In Simasericmodel, there are learning habit that allows the improvement of students' criticalthinking are: a question, answer, discuss answers and cooperative work. Encourage students to ask questions and make inquiries is a way to actively engage students in criticalthinking (Duron, 2006). Observing the activities of students in Simasericmodel, it appears that students learn to apply scientific methods followed by discussion. Proulx (2004) stated that criticalthinking stage consists of elements similar to the stages of the scientific method. Further stated that the application of scientific methods followed by a discussion on the results of the investigation can empower students' criticalthinking. Simasericmodelstudents conduct cooperation in small groups to understand and solve the problems and the opportunity for students to dialogue that have an impact on the improvement of criticalthinkingskills. According to Slavin (2009) essentially, cooperative learning is aimed to accustom social skills regarding to leadership learning, decision making, trust building, communication, and handling problems together. In cooperative working, it gives students the opportunity to discuss in open groups. According to Konberg and Griffin (2000), one way to train students to think critically is through analysis of the problem using repetition method which can help students master the complex material and be able to improve their criticalthinkingskills.
The type of this reasearch is pre-experimental reseach with one group pretest post-test design . This reaseach begins with development of the learning device for thermochemistry topic refers to the 4-D models . There are four kinds of learning device developed using guided inquiry model integrated with STEM namely lesson plan, student book, student worksheet, and test of criticalthinkingskills. All learning devices were validated by expert before implemented in chemistry learning. This research was carried out at Muhammadiyah 10 Senior High School Surabaya, Indonesia, in academic year of 2018/2019. The research subject was 28 students of XI MIA-1 class and 29 students of XI MIA-2 class. The learning process was carried out for three meeting with the materials of exotermic and endotermic reaction, determination of enthalpy reaction using calorimeter, and the use of Hess law, formation enthaly data, bond energy data to determine the reaction enthalpy, respectively. The data were collected by three techniques namely validation, test and questionnaire.
The development of the industrial world is increasingly rapid in line with the demands of the world of education, especially Indonesia in improving the results of professional graduates and preparing excellent human resources in creating innovative products . So that mathematics is a subject that must be mastered early because it is a tool/means of learning other fields of science . Because of the development of 21st-century education students is expected to be able to prepare the ability to master various skills, especially creative thinkingskills to become increasingly advanced people in life . Mathematics also has a significant contribution in achieving abilities such as the ability to connect, communication skills, problem-solving, the ability to represent (representation) reasoning and evidentiary abilities . In the technological era in designing a learning material that is good will have the desired learning outcomes and facilitate learners in achieving learning needed to play a unique role in the teaching and learning process with a variety of methods, techniques, and learning materials that are increasingly developing . Student worksheets are one of the tools in the learning process to be able to facilitate students in learning to more easily understand mathematical concepts . Schooling student worksheets are often used but have not been based on a particular learning model so that it does not improve good learning outcomes . Based on the results of previous studies through the design of student worksheets with developing learning models is one alternative to be able to improve the ability to learn mathematics which is included in the 21st century . Based on several studies  -  Student worksheets contain summaries of mastery of learning that must be done by students to improve learning outcomes because interactions can occur between instructors and
learning with Science Integrated Learning (SIL) model to create students’ criticalthinkingskills of elementary school. This study used the improvement of 4D (Thiagarajan et al, 1974) models which are defining, planning, improveing and disseminating a pre- experimental research design, one group pre-test post- test. The participants were 5th grade elementary school students as the state Elementary school percobaan in Surabaya, East Java. The results showed that this learning improvement was improved effectively for enhancing students’ criticalthinkingskills. This was proved by the results of classical completeness on individual completeness from pretest was 10% and posttest which was increased by 96% and the average N-Gain was 0.61% with the medium category. From the results above, it can be concluded that the Science Integrated Learning (SIL) method is effective in learning so that it can improvestudents' criticalthinkingskills.
thinkingskills . Evaluation of students' criticalthinkingskills in mathematics learning uses three components, namely (1) identifying and interpreting information, (2) analyzing information, and (3) evaluating evidence and arguments . Facione 2011 said the most basic definition of criticalthinking is evaluation, self-regulation, inference, explanation, interpretation, and analytical skills . Indonesia still focuses on graduating students in national examinations. Teaching practice in schools only focuses on the content of the lesson and ignores students' thinkingskills . Essential thinkingskills include several activities such as logical reasoning including analyzing, synthesizing, reducing, and concluding . Preparing for the 21st-century generation, insights into criticalthinking must demonstrate significant contributions . Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia No. 22 of 2006 concerning Material Standards for Primary and Secondary Education states that Mathematics learning is provided to promote learners using the ability to think logically, analytically, systematically, critically, and creative thinking as well as the ability to work together. Students can have the ability to obtain, manage, and use the information to survive in a situation that is always changing, uncertain and competitive . Based on PISA research (Program for International Student Assessment) in 2015, Indonesia ranked 62 out of 70 countries participating in PISA . The average value of mathematics achievement in all countries is 490; meanwhile, the average score of mathematics students in Indonesia is 386. Based on that description, Indonesia's ranking is still far below the international average. This means that the mathematical abilities of Indonesian students are still low. The process of learning mathematics in elementary schools needs to be
Research-based learning is a learning model which is associated with such activities as analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating, and enables learners and lecturers to improve their assimilation and application of knowledge. The research-based learning is conducted under constructivism which covers four aspects: learning which constructs students’ understanding, learning through developing prior knowledge, learning which involves social interaction process, and meaningful learning which is achieved through real-world experience. Research is an important means of enhancing learning quality. The research components include background, procedures, implementation, research results and discussion, and publication of research results.  Research- based learning is a system of instruction which used an authentic – learning, problem – solving, cooperative learning, hands on, and inquiry discovery approach, guided by a constructivist philosophy. Its usefulness had been recognized for many decades but “research in classroom” had not been adopted as a teaching method by many.  Research-based learning involves interdisciplinary collaborative research on university students in the learning, meaning that there is a relationship between their learning experience at class and new invention in research. RBL encourages students’ active participation in the learning. RBL some learners’ competencies include: 1) strong understanding of basic concept and methodology, 2) problem solving in creative, logical, and systematical manners, and 3) scientific attitude which covers respect for evidence, honesty, open-mindedness.  Learners are expected to have communication skills, competent technique and analysis to adapt, collaborative work, competition. In reference to such explanation, it follows that RBL is alearning model which integrates research in learning process to construct knowledge by formulating hypotheses, collecting data, analyzing making conclusion, and writing a report. The RBL model gives university students opportunities to learn and construct knowledge from such research procedures as finding information, formulating hypotheses, collecting data, analyzing, making conclusion, and writing a report. The procedures of RBL in a learning: (1) formulating a general question; (2) overview of research-literature; (3) defining the question; (4) planning research activities, clarifying methods/ methodologies; (5) undertaking investigation, analyzing data; (6) interpretation and consideration of results; (7) report and presentation of results. 
quantitative risk modeling techniques later in their academic and professional careers. McLellan (2012) found that standardized tests can be used to measure the criticalthinkingskills of account- ing students in Abu Dhabi. Williams and Lhama (2009) analyze online forums and conclude that online discussion promotes student engagement and the development of criticalthinkingskills. Pomonis and Siriopoulos (2009) study how students’ learning strategies have an impact on the acquisition and improvement of criticalthinkingskills when teaching financial management at the University of Patras, Greece. In order to do so the study used Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory together with the California CriticalThinkingSkills Tests three times: two months before the beginning of the course, just before the beginning of the course, and after the final exam. With the exception of Williams and Lhama (2009), all these studies focus on measuring the im- proving of criticalthinkingskills in one particular subject area, and these authors restrict them- selves to one aspect of the learning process. Following Paul (1990), they confine themselves to a specific context. And while from the previous definitions, criticalthinking seems to involve a very complex set of skills that include analysis, deduction, inference, evaluation, and induction, all authors except Pomonis and Siriopoulos used only one method to assess criticalthinking. We contribute to this discussion by departing from these studies in two dimensions. First, we look at the development of criticalskills, not within the realm of one specific subject area, but as part of the achievements of a two year full time MBA program. We used similar standardized tests because we argue that they are better suited to analyze criticalthinking at the program level than at the level of individual subjects (which must be more specific in nature in order to include the logic underpinning the subject). Second, we did not confine ourselves to these instruments. We also applied formative and summative tests on criticalthinkingskills applied to the written analy- ses of cases. We also used the capstone “Management Consulting Practice” experience as a course-embedded assessment instrument that evaluates criticalthinkingskills for action in order to refine our conclusions from the previous measures.
In the context of mathematics, criticalthinking encourages teachers and students to learn more about the emerging definition of mathematical concepts . The criticalthinkingskills include: (1) problem analysis, criticizing the argument, and verification; (2) conclusions obtained using inductive or deductive reasoning; (3) assess and evaluate; and (4) making decisions or solving problems . One cause of low levels of criticalthinking is the implementation of teacher-centered teaching, where students as recipients of passive . Science education not only makes students knowledgeably fixed, but has a scientific attitude that is critical, logical, inventive and innovative, and consistent. However, based on the results of TIMSS, Indonesia gained ranked 3 from behind. This is very unfortunate. Students who have low criticalthinkingskills will have trouble. One of them in the resolution about the UN-type models HOTS TIMSS or PISA. Learning tools that do not have criticalthinkingskills will have an impact on the effectiveness of achieving competency standards. This also happened at SMPN 1 Banguntapan. Based on observations that have been made, obtained the following results. First, students' criticalthinkingskills are low, this can be seen in solving the problem. Students have not met the indicators of criticalthinkingskills. The characteristics of students have not been integrated into the teaching materials used. Not no teaching materials by following the model of learning, which can enhance the criticalthinkingskills of students.Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) based learning is one alternative to effective learning, where mathematical concepts can be conveyed well . The characteristics of this RME lead to progressive mathematical processes, which allow students to connect problems with context, identify relevant mathematical concepts, solve problems, and interpret solutions based on their context . In RME, students are expected to work actively and build their knowledge . At RME, students use literacy skills to formulate real problems into mathematical problems, then solve and interpret them in real contexts . Students are expected to know how to work in groups, be active, be creative in rediscovering a concept and developing a model to solve contextual problems . "Real" ____________________________________
Our purpose in this paper is to consider how curricula can enable students (particularly at HE level) to engage more frequently with the needs of society through critical engagement with raw data - which is now increasingly made available by international organisations, governments, NGOs and academic research institutions as ‘Open Data’. As yet, the literature on Open Educational Resources (OER) has made little reference to Open Data and its potential use as a form of OER. We also present initial qualitative data obtained through an exploratory online survey with academics regarding their use of Open Data in teaching, with the purpose of offering an initial springboard for further research and more complex questions. In connecting these open dots, our aim is to initiate a discussion around good practice in the use of Open Data as a basis for research-based learning activities that can contribute to the development of students’ transversal skills and field-specific competences.
Results: Our findings indicated the significant difference of mean score in four learning style, suggesting university students with convergent learning style have better performance than other groups. Also learning style had a relationship with age, gender, field of study, semester and job. The results about the criticalthinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant relationship between the students’ performance with inferential skill and the total score of criticalthinkingskills (p<0.05). Furthermore, evaluation skills and deductive reasoning had significant relationship. On the other hand, the mean total score of criticalthinking had significant difference between different learning styles.
Studies in Iran have shown mixed results in terms of nursing students’ criticalthinking. Two studies by Rezaei et al. (16) and Eslami et al. (3) reported that nursing stu- dents had poor CTS. They found no significant difference between the levels of CTS in freshmen and senior nurs- ing students. However, in two other studies, Khalili et al. (17) and McCarthy et al. (18) reported that the levels of CTS were significantly higher among senior compared to ju- nior nursing students. Therefore, the question is whether CTS differs among nursing students at the start and the end of their nursing studies. The answer of this question would not only be important globally but also at the na- tional level because this answer might help us evaluate the nursing curriculum and nursing educators as the main role models in the process of nursing education.
Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out from July 1, 2015, to March 30, 2016, at Gujranwala Medical College, Gujranwala, Pakistan, and comprised undergraduate medical students. Student's perception about criticalthinking was assessed through a self-administered questionnaire and the standard California CriticalThinking Disposition Inventory. Data was analysed using SPSS 21. Results: Of the 228 students, 191(84%) were females and 37(16%) were males. Overall mean age was 21.02±1.56 years, and 142(62%) were in the clinical years of their studies. Mean inventory score was 273.3±20. Besides, 157(69%) students perceived criticalthinking as a positive thought process, while 52(22.8%) had no idea about it, and 19(8.3%) took criticalthinking as a negative process. Conclusion: Most medical students were found to have a positive perception but they were not disposed towards criticalthinking.
Learning theory which is the basis of the POGIL learning model is constructivism. Constructivism is a learning process that explains how knowledge is organized in humans. The elements of constructivism have long been practiced in the process of learning and learning. The theory of learning in the view of constructivism, states that the child does not receive just that kind of knowledge from others, but the child actively builds on his knowledge that the child already has an initial ability to. Criticalthinking is an ability and habit that really needs to be trained as early and as often as possible
Gueldenzoph and Snyder (2008) contend that CT is not an innate ability but a learned skill that must be developed, practiced and continually integrated into curriculum to engage students in active and rewarding learning. They went further to shed light on how attention should be focused on the application of content, the process of learning and methods of assessment. Instruction that stimulates and support CT uses questioning techniques that require students to analyze, synthesize , and evaluate information to solve problems and make decisions rather than teaching techniques that require memorizing information such as vocabulary definitions for instance (Schafersman, 1991); (Templeaar, 2006). Moreover, research supports the evidence that traditional instructional methods most of the time use lectures and memorization which do not lead to long-term knowledge or the ability to apply that knowledge to new situations and consequently to CT skills (Kang and Howren, 2004). This is the case of university learning in Benin and particularly in English language department. Graded assignments, quizzes or tests far from being intellectual challenges are nothing but memory recall. Most of the assessment tools are reduced to multiple choice items rather than essay questions and case studies which are better indicators of understanding. Students are not taught to learn and think independently. Obviously, the current educational trend in Benin seems to undermine the importance of CT in learning at the university level and this for many reasons.
According to the Notes to TLO3 in the LLB LTAS Statement, the range of possible legal responses identified as an outcome of legal reasoning should include not only adversarial responses (eg, X can sue Y for breach of contract), but also non-adversarial responses (eg, X should be encouraged to approach Y and suggest mediation as means of resolving the dispute). This is a point affirmed by, and expanded upon, in articles by Gutman, 77 King, 78 Finlay et al, 79 Kraemer and Singer, 80 and others. 81 It is not the case that law students can only be encouraged to consider such non-adversarial possibilities when being taught legal reasoning for the first time. Non-adversarial solutions to legal problems can and should be explored as part of the content of the various doctrinal law subjects. King, for example, argues that the law school curriculum should include ‘therapeutic jurisprudence, restorative justice and other non‑adversarial modalities not as components of separate units but as key components integrated
The results of the data analysis show that the interaction between learning models and ethnic does not have any effect on students' criticalthinkingskills. It means that the implementation of learning models in all ethnic groups of students has an equal effect on students' criticalthinkingskills. To reveal the information related to the combination of learning model and ethnic, post hoc LSD test is performed. The results of post hoc show that in PBL model there is not significant difference of student criticalthinkingskills among each ethnic. It means that PBL model is proven having potential to empower and equalize students' criticalthinkingskills of all ethnicities, on the other hand conventional learning does not have such potential. Savery (2006) explained that the implementation of PBL could engage the students in an active learning. Furthermore, it was explained that PBL will be able to empower the students to do research, to integrate theory into practice, and to implement their knowledge and skills to develop the best solution to a problem. Thus, the students will become independent learners and critical thinkers when they analyze, evaluate and synthesize information from various sources.
identifies an effective strategy for teaching annotation as one that is a “shared class experience, harnessing notations to target specific interpretative practices” (p. 378). Since annotations relate back to a cognitive process, there are many specific marks that may arise during the course of annotating and “good text marking leads to deeper levels of processing” (Nist, 1985, p. 5). Therefore, it is important that students’ first meaningful interactions with annotations occur as a whole class in order to expose them to as many types of marginalia as possible. Students need to be selective in where they annotate, and they need to understand the “patience, time, and practice” (Nist, 1987, p. 7) involved in mastering the strategy; this is why both explicit and implicit instruction is important (Liu, 2006). Teachers need to emphasize to students that their marks should relate back to a variety of areas of analysis, such as “lexical, syntactic, or [marks that provide] extra information about the topic to clarify understanding” (Shang, 2017, p. 612). Students should also be exposed to “circling words, registering reactions, and highlighting phrases” (Fieto & Donahue, 2008, p. 296). It is only through these interactions that students can decide what annotations work best for them.
All of the multiple choice problem development models above have not yet limited to how multiple choice questions are constructed as criticalthinking assessment instruments that are able to distinguish student answers between logical answers and speculative answers or on the basis of guesses. Hamper is the same as this research, namely the development of multiple choice questions of HTT (Historical Thinking Test) (Smith, Mark D. 2017). This question model was developed because the national exam questions in the field of history studies conducted in the US were considered unable to reveal the ability to think in the history of 12th grade students. To overcome this problem, Smith (2017) developed an HTT multiple choice question consisting of multiple choice questions accompanied by reasons for answers multiple choice selected. Students' reasons are explained in the form of sound recordings In each choice of answers A, B, C, D the student must state the reasons why he chose or did not choose the available options.
DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104140 2 Open Access Library Journal very keen interest to help mentally ill and retarded children learn. Montessori strongly believed that learners could teach themselves. Thus, she developed the Montessori method of learning, regarded by scholars and educationists as unique, effective, and efficient. According to study, intervention by adults in times of need effectively helps learners to learn and progress noticeably . Dr. Maria Montessori believed that each learner is a unique being, and he/she can surprise us with unique talents . The theory of Montessori learning is simple. Students learn by playing. Playing is not in the literal meaning, but pretended playing. Today in this age of technology, many researchers believe that students should learn constructively and enjoyably. This type of learning is indeed flexi- ble, active, constructive and fun. The Theory of Montessori learning is based on guided learning using relevant toys that matches children’s age and capabilities. In the meantime, an adult takes charge of the student and is ready to help if needs arise. Montessori learning method is based on group learning. Similar age groups are stationed to learn effectively. Montessori students consist of 3 to 12 years of age. The beauty of this methodology is that, materials are kept on the shelves and freely available to the children. During the learning sessions, if a student makes a mistake or has any problem, he/she can refer to the material as a reference point.