Recent studies on workspaces and their collective consciousness have provided important support to our study. Today’s furniture as well as the one for the future must support multiple media and technologies that require specific features for them. As it is well known, we are living in an era of knowledge where instant and effective communication has become a necessity in the workplace as well as in everyday life. As mentioned by the authors Bene T. and Gatterer H. in their book “The new workspaces. Trend report on Office and Working Environments” , they stablished that communication and creativity are gaining importance in the workplace. In this dialogue creativity is a word that caught our attention because regardless of the context, is becoming more and more demanded in the workplace, reason why many companies have been adopting the design thinking process as strategy to work.
analysis. In this mode, all registered users are allowed to work in a password-protected environment, private from all other users. Also users get 1 GB of space for data and results storage. Users can upload any number of files within this storage limit. For better file management, files can be grouped into different projects, experiments, dates and for searching and indexing one or more tags can be added to each file. For collaborative projects, users also can designate themselves as principal investigators and add other users to the project space. Options for specify- ing limited or full access rights are available. The second mode named "Ad-hoc analysis" does not require any reg- istration and have all options in the full user mode except for data storage and sharing. This mode can be accessed from the main page of MDAW by going to the link "Run ad-hoc analysis" http://www.arraydb.org/AdHoc/FileU pload.aspx. This is suggested mode of access for those
The SUN workstation is a personal computer system that combines graphics and networking capabilities with powerful local processing. The workstation has been developed for research in VLSI design automation, text processing, distributed operating systems and programming environments. Clusters of SUN workstations are connected via a local network sharing a network-based file system. The SUN workstation is based on the Motorola 68000 processor, has a 1024 by 800 pixel bitmap display, and uses Ethernet as its local network. The hardware supports virtual memory management, a mechanism for high-speed display updates, and data-link-control for the Ethernet. The entire workstation electronics consists of 260 chips mounted on three 6.75 by 12 inch PC boards compatible with the IEEE-796 Bus (Intel Multibus). In addition to implementing a workstation, the boards have been configured to serve as network nodes for file servers, printer servers, network gateways, and terminal concentrators.
The development of the picture archiving and communi- cation systems (PACS) needed to store this information was originally undertaken by large commercial concerns, such as GE Medical Systems. These were designed to store digital images of clinical scans and tests in a multi-user institutional PACS that could be linked to individual elec- tronic medical records (EMR). The widespread use of PACS/EMR systems is creating a new media for collabora- tion within and between clinical departments as well as with researchers and patients that is rapidly being com- moditized [21-23]. Technological barriers to linking dif- ferent institutional PACS are rapidly being overcome. Furthermore, "open-source" systems are starting to appear and the concept of applying GRID computing (based on multiple networked computers) PACS solutions to the handling complex diagnostic challenges are being pro- moted [24,25]. In parallel, there is the potential to open up and commoditize the equipment specifications for institutional PACS solutions. Choong et al  examined how the cost of sharing x-ray images within a PACS in Malaysia could be reduced by using commodity solutions. They found that: 1) consumer digital cameras could digi- tize X-ray images to a standard that matched the expensive digitizers commonly specified for PACS solutions; 2) cer- tain forms of "lossy" compression were well-tolerated enabling high data compression for more efficient data transfer; and 3) visualization of the images using an inex- pensive consumer grade 15" LCD screen was just as effec- tive as using an expensive high quality monitor in arriving at clinical decisions. This evidence implies that healthcare infrastructure is no different from any other form of meas- urement and communication infrastructure and can be subjected to commodity engineering. Experiences with virtual microscopy in the pathology sector indicate that the examination of virtual slides generally provide essen- tially the same diagnostic results as glass slides [6,13]. Validation by example
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type II is a severe, progressive neuromuscular disorder characterized by an onset before 18 months of age (Zerres et al., 1997). Some SMA type II patients are capable of standing with the aid of leg braces, however, none can walk independently. Furthermore, SMA causes bulbar mus- cle paralysis, resulting in respiratory insufficiency and slurred speech (Lunn & Wang, 2008). Various assistive technologies, such as leg braces, have been de- veloped to help them perform elementary actions in life. Accommodating for the needs of SMA patients requires a thorough understanding of their situation. User-centered design (UCD) approaches, which are primarily useful for the development of consumer products, are not holistic enough to address modern day’s complex challenges (Sanders & Stappers, 2008; McDonagh et al., 2013). The identification of opportunities for future living experiences is not necessarily aimed at the development of products or services. Similar shortcomings of UCD can be seen in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI); there is a call for more user engagement to acquire deeper understandings grounded in empathy. “Ontologically, HCI is now concerned with the experience, felt life, emotion, desire, fulfilment as well as the more familiar ontology of activities, practices and tasks. In this context empathy has emerged as an important concept with practical consequences for HCI.” (Wright & McCarthy, 2008, p. 644). Con- trary to UCD, co-design provides a framework for empathic discourses (Gaver, Dunne, & Pacenti, 1999). Furthermore, it is a more holistic approach due to the involvement of non-designers, such as users, stakeholders, and specialists from other disciplines, in ideation activities shaped by designers. Designers can choose from a plethora of co-design tools, which each have their own strengths and applications. Luckily, frameworks which support adequate selections of techniques have been developed (Sanders, Brandt, & Binder, 2010).
Ethnic minority work is being conducted by the Communist Party of Chi- na(CPC) in accordance with Marxist-Leninist nation theory, uniting China ’ s many ethnic minorities and launching a hugely important body of work for both the Party and the nation as a whole. Ever since the 18th National Congress of the CPC, the Party Central Committee, with General Secretary Xi Jinping at its centre, has focused heavily on ethnic minority work, convening forums on the subject in Tibet and Xinjiang in rapid succession, before ultimately convening a meeting about the general state of the central government ’ s work in this area in 2014. Xi gave several important speeches on topics including the inspection of ethnic minority areas, as well as various speeches made during the talks at the Lianghui 1 about related issues. These speeches did not merely constitute an in- tegral part of Xi ’ s new ideas, 2 concepts and strategies for managing state affairs, but also established the guiding principle of ethnic minority work for the Party and the nation in a new historical condition. Xi ’ s ideas for ethnic minority work serve as a link between past and future, nurturing past traditions and notions while introducing new ideas. He is drawing deeply on history to set out a broad and all-encompassing vision for a diverse future, integrating Chinese character- istics in the innovation and development of ideas about ethnic minority work. Learning, understanding and implementing Xi ’ s ideas for ethnic minority work require a comprehensive and thorough study of his new political scientific ideas, concepts and strategies. This is because ethnic minority work is not a sep- arate, isolated field; it is an essential part of ‘ socialism with Chinese characteris- tics ’ as a whole: “ Ethnic minority work involves everything, ” it is argued, “ and everything contains elements of ethnic minority work ” . This article discusses and explores Xi ’ s ideas of ethnic minority work from different viewpoints and methods.
There are several tools that can be utilized to improve the design of CNC lathe machine. One of the popular tools that commonly used is the Quality Function Development or known as QFD (Akao, 1990). The QFD is an approach to determine the technical and ergonomic design requirement characteristics of new or innovated product to meet the users’ requirements. This method translates the Voice of Customer (VoC) obtained from questionnaire to fulfil the customer satisfaction (Adila Md Hashim et al., 2012). To generate the result, users’ requirements will be summarized in the House of Quality (HOQ).
My preference to stand while working prompted me to incorporate, as a key feature, the ability to use my workstation for standing or sitting. All the reports and studies related to the benefits of reduced sedentary time also factored into my want to create a desk that could work for sitting or standing. However, I realized even if you want to stand while working, there inevitably will be times when you want to sit while working (e.g. you might get tired, not feel well, feel more comfortable sitting at certain times, etc.), so being able to sit at my workstation was also important. The user needs this choice, and flexibility within the product. I can easily see a user coming into the office, and sitting down at their desk while they enjoy their coffee. Then, once finished, switching to the standing position until lunchtime. After lunch, they would sit for an hour or so, then switch back to standing for the remainder of the day. Breaking up the day like this prevents the user from getting overly tired from standing for too long, and also helps prevent large spans of sedentary time. Alternating between standing and sitting helps encourage movement, and helps to energize the user by getting their blood flowing (especially when they move to the standing position).
The Knowledge Persistent Layer is based on the Idea ontology proposed by Riedl  about the innovation domain which defines a vocabulary and a semantic of the knowledge used in innovation ideas. The ontology is developed in OWL-DL. This language is based on Description Logics (hence the suffix DL). Description Logics are a decidable fragment of First Order Logic and are therefore amenable to automated reasoning. It is therefore possible to automatically compute the classification hierarchy and check for inconsistencies in an ontology that conforms to OWL-DL.
higher level of engagement at the workshop. The immersing stage, which lasted one hour or more, enabled participants to become familiar with the user data; however, the designers were required to only think about the data, “stepping away from the solution-‐focussed ‘pressure cooker’ style of creative sessions” (Van der Lugt and Sleeswijk Visser, 2007). The structuring stage then followed, with the purpose of “identifying interesting connections or mini-‐theories, which are then developed and strengthened (or rejected) by adding data elements” (Strauss and Corbin 1990, cited in Van der Lugt and Sleeswijk Visser, 2007). In this stage participants had to identify a small number of themes and elements relevant to the design challenge. For this task a poster was used. However, because of the huge amount of data, researchers then created cards with pre-‐selected data from individual users. The Identifying insights stage aims to establish directions for new ideas based on users’ needs and desires. This problem-‐solving stage focused on the user, however, not necessarily keeping strong links between user data and ideas. In the last developing concepts stage, ideas are transformed into product concepts by sketches and establish product characteristics as well as identifying pros and cons (Van der Lugt and Sleeswijk Visser, 2007).
Purpose Based Access Control provides an efficient privacy disclosure prevention method- ology to achieve a balance between privacy and utility of data. In fact, in healthcare an impor- tant aspect that needs to be satisfied is the contextual integrity which measure the closeness of the conformity of personal information with context-relative informational norms . For example, medical information shared with someone outside the health-care context represent a violation of privacy. The work  provides a methodology for designing business processes and privacy rules that satisfy privacy goals and organizations utility. This approach can be useful to complete our model-driven approach. The work  describes a interesting approach for de- livering data on a purpose based need-to-know basis. This is achieved through the definition of purposes of use. With  we propose access control policies to preserve privacy in data shar- ing in an event-driven environments. We define in particular fine-grained access control policies based on a purpose of use of data. The purpose-based access control is normally considered a good solution for meeting the requirements of privacy legislations. The purpose taxonomy for the healthcare domain is well defined at national level in Italy . It has been preferred to identity-based access methods, such as RBAC, because of its efficiency and suitability in multi- organization and variable context that usually present the role explosion problem. For that purpose, RBAC extensions such as P-RBAC has been proposed that extends RBAC with privacy annotations such as purposes, event-condition-actions and obligations.
The syllabus of the full Diploma covered historical studies, modern requirements and materials. There was also a Post Diploma Study, which included measured surveys and collaborative projects with painters sculptors and designers. These two courses reflect the earlier work of the Lower and Upper Schools. The present writer has been unable to contact any student who specialised in the Architectural School during this period, but from the ten Diploma graduation lists for years prior to 1940, there are only thirteen graduates for the School of Architecture. From this it maybe concluded that the School had only a very small number of its own Diploma students. No comments regarding the Schools failings or success have been found, and the value of the Diploma by comparison with other systems of architectural accreditation remains unknown^^). During the 1920s, there was considerable debate regarding the need of legislation to limit the practice of architecture to those considered qualified, and this came about in 1931, with the passing of the first Architects' Registration Act, with further Acts in 1934 and
Chapter 2 will cover on the literature review in order to provide supporting data, extracting the discussion of the research and to compare the methodology applied for the previous studies. Moreover, in this section the detailed research of various types of published work, books, and other related sources are clarified in order to support information for this study.
Corporeality is a presupposition for empathy, and by empathy and Ego-analogon is apprehended”, in Beilage XXIII Husserl seems to have changed his position with regard to this second claim, (Ideas II 284). That this empathic refinement can be expanded to encompass, in a general sense, those other ensouled animals whose acts are egoic is perhaps not that difficult to understand. Humans share with animals a lower egoic stratum of “pure” animality (Ideas II 289). That Husserl puts pure in scare quotes indicates that he is aware of the problems associated with arriving at the human by simply piling reason on top of animality – as is the case with other humans, even with ourselves, this tracing of motivational pathways of sense-formation will never be without its blind spots and lacunae.
A TRANSLATOR'S WORKSTATION A T R A N S L A T O R ' S W O R K S T A T I O N EUGENIO PICCHI 1, CAROL PETERS 2, ELISABETFA MARINAI 3 llstituto di Linguistica Computazionale, CNR, Pisa, Italy 2Istituto di[.]
This work has been split into two parts. In the first part of the work time study of the existing model will be developed, with the help of this study time will be calculated for the process based on the value added and non-value added service in the process. Then value stream mapping will be done to calculate work in progress, queue waiting for the particular process. On the second part of the work, work station design will be done to resolve the issues existing in the prevailing model. Station allocation in assembly line balancing will be carried out by following Largest Candidate Rule and Ranked Positional weight Method. Then value stream mapping of the proposed / developed model is done, from which work in progress and idle time is calculated. Then work place and station are designed based on the basic ergonomics principle to create a better environment to work in the industry. After validation of the model its implemented in the company and practical problem if any identified are solved. By following the above steps the problem in the prevailing method Batch production is overcome by adopting the single piece flow obtained by assembly line balancing and work station designing.
I align to the work of Yi (2009:68), who sees knowledge sharing behavior as “set of individual behaviors involving sharing one’s work-related knowledge and expertise with other members within one’s organization, which can contribute to the ultimate effectiveness of the organization”. This definition stems from an extensive review of current literature. Furthermore, an ambiguous picture of knowledge sharing unveils beyond definitional aspects. Out of the vast number of studies that go further than theoretic discussions, authors are focusing on the extent or frequency of knowledge sharing (Foss et al, 2009; Kaše et al., 2009; Cummings, 2004; Zboralski, 2009; Chiu, Hsu, Wang, 2006), propensity or willingness to share (Cyr & Choo, 2010; de Vries, van den Hoof, de Ridder, 2006; Teh, Chong, Yong & Yew, 2010; Bock, Zmud, Kim & Lee, 2005) or on motivation to share (Gagné, 2009). Yet, these approaches can only explain a certain portion of employees’ KSB, namely what and how much knowledge is shared. An aspect often neglected in recent studies is the question of how knowledge is actually shared (see Yang & Chen, 2007 or Lin, 2007 for an exception). For organizations seeking to stimulate KSB this is an important aspect, as organizational antecedents must be adapted to differing types of knowledge sharing activities.