Top PDF Sharing of Tacit Knowledge in Organizations: A Review

Sharing of Tacit Knowledge in Organizations: A Review

Sharing of Tacit Knowledge in Organizations: A Review

Ikujiro Nonaka, Ryoko Totama and Akiya Nagata expressed that tacit knowledge is derived from personal experience; it is subjective and difficult to formalize [82]. On the other hand, Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi confirmed that tacit knowledge is often learned via shared and collaborative experiences. They brought the concept closer to business management by writing about knowledge creating company in 1995 [84]. They argued that knowledge is initiated from interaction among employees in organizations. The Knowledge Creating Company of Nonaka and Takeuchi in management is that when communication is conducted from a person to a group, inside an organization and among organizations, tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge interact with each other. But this seems to be a little different from Polanyi’s tacit knowledge [67]. Nonaka and Takeuchi [84] have developed the knowledge spiral model in 1995 to show interaction between tacit and explicit knowledge in an organization for socialization, externalization, combination and internalization (SECI), which helps synthesize subjective knowledge and values into objective and socially shared organizational knowledge.
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A Critical Review Of Knowledge Sharing In Various Industries And Organizations

A Critical Review Of Knowledge Sharing In Various Industries And Organizations

Pharmaceutical industry has several distinct characteristics compared to other industries. It has strict regulatory environment, lengthy cycles development, high capital cost and high risks in the research and development process (Lilleoere & Hansen, 2011). The average time taken for the discovery of new drugs would take about 8-10 years (Ganguli, 2003). Therefore, the main focus of this industry is to minimize the time to market because of other related issues for the marketing time. Cost and novelty would be one of the advantages if the industry would be able to reduce the time. To stay competitive, pharmaceutical companies have shifted towards optimizing current product portfolios and developing innovation practices (Tranter, 2000), focusing on life cycle management and solving technical problems related to time- to-market. According to Ingelgard et al. (2002), in the pharmaceutical industry, company culture, competency and readily available skills form a dynamic learning capability. Furthermore, the structure of organizations, incentives learning, opportunities for changes and leadership have subsequent influence in learning capability. In this pharmaceutical industry context, KS is believed to have developed new knowledge, by enhancing innovation of new products at faster pace (Lilleoere & Hansen, 2011). Nevertheless, KS in this industry is easy with competition among companies, which puts forth the notion that whoever found the knowledge first, makes the most profit out of it. It is highly dependent on the context and setting, beliefs of individual, different actions and various personal practices involved. The perspectives of understanding and acknowledgment of individual differences in KS is a key for R&D in organizations. Therefore, unleashing the KS enablers and hindrance of diversify professional groups and further learning to apply the R&D in pharmaceutical is important to develop innovative performance. According to DiMasi et al. (2016), the average cost for developing new biological compound of drugs is estimated to be at $1395. Post R&D approval, the cost escalates to $2870 (rate in the year 2013). Having stiff competition in this industry, pharmaceutical companies would try their best in retaining and withholding their tacit knowledge based on the research conducted. They would have to invest in acquiring the best new drug and medication. This in turn would make knowledge and information hard to come by among the companies. Hence,
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How to utilize tacit knowledge in health organizations: An Iranian perspective

How to utilize tacit knowledge in health organizations: An Iranian perspective

Furthermore, practitioners in public healthcare services work in a complex environment, where formal research lit- erature cannot be accessed. In these environments, tacit knowledge can help in the understanding of explicit knowledge (12) and can complement technical skills for health care delivery (13). Research results have also con- firmed that health practitioners lay more emphasis on tacit knowledge while tackling health problems (14, 15). Studies have also reported the crucial role of tacit knowledge in team-based practice (12, 16, 17) and collective decision- making (16). The importance of strengthening teamwork interactions and discussions for collective decision- making is inevitable for organizations in developing countries, where organizational members may be reluctant to collab- orate or share information with others to maintain their dominant position or to be acknowledged by their superi- ors. This spirit is damaging to group cohesiveness (18). Thus, providing a framework for sharing tacit knowledge and improving the knowledge creation cycle is highly im- portant for tacit and explicit knowledge conversion pro- cesses and for promoting collective decision- making. To our knowledge, few studies have been conducted on the methods of utilizing tacit knowledge in health organiza- tions in these countries. Therefore, this study explored the solutions to share and utilize tacit knowledge in health or- ganizations.
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TACIT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW

TACIT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW

and stages of a company’s operations. The key degree of tacit knowledge transfer is Face-to-face interaction, close relationships formed to have informal interaction and physical demonstration of skills. Most of the Asian companies focus on face-to-face collaborative knowledge sharing, use telephone, voice-mail and real-time video conferencing to transfer tacit knowledge. As tacit knowledge is hard to communicate and express in words. So in order to disseminate it in an organization – common ground of communication between particular units, mutual trust, and analogical way of thinking is needed. “The contact zone” therefore is needed, where units can have a direct contact with one another. One of the few ways to make knowledge more accessible is to enable more conversations to take place in online environments such as forums, weblogs and wikis. In this way sharing is easier and more accessible than by more formalised processes and by making these conversations "linky" people can navigate them, point to the good stuff and build up a collective memory of what was useful.
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THE ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT IN SHARING TACIT KNOWLEDGE

THE ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT IN SHARING TACIT KNOWLEDGE

One of the main measures of the knowledge management process is knowledge sharing that has the crucial impact on promoting innovation ability and as a result success and the competitiveness of knowledge-based organizations. Effectively sharing knowledge, especially tacit knowledge requires employees to have desire and special empowerments. Thus, the present study examines this issue that how and to what extend the dimensions of psychological empowerment can facilitate tacit knowledge sharing in organization. Research method is descriptive and correlational. The population includes 1958 managers and experts of a Bank in Tehran where 332 subjects were selected using random sampling. Results suggest that all aspects of psychological empowerment have positive and significant impact on tacit knowledge sharing in organization.
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Conceptualization of tacit knowledge dimension

Conceptualization of tacit knowledge dimension

The objectives of this paper are to elaborate the nature and attributes of the tacit knowledge. For the first objective, literature reviews from various scholars writing are analyzed to determine the nature and types of tacit knowledge. Twelve scholars’ writings are studied, representing various perspectives, such as organizational theorist, Nonaka, Baumard and Choo, philosophical views such as Polanyi and Collins, and behaviorist views such as Sternberg and Wagner, Aadne and Van Krogh. Besides the different perspective, these literature reviews are chosen based on the author’s contribution on the scholarly work on tacit knowledge. Polanyi is the first person who coined the word tacit knowledge. Collins and Wagner and Sternberg started the empirical research in tacit knowledge, Nonaka did an extensive research in knowledge creation, and popularized the SECI model. Baumard researched on knowledge in an organization context and introduce the concept of implicit knowledge. Choo, extends the work of Nonaka. Aadne started the research on social tacit knowledge, where as Van Krogh researched on tacit knowledge in relationship but maintains tacit knowledge is embedded in individual. Davenport and Prusak discusses knowledge in organizations.
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R&D outsourcing contract for the unverified value of tacit knowledge sharing

R&D outsourcing contract for the unverified value of tacit knowledge sharing

According to the principle of reverse solving in a game, stage 3 should be firstly considered, that is, the buyer decide whether to fulfill the contracts or not. No matter the project succeeds or not, this fixed-price must be paid. Then, the achievements of explicit knowledge, as long as being verified by the third-party organizations, must be paid for by the buyer as stated in the contracts. If not, the buyer may be prosecuted and court will bring in an enforcement verdict. Compared with explicit knowledge, the value of tacit knowledge cannot be verified by court, so even though the buyer do not pay the money according to contracts, there is no risk in law. In this case, the buyer will choose to implement tacit knowledge sharing stimulation or not. If they do, d = 1 ; if they do not, d = 0 . Therefore, the expected revenue of the buyer R in the third stage is R = (1 – β 1 )λ 1 e 1 + (1 – dβ 2 )λ 2 e 2 – F . Clearly, the revenue when d = 0 is higher than that
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Knowledge Sharing among Employees in Organizations

Knowledge Sharing among Employees in Organizations

Knowledge is a powerful source of organizations. The importance of knowledge for the development of organizations globally took attention to the researchers in the late 1990s. The World Bank (1998) explained that knowledge, specifically the way a society produced, processed, and integrated knowledge into their lives, was a crucial factor for the organizational development. At present, knowledge is considered as an essential issue of production in an organization as like land, labor, and capital. Knowledge is a fluid mix of experience, contextual information and expert insight that provides a framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information (Davenport & Prusak, 1997). In organizations, knowledge is divided into two types: explicit and tacit knowledge (Nonaka, 1991). Tacit knowledge is the hands-on skills, best practices, special know-how, heuristic, intuitions, and so on. It is personal in origin, context and job specific and difficult to formalize and codify, difficult to capture, communicate and share, and poorly documented but highly operational in the minds of the possessor (Polanyi, 1973; Serban & Luan, 2003). Explicit knowledge is easily codified, storable, transferable, and easily expressed and shared. Sources of it are manuals, policies and procedures, and databases and reports (Serban & Luan, 2003).
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DYNAMICS OF HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN PROMOTING INNOVATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION: A LITERATURE REVIEW

DYNAMICS OF HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN PROMOTING INNOVATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION: A LITERATURE REVIEW

Although firms deliberately set up mechanisms for intra-organizational knowledge sharing and dissemination across units, it is not guaranteed that these mechanisms actually contribute to knowledge application. To exploit the knowledge in an organization, it is not sufficient that employees simply engage in knowledge sharing behavior. In some instances, tools for knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer can contribute to increase in application of methods, techniques, and models, while in other instances these effects may be negligible[58]. In complex organizations, employees may have several affiliations or multi-memberships[59][60]. Knowledge application is the extent to which knowledge acquired from other employees or units has been applied in a beneficial manner in a given organizational unit. Knowledge application represents the logical next step after knowledge sharing in the knowledge management cycle [61]. It is not enough to share knowledge or disseminate knowledge to a receiving part. Rather, the methods, practices, and techniques in question must be used by the respondents in a way that changes their actions. Knowledge is applied when the experience of one individual or unit influences another unit through changes in behavior [62][63]. The employee has a primary „„home‟‟ in the line organization but, at the same time, can belong to other spheres, or communities, that serve different purposes. Communities of practice and internal knowledge networks are examples of secondary intra-organizational structures that have come to typify horizontal knowledge overlays. Such overlays may potentially reduce the power of the line organization as well as take focus away from the work occurring within the line organization. The manager may perceive the employee‟s participation in these communities as either disrupting work, or alternatively as a source of new insights, methods, and procedures that will improve the quality of the work. Thus, the manager‟s perception of the value of the employee‟s participation may influence the knowledge application.
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EMERGENCY STATIONS IN THE GRAND MOSQUE OF MECCA AS AN APPLICATION FOR WIRELESS 
SENSOR NETWORKS

EMERGENCY STATIONS IN THE GRAND MOSQUE OF MECCA AS AN APPLICATION FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

One of the challenges of the companies is lack of CK integration and organizing. Some companies use data mining and text mining tools for classification and clustering customer knowledge; however, the main problem is organizing tacit knowledge and proving links to experts. Knowledge maps are found likely to be capable of helping organizations to manage tacit knowledge. Third process is knowledge sharing. In this process, customer knowledge needs to be shared across the organization and all the members of the organization in need for this knowledge can access to this knowledge. Collaboration system is responsible for providing the flow of CK in the organization. In fact, employees can discuss and collaborate with each other to solve the problem of the customers and improve the quality of product and service based on customer knowledge. Lack of collaboration system and lack of motivation and skill to share knowledge are the main challenges of this process. Last process is customer knowledge utilization. Knowledge utilization is the most crucial process since all the advantages of the earlier processes should be accumulated in the utilization process to provide the firm with tangible advantages.
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Information encountering on social media and tacit knowledge sharing

Information encountering on social media and tacit knowledge sharing

Participants acknowledged that prior to the use of social media, their ability to obtain new knowledge was limited to local colleagues and a few journals if they could find the time to read them. However, their ability to incorporate new knowledge had exploded since entering the social media world. Examples include being able to quickly review newly published literature and controversial topics, being informed of new evidence, techniques, and advances, being able to engage in professional conversations, or just reading people’s opinion and comments. From the participants’ perspectives, physicians who use social media regularly are much more up-to-date than physicians who do not use social media. The following interview extract shows an example where a participant compared herself with her colleagues who do not use social media.
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Tacit Knowledge for the Development of Organizations

Tacit Knowledge for the Development of Organizations

Knowledge is mainly divided into two types: tacit and explicit. The purpose of this study is to examine the concept of tacit knowledge and the application of it for the development of organizations. It is evident that tacit knowledge has a strong connection with the research area of knowledge management. The present global economy is tacit knowledge based for the sustainable development. Since it is very complex in its nature, therefore acquire and extract of tacit knowledge is not a very easy task. It is unwritten, unspoken and hidden vast storehouse of knowledge of a person. It stresses on the success and well-being of humankind. It is obtained as a result of the direct interaction between individuals and their environments. The paper analyzes the importance of tacit knowledge for the sustaining of the long-term capabilities and performance in organizations. An attempt has been taken here to discuss sharing of tacit knowledge in organizations. This paper also tries to explore the properties of tacit knowledge in some detailed.
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Tacit knowledge manifestations in an institute of higher learning

Tacit knowledge manifestations in an institute of higher learning

no research work. I come from a research background, having completed my Masters and later my PhD, research is my interest. I believe if you keep doing teaching, there is no progress. Academicians should do research to perform. I tried to ask for a transfer to the main campus, because I know research activities are quite active there. I tried many times but failed. Then I decided to find friends in the areas to do research. They are not only in the campus but also other organizations. I cannot really find people who want to do research. Most of them prefer teaching. The organizational environment also focus on teaching, your teaching load is like 18 hours to 23 hours. How do you squeeze in the research? I really wanted to do research, so I have to offset the time, find time after office hours to do research. I learned to surpass myself, and keep on working hard. In short, I have to prove myself that I can do it. Later, the research culture starts to come in. I managed to find some people from other organization who shared the same interest and started doing research. Meantime, I still applied for a transfer as I believe that I am better off in the main campus, in pursuing my research interest. Meantime, I don’t waste time, I write books, I utilize my time in trying to do research. I still want to pursue my interest and try various ways in doing it. I know I have the constraints but for me, I decide for myself but the environment surrounding me.
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Information Sharing Influence on Firm Performance: Scholars have recognised information sharing as the vital spark of logistics and supply chain integration; market relationship with key customers and suppliers as well as materials flow (Wu, Chuang & Hsu 2014; Pooe, Mafini, & Loury-Okoumba 2015; Tong & Crosno 2016; Bian, Shang & Zhang 2016). The lack of information sharing in an organisation may result to a poor performance level as the organisation may not be able to cope with the market pressure and demands (Srikanth & Jomon 2013; Munirat, Sanni & Kazeem 2014). Information sharing enables organisations to satisfy its customers’ specific needs and requirements (Hatala & Lutta 2009). It enables the efficiency and effectiveness of the organisation resources. This is due to its potential to keep organisations up-to-date and ensuring business competitive performance as well as long-term collaborative relationship improvement with external organizations (Bontis, Richards & Serenko 2011). Information sharing enhance the visibility of products and services supplied (Gil-Garcia & Sayogo 2016). According to Lotfi, Mukhtar, Saharan and Zadeh (2013:298), “in order to survive and compete effectively in today’s global economy, organisations strongly need to create, share and disseminate up-to-date and appropriate knowledge and information”. The hypothesis is stated as follows:
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DOCUMENT SIMILARITY DETECTION USING SYNONYMS FACTOR AND PARALLEL PROCESSING

DOCUMENT SIMILARITY DETECTION USING SYNONYMS FACTOR AND PARALLEL PROCESSING

On other hand, knowledge measurement is main process to ensure that continuously improve the knowledge (tacit and explicit) that lead to acceptance the dynamic change in businesses strategies and working environment [7 , 13] . Businesses strategies and working environment are frequently changing to achieve the competitive advantage with other organizations. Thus, knowledge (tacit and explicit) should manage occasionally to achieve the organization requirement based on work environment. Moreover, explicit knowledge is the key source of tacit knowledge development. Thus, knowledge needs to managing efficiently to satisfy the employees’ tacit levels. Also tacit knowledge is needs to be evaluated to retrieve efficient explicit knowledge. There is significant relation between knowledge measurement and organization strategies, they are basic success factors of knowledge management systems implantations in companies [9, 13, 19].
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Tacit Knowledge Sharing Behavior, Within A Relational Social Capital Framework, In A South African University Of Technology

Tacit Knowledge Sharing Behavior, Within A Relational Social Capital Framework, In A South African University Of Technology

This study suggests that in order to establish a knowledge-based culture that constantly generates new knowledge in a university, it is important to a) uncover and understand the beliefs, motivations and attitudes of individual staff members towards tacit knowledge sharing and b) understand the relationships and processes involved in individual tacit knowledge sharing behavior within the university. Management must consciously cultivate social relationships and interpersonal interactions of employees, rather than expecting them to arise organically from day-to-day work. In particular, fostering a work context characterized by high levels of trust, shared norms and values is likely to nurture the mutual social exchange relationships that are important in driving knowledge sharing intentions. By making social capital predication a more overt mission and actively promoting social capital and tacit knowledge sharing behavior, universities can become more relevant and advance the development of intellectual capital.
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Research on the framework of tire enterprises tacit knowledge management based on web 3 0

Research on the framework of tire enterprises tacit knowledge management based on web 3 0

II. To show relationships between tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge. According to Davenport, knowledge maps are a guidebook for knowledge distribution. Its main function is to provide guidelines to find desired knowledge, assess the stock and relevance, while the map per se is not a collection of knowledge, but a guidebook providing the source of knowledge. Establish specific knowledge team, formed by appropriate personnel with the right knowledge, search and discover the tacit knowledge in the field and build an explicit document for employees to browse and use. Meanwhile, actively tap sources of tacit knowledge, acquire more tacit knowledge and document it as the form of knowledge map, and keep this map constantly updated and improved.
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Framework To Enhance The Performance To Gain Market Through Innovation As A Mediator In The Mobile Cellular Telecommunication Industry Of Pakistan

Framework To Enhance The Performance To Gain Market Through Innovation As A Mediator In The Mobile Cellular Telecommunication Industry Of Pakistan

Narver and Slater (1990), describes the market orientation as "the organization culture that most effectively creates the necessary behaviours for the creation of superior value for buyers and, thus, continuous superior performance for the business." In today era of modern and advance marketing, it is essential to understand the requirements of clients in a better way as compared to competitors to win the business, which indicates the importance of the market orientation. The construct market orientation comprises three primary components from the behavioural perspective that are the customer, inter-functional coordination, and the third one is the competitor orientation (Narver & Slater, 1990). The customer orientation behaviour beliefs to put the interest of the customer first by an in-depth understanding of their requirements. In any organization, the inter-functional level coordination leads to creating value for customers. Organizations with a customer orientation approach focus to collect sufficient information about their customer's needs that help to develop new products according to their expectations (Lin et al. 2012, p. 44). Competitor orientation provides an opportunity for an organization to compare and benchmark an alternative service provider (Narver & Slater, 1990; Zhou et al., 2007). By using a competitor orientation approach, the organizations analyze not only the strengths and weaknesses but also the strategies and capabilities of competitors that deliver a similar portfolio. Inter- functional coordination is the process of coordination of organizational activities to create values for targeted customers and other stakeholders (Narver & Slater, 1990).
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Workaround as a craft skill of the computerised paper production process

Workaround as a craft skill of the computerised paper production process

contributed classification of skills based on their explicit expressions–into the physical, semiotic and intellectual–to an understanding of how his thought may be applied. The chapter also identified the tacit knowledge as closely related to experience. Problem-solving is a heuristic act, which enables us to deal with a novel situation in a novel manner. It is essentially tacit, despite an interplay between the articulate and the inarticulate. A problem-solving capability is positively related to a level of experience, an accumulation of which forms a repertoire of portmanteau reactions as behaviour patterns, which immediately became part of appropriate routes toward a solution. It transforms once the novel situation to a routine operation in eyes of an expert; his experience is transformed into a wealth of resource ready to deal with occurrences with increasing subtlety. He possesses the superior problem-solving skill compared to a novice. Although the expert may be as prone to making mistakes as other relatively inexperienced person, he is better able at identifying and rectifying errors. His problem-solving approach becomes increasingly non-routine, adaptive and does not follow a strictly logical pattern. A close inspection reveals an ability to improvise: to make a quick and reliable decision without prior stipulation (Weick E., 1998: 544). It is a process where by a fresh contingency is mixed with previously learnt lessons, guided by patterns discovered retrospectively (Berliner P., 1994: 546-7). We are said to improvise as we thrust our intuition-guided efforts towards
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Organizational culture and the creation of a dynamic environment for knowledge sharing

Organizational culture and the creation of a dynamic environment for knowledge sharing

As organization to have the right knowledge, to know the nature of knowledge to develop and share, it is crucial for such organizations to encourage the culture of sharing and learning from each other. Management influences the performance of every employee within the organizational structure and consequently affects organizational performance (Agrawal and Henderson, 2002). For Beijerse (1999), the organization culture of motivation is essential to be adopted in its hierarchy because this is important for the sharing and utilization of knowledge. In this case the organization bringing its employees into line of management attitudes and building a development way for sharing knowledge. Differentiation between firms is through its employees, their knowledge. Organizational culture is imperative factor for successful KS. For Van Der Velden (2002), the knowledge is highly dependent on our experience, beliefs, and values.
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