Insomnia was diagnosed if participants had trouble initiat- ing sleep, woke up during the night, or had difficulties fall- ing asleep after waking up at night. In addition, they had to report daytime impairments. Insomnia with sleep-onset latency was diagnosed if students fulfilled all criteria of an insomnia disorder and reported a sleep latency greater than 30 minutes. The irregular sleep–wake type included partici- pants with fragmented sleep (at least three sleep periods in 24 hours) or other self-reported irregular sleep. To receive a diagnosis, the sleepproblems had to cause significant distress, occur at least three times per week and persist for longer than 1 month. Nightmares were indicated if participants reported nightmares at least three times per week according to DSM-5 criteria (Table 1).
There are a number of findings on the effectiveness of be- havioral approaches in the treatment of childhood sleepproblems. For example, a randomized controlled clinical study by Mindell, Telofski, Wiegand, and Kurtz (2009) assessed the impact of establishing a sleep routine on ma- ternal sleep and mood in 405 seven-month-old children and their mothers. The results showed a decrease both in sleep onset latency and in night waking, thus indicating an improvement in infant sleep. An improvement in maternal mood was also observed. Another randomized clinical trial (Mindell et al., 2011a) with 264 mothers and their children aged 6 months to 3 years assessed the effectiveness of an internet-based intervention for childhood sleepproblems. In this study, there were three study conditions: a bedtime routine condition, a bedtime routine + behavioral internet-based condition (the Customized Sleep Profile), and a wait list control. The guidelines in this study involved the following: establishing routines and breaking inappro- priate associations with sleep onset. While in one of the groups, the establishment of routines was informed in a de- tailed manner for the caregivers, with specific guidelines such as bath, moisturizing massage lotion, and calm activ- ities such as a lullaby and reducing the light around 30 min at the end of the bath. The results showed that in both treatment groups, significant improvements were observed in sleep onset latency and the number/duration of night wakings. An increase in total sleep time was observed, in addition to the confidence of the mothers in the manage- ment of their children ’ s sleep. The improvements were ob- served in the first week, with additional benefits in the second week. There were also improvements in maternal variables, both in terms of sleep and in the mood as well.
Additionally, one may argue that the changes were due to time and not due to the treatment. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that all changes resulted from the intervention strategies. However, the treatment lasted only 6 weeks. Furthermore, younger children (#18 months) did not differ from older children ($19 months) in global sleep ratings of CBCL 1.5–5 in premeasurement, which indicates that sleepproblems do not decrease with age or time alone. Otherwise a lower mean value for older children would have been expected. Despite this argument, it would be helpful to establish a control group design in further studies. Finally, it is not clear which factors were helpful for the parents. Future studies are necessary to elucidate whether multi-component treatment is necessary, or whether there are certain basic intervention elements that might play a key role.
parental perceptions of infant sleepproblems and re- duced infant night waking at 6 weeks post-intervention . The study sample was recruited between September 2009 and March 2011. Parents, who reported a diagnosis of depression or receiving treatment for depression (anti- depressant medications or cognitive therapy), had diag- nosed sleepproblems, or worked permanent night shifts, were excluded. An infant sleep problem was defined as an infant waking two or more times per night and/or wakes lasting more than 20 min, occurring at least four nights per week for a minimum of 3 weeks . Two hundred and thirty-five families (including 8 single-parent families) provided baseline data and 188 families provided follow- up data. This secondary analysis reports combined control and intervention group data from baseline (before randomization) and outcomes assessed at 18–24 weeks post-intervention exposure (follow-up).
The availability of public health nurses trained in behav- ioral sleep interventions creates potential for nurses to offer interventions through contact with families attending group postnatal drop-ins. Not only can situating a short-term group intervention in public health units overcome barriers to families receiving help for common infant BSPs [49, 50] but also being exposed to other families experiencing an infant BSP decreases families’ sense of isolation and helps them regard their infants’ problems as common and amen- able to change . Contacting families by telephone for follow-up could be factored into public health nurses’ daily workload. Sleep consultants in the area routinely charge families about $250 to $450 per consultation, thus poten- tially limiting families’ access to such services. Parents’ changes in cognitions, observed in our study, suggest that their thinking changed when provided with evidence-based information about infant sleep and strategies to reduce sleepproblems by skilled practitioners. Future studies could incorporate video surveillance of infant sleep, a more valid way of identifying insomnias , indicators of self-soothing, and attachment measures to provide evidence about effects of interventions on infants.
According to the change of PSQI score, our program showed a sufficient effect sizes on the basis of our sam- ple size calculation. Most previous research has targeted only patients or students with sleepproblems  . But, our study examined potential preventive effects with a sample of healthy controls without sleepproblems, finding evidence of both acute treatment and prevention effects. To treat or prevent sleepproblems, stepped care principles are recommended . From this point of view, it is important to deliver CBTI to students as the least restrictive therapy. The least restrictive therapy should be a readily accessible form of treatment, provided at the lowest cost, least personal inconvenience to patients, requiring the lowest treatment intensity and least specialist time . Our program can be a new choice of least restrictive therapy for students.
There was little evidence of unadjusted or adjusted differences between trial arms on the child, child-parent, and maternal outcomes (Table 3). Mean scores were almost identical between groups for the parent-reported child emotional, conduct behavior, and total mental health dif ﬁ culties; Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire; psychosocial health-related quality of life; the child- parent relationship measures; and maternal mental health. The propor- tions of children with mental health problems, “ moderate/severe ” sleepproblems, and authoritative parent- ing were also similar between trial arms. Consistent with these ﬁ ndings, the mean scores for children ’ s self- reported health-related quality of life and the proportions of children clas- si ﬁ ed with chronic stress according to the objective physiologic cortisol measure were similar between in- tervention and control groups, pro- viding little evidence that the early intervention harmed or bene ﬁ ted the
experiment group attended, but three from control group did not attend due to health reason and was considered as dropout. After analysis in [Table/Fig-6] which refers to sleepproblems we found significance of 0.001 in almost all areas except SQ-7 which shows 0.002. Looking at mean values and standard deviations post data shows reduced values. In control group most of the pre and post values more or less remained same as this group continued with same activities other than yoga. We heard from parents’ about improved and uninterrupted sleep of children within one month of yoga intervention which helped family members and particularly mothers in managing child better way during day time.
A pool of healthy college and universitystudents who were potential participants in this study were invited using a sim- ple random sampling design. Inclusion criteria were that the students were aged 18 years and older and were willing to participate in the study. Participants with the presence of chronic disease, current or past history of schizophrenia, bipolar, or other psychotic disorders, memory problems, and the use of neuro-psychotic medications were excluded. Study aims and procedures were explained to each partici- pant. Participants were asked to complete the English version of the SHI, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), the Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7), and to provide demo- graphic details. Since potential participants were students of an English education system, the original English version of the questionnaire was used in this study. The current study was approved by the institutional Ethical committee, Rehabilitation Research chair, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. The required sample size was estimated according to published criteria regarding the subject-to-item ratio (2 – 20 subjects per item). 35 Therefore, we enrolled more than 15 participants for each item of the SHI (n=204). We hypothe- sized that the SHI would be a reliable tool for assessing sleep hygiene practices among Saudi universitystudents. Additionally, we expected that there would be a positive correlation/association of the SHI scores with PSS, GAD, and self-reported poor sleep.
Difficulties falling asleep ( = lasting longer than 30 minutes at least three times per week) are quite prevalent in this sample: adjusting for gender, 327 students (14.9%) reported this issue. There was only a slight difference between genders: 14.1% in males and 15.7% in females ( χ ² = 0.906; P = 0.341). Approximately one quarter of the sample (25.9%) indicate frequent awakenings at night ( = at least three nights per week) and regarded this as disturbing. Females were slightly more concerned about waking at night (27.6% vs 24.2%; χ ² = 2.593; P = 0.107). A third of students (33.3%) noted fitful sleep at least three nights per week, whereas female students (36.5%) were significantly more affected than male students (30.0%), χ ² = 8.643; P = 0.003. Insomnia could be ascertained in 7.7% of students (adjusted for gender), whereby female students were more likely to fulfill established insomnia criteria (9.3% vs 6.2%; χ ² = 5.573; P = 0.018).
The current study aimed to investigate the preva- lence of insomnia and the impact of sweet al- mond in students of the TUMS who living in dormitories. There are various methods to im- prove students’ quality of sleep and good im- provements have been made in this field (21). In the current study, the prevalence of insomnia before and after the intervention was 77 and 69%, respectively. Many of the cases where hav- ing mild insomnia. Only 14% of participants are satisfied with their night sleep (22). 40.6% of stu- dents were not satisfied from their sleep (23). In a study on quality of sleep, medical students did not have a good quality of sleep, and female stu- dents have higher levels of insomnia (24). Stu- dents have good quality of sleep (15). Since the population study of the current study is students who are studying various fields of medical sci- ences and living in dormitories, those studies which to somehow are consistent with our study can be used in the interpretation of the results. Most of the students, with regard to the dormito- ries contexts and the nature of their study field, are suffering from insomnia and are in need of various interventions. In the current study, inter- vention was the sweet almond, each day 10 al- monds for two weeks. Overall, 442 students from different fields of medical sciences accepted to participate. The findings indicate that sweet al- mond reduces insomnia (P<0.001). Different studies examined the impact of sweet almond on insomnia and its related problems. In a study on traditional medicine of Iran, the ancient books related to medicine were reviewed and found 25 herbal substances which reduce insomnia, includ- ing sweet almonds. They discussed sedative and sleepiness effects of it (20). Animal studies also have proven sedative impacts of sweet almonds. Sweet almonds impacts were investigated on rats. Overall, 400 mg sweet almond had sedative im- pacts on rats (19). The findings of the current study also showed that sweet almond is associat- ed with significant reduction in insomnia that is consistent with another. The impact of the Aro- ma of Lavandula Angustifolia and almond oil was
This descriptive-correlational study was conducted in Qazvin University of medical sciences from March to September, 2012. All medical students were included in the study. None of them had any history of sleep or medical problems. Purpose and methods of the study was clearly explained to students and informed consent was obtained from them. The demographic characteristics of students including age, sex, body mass index (BMI), type of accommodation (living in dormitory, renting houses, and parent-owned houses) and marriage status were assessed by self- administered questionnaire. All students were also asked about their routine sleep patterns. Information about sleep included total sleep duration, total time in bed, sleep latency, number of awakenings during the night, and naptime during the day. This information was collected on week days and weekends.
focused on this group of individuals. Most studies have focused instead on young children, older adults or on a certain category of patients [15-18]. Today’s universitystudents experience great psychological pressure due to the changing career market and increased competition for jobs . Such stress and anxiety can lead to sleepproblems. In fact, the quality and quantity of sleep of many students might change after enrollment into a university . Sleep deprivation has been reported to cause deleterious effects on medical students [21-25]. Frequent changes in the sleep-wake schedule was also found to adversely affect sleep and general health, including decreased sleep quality, altered sympathetic activity, increased risk of cardiovascular events, and reduced cognitive performance [26,27].
As with all studies, this study had some limitations. The response rate was very low (2%) considering the size of the population and the method of recruitment. This study was conducted at one university in a capital city in Australia which may limit generalization to other Australian univer- sity students. The sample was comprised predominantly of under-graduate female students who were less than 35 years of age which may limit the utility of any intervention developed based on the ﬁ ndings from this study for gradu- ate student populations. However, the results were very consistent with similar studies outside of Australia strongly suggesting that further development and testing of psycho- educational tools is warranted. The utility of the data was also limited by the structure of survey responses particu- larly in relation to categorical data on sleep duration how- ever this was a replication study and the only amendments made to the survey before distribution were in relation to language expression to match an Australian sample.
The study design was Cross sectional study conducted at one point in time or over a short period of time. The Target population for this study was business students of different universities of Karachi. A sample size of 221 students, including both male and female. Non-probability, convenience sampling method was used for this study Instruments for this research was a well-structured questionnaire, prepared by using multi item Likert scale, Part1: questionnaire ascertained demographic information of respondents like gender, age, education, and department. Part 2: comprised of the questions regarding depression, sleep quality, academic performance and mobile phone use in universitystudents of Karachi. (PSQI) is self- rated questionnaire which evaluate the sleep quality. The PSQI dealings with seven areas: subjective sleep quality, latency, extent, routine sleeps efficiency, sleeps disorder, utilization of sleeping medicines, and daytime dysfunction over the last month. PSQI consist of seven components scores ranging from (0-3), 0 score is good and 3 score is very bad. The total score >5 indicate sleepproblems and <5 indicate no sleep
ǣ 500 freshmen, 75 students had identity problems and 24 who agreed selected and randomly divided into two groups of 12 ȋ ȌǤ in 8 months and 10 sessionsǤ Ǥ
The major objective of this study is to determine the common students’ school problems and their corresponding coping strategies, while also understanding the effects of their demographical background. Results show that the common issues are health problems, career issues, lessons and examinations, learning difficulties, self-efficacy issues, interpersonal difficulties, time management, and stress causing issues. Statistical analyses were accomplished resulting to significant determining factors such as students’ course of study, gender, working or non-working students, and place of living with the common students’ school problems. While no significant difference within the common students’ coping strategies. Lastly, there seems to be a high correlation between the problems and coping strategies within the stress causing issues, suggesting that these stress causing issues as the root cause of major problems within the students. It is suggested that schools should have a system of early discovery mechanism, which is crucial in order to provide solutions/interventions to existing problems, while preemptive measures should also be in placed to act as a deterrent for future problems.
A sample of 750 students was selected by simple ran- dom sampling method across Mizan campus of the Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan-Aman town, Bench Maji Zone, Southwest, Ethiopia. Four hundred and twenty four completed the cross-sectional study i.e. provided filled in answers for LSEQ, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 (GAD-7), sub-structured questionnaire for socio-demographics, and participated in a clinical inter- view. The majority of the participants were males (82.5%), and young adults (age = 21.87 ± 4.13 years, and body mass index = 20.84 ± 3.18 kg/m 2 ). Self-reported problems with memory was the exclusion criteria. The purpose and procedures of the study were explained to the volunteers in detail. The universitystudents com- prised of many ethnicities, some of them had limited reading proficiency level of the national language i.e. Amharic . Therefore, the modified version of the tool called LSEQ-Mizan (LSEQ-M) (Additional file 1) and the original version of GAD-7 were administered in Eng- lish by the instructor to the participants .
Results: In the polysomnography, significant differences were found between very poor and good sleepers according to the PSQI with respect to sleep efficiency and time awake after sleep onset. When comparing objective PSG and subjective MP, the polysomnographical sleep onset latency was significantly positively correlated with the corresponding parameters of the MP: the subjective sleep onset latency in minutes and the subjective evaluation of sleep onset latency (very short, short, normal, long, very long) were positively correlated with the sleep latency measured by polysomnog- raphy. The polysomnographical time awake after sleep onset (in minutes) was positively correlated with the subjective time awake after sleep onset (in minutes), evaluation of time awake after sleep onset (seldom, normal often), and subjective restfulness. The polysomnographical total sleep time (TST) was positively correlated with the subjective TST. Conversely, the polysomnographical TST was negatively correlated with the evaluation of TST (high polysomnographical TST was correlated with the subjective evaluation of having slept short or normal and vice versa). The polysomno- graphical sleep efficiency was positively correlated with subjective feeling of current well-being in the morning and subjective TST and negatively with subjective restfulness, subjective sleep onset latency, subjective evaluation of sleep onset latency, and evaluation of time awake after sleep onset. Conclusion: The data suggest that, in general, patients selected from the extremes of reported very poor sleepers and good sleepers have different amounts of sleep when measured in the laboratory, and that in general, the amount and timing of sleep in the laboratory are quite well perceived and reported by these groups. The data came from psychosomatic patients and suggest that even in this patient group, respective sleep complaints are more than just the expression of general somatization or lamenting.
The statistical method chosen to examine the data of this study is testing the difference between two means for dependent samples using T test. Where the samples are dependent, where the subject is paired or matched in some way (before applying the system and after applying the system). We want to see whether the new system will affect the waiting time of the students. To test this hypothesis, then we pre tested the current system in the sample first. That given a test to ascertain their waiting times. Then after applying the new system, the students are tested again, using a posttest. Finally, the means of the two tests are compared to see whether there is a difference. The researcher employs a T test, using the differences between the pretest values and the posttest values. Thus only the increase or decrease in values is compared, also we wants to see whether a new system program will help students decrease the waiting time. Therefore, the waiting time of the students will be compared before and after applying the system.