the lower band. However, the simulated results seemed to be better than the measurement at the upper band. It is known that a coaxial cable with an SMA connector, the PIN diodes, and the lumped inductors are highly sensitive to structural parameters. During fabrication, the parameters may have been affected by some factors such as conditions produced by soldering on and the tolerance of the coaxial cable, the PIN diodes, and the chip inductors.
tangent tan δ=0.0009. Orthogonal feed is given at (6, 6) position. The resultant characteristics of the proposed antenna is compared with the rectangular MSPA with single feed at (6,0) and single feed at (0,6) positions. The theoretical results are compared with the simulated data using CONCERTO software which are in close agreement. Further returnloss, 2D radiation pattern, 3D radiation pattern, Total E field and H Field, power, axial ratio, probe impedance results for the proposed antenna are calculated and presented.
Fig 3 : Front view and back view of various iterations After the first iteration the antenna 1 without slot and DGS resonates at single frequency of 10.7GHz with a return loss of -40dB.To have an additional resonance, the above said antenna is modified with DGS and is included with additional slots on the patch across the center circle, and in the rectangular blades which are not used as the feed line. This is shown in Antenna 2 in Fig 3. Due to this, the antenna resonates in triple frequency bands 9.2GHz, 10.1GHz, 10.9GHz with a return loss of -27.2dB, -32.4dB, - 24.5dB respectively. By adjusting the DGS and extending the slot in middle of circle, the antenna resonate multiple frequency in Xband and Ku band and K band. The Xband widely used for air traffic control, military for weather monitoring, satellite communication and deep space telecommunication. The Ku band used for satellite communications. Police radar. The K band used for police radars, vehicle speed detection, satellite communication. The following Fig. 4, 5, 6 represents the return loss plot (reflection coefficient (dB) vs. frequency (GHz)) comparison for the iterated models.
(iv) The slots are generally an absence of electrically-conductive material between the radiating elements. The slots are introduced to upper radiating elements, which enable dual-band operation of the antenna. The slots are carefully tuned so that the antenna can be operable at low and high frequency bands. The tapering feature (“V”shaped) of the upper portion is designed for impedance matching. For the lower portion of the antenna, the slots are introduced to achieve wider and deeper bandwidth at low band (2.4 GHz).
Access (2.5/3.5/5.5), GPS which is Global Positioning System (1575.42/1227.60/1176.45MHz ), LTE Long Term Evolution( 700/2300/2600 MHz) , LTE-A Long Term Evolution Advanced(2300 /2700/3400/3800 MHz) etc need antennas that can operate in multiple frequency bands. . Integration of dualband antennas and filters helps in suppression of unwanted harmonics of antenna and which in turn improves the reflection loss and antenna’s selectivity. Dualband filtering antenna in planar form has improved radiation characteristics. Larger bandwidth planar antennas can be realized with dual frequency patch antenna. Dual-frequency operation can be achieved in many ways. Some simple designs for dual- frequency operation is by using two stack and notched patches fed by coaxial probe using defected ground surfaces etc . A lot of investigation has been carried out for integrated filter-antenna design in wireless communication system. These numerous studies used different mechanism to design filtering antenna. Filtering antenna using coplanar wave guide (CPW) helps to improve band-edge selectivity and good stop-band suppression. Other design implements filter- antenna as system-on package (SOP), by using this concept it able to support higher frequency and can provide high gain. Some studies shows filter-antenna helps in achieving great skirt selectivity as compared to the conventional band-pass filter. They also provides high suppression in the stop-band andflat antenna gain in the pass-band. In this paper, a dualband filtering antenna with a coaxial feed is proposed will cover desired frequency band for wireless LTE-A applications. Also the design will have compact size with enhanced performance in terms of radiation pattern. The antenna consists of solid ground and patch plane without any extra filtering network. In this design, the ground plane and patch are defected by cutting different slots with the different dimensions.