Top PDF Smartphone addiction and associated psychological factors

Smartphone addiction and associated psychological factors

Smartphone addiction and associated psychological factors

Overuse of mobile phones can have negative effects on psychological health, including depression and chronic stress ( Augner & Hacker, 2010 ), and increased suicidal ideation ( Katsumata, Matsumoto, Kitani, & Takeshima, 2008 ). Research supports the link between depression and excessive texting, social networking, gaming, viewing video clips, emailing, and listening to music, which can all be accessed via a smartphone ( Allam, 2010; de Wit, Straten, Lamers, Cuijpers, & Penninx, 2011; Huang, 2010; Kalpidou, Costin, & Morris, 2011 ). In particular, Lee, Chang, Lin, and Cheng (2014) investigated smartphone use by utilizing questionnaires incorporating compulsive smartphone usage and technostress within the examination of how smartphone users” characteristics affect stress levels. The results from a sample of 325 respondents showed that increased “technostress” and compulsive usage are positively related to social interaction anxiety, locus of control, materialism, and a need for touch. These results suggest smartphone dependence and compulsive usage increases user stress. These results conflict with Park and Lee (2011) , who examined the correlation between social relations, psychological health, and smartphone use motivation via an online survey with 279 respondents. It was reported that smartphone use motivations could be grouped into six factors: information, accessibility, time passing, following trends, caring for others, and communication. These factors were significantly related to perceived peer support and social relationships. The results suggest that smartphones can improve emotional and psychological wellbeing if used to fulfill a need to care for others or for supportive communications. Although this study did not specifically measure smartphone usage, the preliminary research implicates smartphones as either friend or foe, dependent upon motivations and control of compulsive usage; similar to internet addiction.
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Gender differences in factors associated with smartphone addiction: a cross sectional study among medical college students

Gender differences in factors associated with smartphone addiction: a cross sectional study among medical college students

To date, little is known about factors associated with problematic or addictive smartphone usage. In a com- munity study of young adults, high mobile phone usage was associated with subsequent stress, sleep difficulties, and depression [16]. In another study, 362 employed adults were tested for associations between age, self- esteem, extraversion, emotional stability, depression on the one hand, and impulse control in relation to differ- ent levels of addictive and problematic mobile phone use on the other [17], and the study found that age, de- pression, and extraversion were predictors of higher scores on level of problematic mobile phone use. In an- other study conducted on smartphone users, anxiety and depression were found to be higher in groups that over- used smartphones than in normal user groups [7]. Simi- larly, it has been reported that problematic use of the internet is associated with sleep problems, such as sub- jective insomnia and poor sleep quality [18, 19].
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<p>Psychological factors associated with smoking and quitting: addiction map of Turkey study</p>

<p>Psychological factors associated with smoking and quitting: addiction map of Turkey study</p>

Several scales were used in the present study to evaluate the relationship between smoking and psychological vari- ables. The results indicate that a higher daily number of cigarettes is related to increased anxious and avoidant attach- ment styles. The high prevalence of insecure attachment (both anxious and avoidant attachment styles) may have a signi fi cant impact on smoking and quitting smoking rates (approximately 40% of the sample population had high attachment insecurity) and may contribute to nicotine addic- tion. It was reported that an insecure attachment is associated with adult psychopathology, including mood, anxiety, and behavioral disorders. 19,20 In the present study, the avoidant attachment styles were observed at a lower percentage in ex- smokers compared to current smokers and non-smokers. In the literature, individuals with avoidant attachment style were reported as having a higher physiological reaction to negative emotions. 21,22 It can be hypothesized that being more sensitive to negative emotions makes the individuals with avoidant attachment styles less successful in quitting smoking. Individuals with anxious attachment styles may be in the higher risk group to start smoking; however, they can deal better with quitting due to their lower avoidant attach- ment characteristics.
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Review Article Efficacy of Acupuncture for Psychological Symptoms Associated with Opioid Addiction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Review Article Efficacy of Acupuncture for Psychological Symptoms Associated with Opioid Addiction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

There are some variable factors that need to be taken into account when assessing the effects of acupuncture on opioid addiction. Firstly, the study protocol may influence the assessment of effectiveness of acupuncture. Methods and research designs have been issues of debate among acupuncture clinicians and researchers [ 31 ]. For a method- ological perspective, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard in terms of identifying differences in treatment efficacy [ 32 ]. However, unlike the evaluation of a new drug, RCTs of acupuncture are extremely difficult to conduct, particularly if they have to be blind in design, and acupuncture has to be compared with a placebo [ 33 ]. Secondly, in China, approximately 1.16 million drug addicts were officially registered in late 2005, but unofficial estimates place this number closer to 3.5 million [ 34 ]. The predominantly abused drug is heroin, and the majority of addicts use this drug by injection. The literature describing and researching the effect of acupuncture on opioid addiction was mainly published in Chinese language journals, making it not accessible to the Western readers. While some pub- lications on acupuncture in Chinese language journals may not meet the stringent requirements of international peer- reviewed journals, they may still provide potentially useful observations and ideas for further study. Thirdly, most pre- vious reviews systematically analyzing acupuncture for the treatment of opioid addiction focused on controlling opioid withdrawal but not on psychological symptoms associated with opioid addiction [ 29 , 30 , 35 , 36 ].
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Effects of demographic factors on smartphone addiction of students in a Nigerian university

Effects of demographic factors on smartphone addiction of students in a Nigerian university

The results on impulsion showed that men exhibit significantly higher levels of sensation seeking and lower levels of perseverance, while women reveal significantly higher levels of urgency. Assessing the pathological Internet and smartphone use among 337 Spanish college students, Jenaro, Flores, Gomez-Vela, Gonzalez &Caballo, (2007) found that high smartphone use is associated to being female, and having high anxiety and insomnia. Gender was associated with smartphone involvement but not frequency of use. Howell, Love & Howell (2008) investigated gender differences related to their smartphones and users’ perception and attitude towards their use in public and private places. They concluded that while females perceived the service very positively, there was a persistent trend for males to dislike the service, regardless of location. Furthermore, increasing frequency and time spent on smartphones is closely related to the severity of smartphone addiction. This could be influenced by the type of school our children attend( Lee, Ahn, Choi & Choi, 2014). The students get influenced by their peers who use smartphone. Although a primary smartphone characteristic is the use of Internet-based applications, smartphone portability and capability for installing applications that are suited to individuals’ needs and lifestyles make it a versatile, multipurpose object that many people carry with them at all times. Therefore, this study investigated effects of demographic factors on smartphone addiction of students in a Nigerian University,
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A Meta-Analysis of Psychological Interventions for Internet/Smartphone Addiction Among Adolescents

A Meta-Analysis of Psychological Interventions for Internet/Smartphone Addiction Among Adolescents

ences for online rather than face-to-face social interaction play an important role in the development of negative consequences associated with addictive use of the Internet ( Caplan, 2003 ). Adolescents with poor social competence who suffer from psychosocial problems (e.g., depression, social anxiety, and loneliness) or who may be unusually concerned about social interactions are drawn to the anonymity provided by the Internet and the cover it gives for establishing relationships in less dangerous circum- stances than those occurring in real life (i.e., face-to-face;

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Accident risk associated with smartphone addiction: A study on university students in Korea

Accident risk associated with smartphone addiction: A study on university students in Korea

2013 ; Lin & Huang, 2017 ; Schabrun, van den Hoorn, Moorcroft, Greenland, & Hodges, 2014 ). Although these studies did not investigate what types of accidents are related to smartphone addiction, they suggest that the use of mobile devices can cause distractions and trigger the occurrence of accidents. Based on the results of this study, smartphone-addicted users might be more prone to acci- dents, due to their inability to recognize potentially danger- ous or unsafe conditions. One of the most important factors in accidents related to mobile device usage is dual- or multitasking ( Weksler & Weksler, 2012 ). With smartphones now being capable of integrating various functions, it is common to see users focusing on multiple tasks ( Brasel & Gips, 2011 ). For example, some users may be listening to music, watching a movie, or playing games, while simulta- neously maintaining their social connections through SNS and performing other personal tasks ( Ralph, Thomson, Cheyne, & Smilek, 2014 ). As stated earlier, users are also prone to using hand-held devices in potentially risky situa- tions ( O ’Connor et al., 2013 ). As the recent term “smombie” (i.e., combination of smartphone and zombie) indicates, smartphone addiction not only denotes the excessive use of such devices but also addictive behaviors in which users are unintentionally absorbed into their phones and fail to focus on anything else ( Kwon, Kim, Cho, & Yang, 2013 ). In this regard, they ultimately fail at multitasking and increase their risk of accidents using such devices in potentially dangerous situations.
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Problematic mobile phone use and smartphone addiction across generations: the roles of psychopathological symptoms and smartphone use

Problematic mobile phone use and smartphone addiction across generations: the roles of psychopathological symptoms and smartphone use

Regarding the mediating effects of age group, using social media and anxiety significantly predicted belonging to Generation Y, with calls per day predicted belonging to Generation X. This finding suggests Generation Y are more likely to use asynchronous communication inherent in popular social media, whereas Generation X engage more in synchronous communication. The results are important particularly given previous media and communication research. Boyd (2014) stressed the importance of online communication and building online spaces for US teenagers as social media has become an integral element of youth culture, offering alternative spaces for expression and connection. Turkle (2013) found young individuals appear particularly keen to connect with each other using technology, whilst simultaneously being alone in their physical environments, effectively leading to them being Balone together^. From a psychological perspective, Generation Y’ s reliance on asynchronous social media-based communica- tion may lead to a decrease in fear associated with participating in Breal life^ social interactions, but may increase the likelihood of problems if used to excess (Park et al. 2010).
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Factors Associated with Addiction in Children in Kerman City

Factors Associated with Addiction in Children in Kerman City

Stress and family pressures and inattention to children were among the other factors related to children’s addiction in this study. Studies that have compared families with addicted and non- addicted members have shown that most children who stayed safe from addiction were those individuals who lived away from any family pressure or stress. As stated by other researchers, drug abuse does not occur in isolation and often familial factors are involved in this phenomenon, such that many addicts believed that their family was the main cause of their addiction (5). Mazloman has stated that family plays a direct role in the formation of the social-psychological personality of individuals and therefore the family
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Smartphone Addiction and Interpersonal Competence of  Nursing Students

Smartphone Addiction and Interpersonal Competence of Nursing Students

The mean score of smartphone addiction and IC in this study were 47.83 and 97.73, respectively. In comparison to smartphone addiction (14) and IC (17) for university students with majors other than nursing, these smartphone addiction and IC scores are low. For example, the mean smartphone addiction score for university stu- dents in a study (14) was 52.6. The IC score for university students in a study (17) was 100.95. Smartphone addiction level in nursing students was lower than that for other university students. Nursing students in this study tended to exert self-control in order to achieve their long-term outcome, such as academic adjustment. Nursing students in this study also showed low IC level compared to another university student in a study (14). IC is a required competency for nursing students (18), therefore, we need to develop a program to improve IC for nursing students. Our findings also indicate that cyberspace- oriented relationships and social support have a large positive effect on nursing student IC, whereas preoccupation, daily-life disturbance, withdrawal, and overuse were not associated with nursing student IC. In contrast to this study, ad- dictive smartphone usage was related to a de- crease in real life social community participation and relationship problems (19). However, smartphones can strengthen family bonds, expand psychological neighborhoods, and facilitate proximity to the people they call (20). In addition, smartphones now include social net- work services (SNS) such as Facebook, thus po- tentially enabling users to enhance interpersonal networks (21, 22). This is consistent with our finding that cyberspace-oriented relationships and social support are positively correlated in nursing students.
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Smartphone addiction may be associated with adolescent hypertension: a cross-sectional study among junior school students in China

Smartphone addiction may be associated with adolescent hypertension: a cross-sectional study among junior school students in China

One limitation of this study was that BP levels were obtained by a single visit. Therefore, the prevalence of hypertension was likely overestimated in the current study. Nevertheless, the BP measurement was performed at school, in the adolescents’ usual environment, which would have helped reduce any ‘white-coat’ effect. The second limitation was that cross-sectional nature of the study limits drawing of inferences about causation. This can be resolved by using longitudinal studies to further determine the causation. The last but not least limitation was that we did not assess other factors associated with high blood pressure, such as daily eating habits (especially salt intake), physical activity, genetic factors, usage of stim- ulants for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder which is associated with hypertension in adolescents [55] and depression [56] that may affect our findings.
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Internet Addiction by Using the Smartphone-Relationships between Internet Addiction, Frequency of Smartphone Use and the State of Mind of Male and Female Students

Internet Addiction by Using the Smartphone-Relationships between Internet Addiction, Frequency of Smartphone Use and the State of Mind of Male and Female Students

Previous studies have investigated the consequences of Smartphone use on psychological and physical health measures. Smart phone use was largely driven by a desire to connect socially rather than for the purpose of addictive activities such as Internet use and gaming [13]. However, Demirci et al. [14] using the Turkish version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale found that total scores for gaming were significantly higher than those for voice calling, short text messaging and other categories. Demirci et al. [15] also found that depression, anxiety, and sleep quality may be associated with Smartphone overuse. Smartphone overuse also enlarged the median nerve, caused pain in the thumb, and decreased pinch strength and hand functions [16]. Finally, Smart phone use was associated with duration and frequency of headache attack and using analgesics to relieve headache Demirci et al. [17].
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Who is a smartphone addict? The impact of personal factors and type of usage on smartphone addiction in a Dutch population

Who is a smartphone addict? The impact of personal factors and type of usage on smartphone addiction in a Dutch population

To demonstrate what will fall under process gratification, an investigation of usage schemes/factors is needed. In the study by Van Deursen and van Dijk (2013), a usage scheme derived from the U&G was used to identify the difference in usage between different socio-economic groups. The authors found differences between spending time online and in activities. They validated 7 usage factors, namely: internet activities for information, career, personal development, shopping, entertainment, relaxation, relationship maintenance, and social interaction. Due to the overlap in other smartphone usage classification research (Chua, Goh, & Lee, 2012), those usage factors could also be used in the present study. However, to fully account for the unique factors of smartphone usage, other factors also need to be added. Leung and Wei (2000) found the following uses and gratifications of mobile phone: affection/sociability, entertainment, instrumentality, psychological reassurance, fashion/status, mobility, and immediate access. The mobility and immediate access aspects are associated with the usage on transport, such as buses or cars. Yang and Tung (2007) derived process- oriented uses of smartphones, namely, shopping, entertainment, fashion, status, and relaxation. Classic examples of addiction in process dimension are online gaming and watching porn (Goeman, 2011). The unique factor entertainment of smartphones is applicable to the process dimension (see 2.3.2).
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Sociodemographic factors influencing smartphone addiction in university students

Sociodemographic factors influencing smartphone addiction in university students

For its part, addiction to the smartphone has been increased by the growth and development of social networks and the need for the user to be connected as long as possible to them (Cha & Seo, 2018; Noë, Turner, Linden, Allen, Winkens, & Whitaker, 2019). At the same time, the development of videogames through mobile applications (apps) has led to a greater dedication to smartphones and, therefore, a greater predisposition to addiction (Gaspar & Cuesta, 2015). This problem associated with the abuse of the Internet entails other risky behavior on the Internet, such as being an aggressor or victim of cyberbullying (Qudah, Salamah, Attallah, Hashem, Alfnan, Aljomaa, & Ateik, 2019). Thus, excessive use of mobile devices accentuates the possibilities of exercising or receiving aggressions online.
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Factors associated with risk of smartphone addiction among undergraduate university students in Kelantan

Factors associated with risk of smartphone addiction among undergraduate university students in Kelantan

that female has more smartphone addictive symptoms and have problematic smartphone use (20, 24, 25). They hypothesized that women are likely to become addicted to the smartphone as they are more socially oriented and more prone to get emotional stress than men. These lead to women spending more time on the smartphone to maintain social interaction and as a way to reduce stress. Apart from that, socioeconomic status was also found to be related to addictive smartphone use, however the results were inconsistent. Some studies reported that lower socioeconomic status is related to problematic smartphone use (26-28), while other studies found the opposite conclusion (19, 29). Interestingly, there were also studies which found that humanities students were more likely to use smartphone more problematically than science students (19, 30). They explained this as due to different behaviour tendencies such as problem-solving skills that lead to smartphone addiction.
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Psychological risk factors of addiction to social networking sites among Chinese smartphone users

Psychological risk factors of addiction to social networking sites among Chinese smartphone users

Another cognitive risk factor from the SCT, outcome ex- pectancies, was also found to significantly explain addictive tendencies. As hypothesized, young Chinese adults with more favorable outcome expectancies toward SNSs reported more time spent on SNSs via smartphones and higher addic- tive tendencies. Through SNSs, users usually expect to ac- quire the satisfaction of interpersonal relatedness via sharing their immediate thoughts and feelings. Like other kinds of Internet addiction, their visits to SNSs would be reinforced by positive outcomes through operant conditioning, and gradually an addiction towards these sites might be devel- oped (Chakraborty et al., 2010). In this connection, the pres- ent finding suggests that mental health professionals may al- ter the unrealistically high expectancies of at-risk or prob- lematic users to ease their addictive tendencies toward SNSs through cognitive behavioral therapy. For example, Whang, Lee and Chang (2003) observed that Internet addicts tended to create new social relationships online, and reported closer feelings for these online strangers than for their family and friends. However, they eventually felt lonelier because their need for belonging could not be satisfied by fleeting online relationships. Mental health professionals may discuss these findings with problematic users of SNSs to lower their ex- pectations toward the positive impacts of SNSs on interper- sonal need satisfaction, and provide behavioral training on reducing interpersonal difficulties that these users may face in real life. In addition, prevention campaigns of addiction to SNSs can also be used to educate young people of both short-term and long-term negative consequences of SNS use, such as addictive features of SNSs, privacy risk, and in- formation overload. In particular, young people should be constantly reminded, through public advertisement and school education, that these negative consequences may out- weigh the positive ones if their use of SNSs is excessive.
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Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and Internet addiction

Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and Internet addiction

that smartphone addicts can easily satisfy their urge because smartphones are almost always available. Regarding other character strengths, higher levels of Internet addiction were positively associated with wisdom/knowledge and negative- ly associated with courage. Wisdom and knowledge encom- pass curiosity and a love of learning (Kim et al., 2010). College students are unable to avoid using the Internet to complete their research, reports, and homework. Moreover, Internet-based learning and lectures have recently become very popular among South Korean students. These academ- ic Internet uses may be a factor in our results. In addition, evidence suggests that introverted personality characteris- tics and a passive coping style are risk factors for Internet addiction (Xie, Zhou, Xu & Peng, 2010; Zamani, Abedini & Kheradmand, 2011). This may have been why decreased character strength – courage scores were associated with higher levels of Internet addiction in our study, as courage encompasses vitality and bravery (Kim et al., 2010).
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Psychological Factors Including Demographic Features, Mental Illnesses, and Personality Disorders as Predictors in Internet Addiction Disorders

Psychological Factors Including Demographic Features, Mental Illnesses, and Personality Disorders as Predictors in Internet Addiction Disorders

The characteristics of this disorder include tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, emotional disorders, and fragmentation of social relations (1). Internet addiction (IA) is an actual addiction like substance addiction and other forms of dependence. It is a pervasive, chronic, and recurrent phenomenon correlated with serious family, social, physical, financial, and psychological injuries. The addicted persons experience a significant drop in interpersonal and social functions (9). Many studies have reported associations among internet addiction, psychiatric symptoms, and depression among adolescents. Many studies found that excessive internet use is also associated with the presence of psychological problems, such as academic, family, and educational failure (10-13). University counselors had reported similar problems. For example, in a study on 224 students at University of Isfahan, it was found that 14% of the participants met the criteria of internet addiction (14). Research shows that depression, hostility, social phobia, anxiety, and symptoms of ADHD are seen as comorbid conditions to problematic internet use.
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Identifying indicators of smartphone addiction through user-app interaction

Identifying indicators of smartphone addiction through user-app interaction

Smartphone usage provides pathways to addiction on several dis- tinct levels. Firstly, the ease of access combined with the widespread and socially accepted use of smartphones, makes smartphone use ubi- quitous. Secondly, the increasing number of functionalities smartphone (apps) offer, make users more reliant on the technology and incentivise smartphone usage over analog options or other digital devices. Thirdly, apps are designed to make users prolong their usage (e.g., through “infinite scrolling”, which lacks any stopping cues) or come back to them (e.g., noti fications or daily rewards urging the user to open up the app). In our fine-grained analysis of UI interaction events within ap- plications, we have attempted to look more closely at this third phe- nomenon. Observing UI interaction directly engages the potential pro- blematic behaviour as a signal. This also reduces the opportunity for false positive problematic use classification to arise for users who have
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THE EFFECTS OF SMARTPHONE ADDICTION ON CHILDRENS CERVICAL POSTURE AND RANGE OF MOTION

THE EFFECTS OF SMARTPHONE ADDICTION ON CHILDRENS CERVICAL POSTURE AND RANGE OF MOTION

With the revolutionary development of smartphone tech- nology, according to the Statistics Portal report the num- ber of smartphone users has reached 222.9 million in the United States of America (USA) and 2.1 billion worldwide [1].Those numbers are expected to increase to an estimat- ed 236 million users in the USA and five billion world- wide by 2019 [1]. Moreover, researchers have found that children in the USA are introduced to smartphones in their first year of life and the frequency of usage increas- es significantly with age [2]. A U.S. based study examined an urban group of 350 children, finding that by age 4, three-quarters of them owned smartphones [2]. According to Rideout’s (2013) [3] research survey, the percentage of young children from age 0 to 8 years in the USA who own smartphones almost doubled from 38% in 2011 to 72% in 2013. It is no surprise, then, that in 2015 teens from 13 to 18 years of age were spending over 4.5 hours per day on smartphones [4].Rideout also reported that the average time children spent on their smartphones every day have increased to 45 minutes in 2017 from five minutes in 2011 [5]. Haug and colleagues (2015) [6] have suggested that the number of time adolescents spends on smartphones could characterize them as addicts [6], and about 50% of adolescents considered themselves to be “addicted” to their smartphones due to this overuse [7,8]. In a recent survey by Miner and Company [9], 57% of parents reported that their children, aged between 2 and 12 years old, preferred a device other than television and used mobile tablets as their first screen instead [9].
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