The conclusion goes here. SOAP provides a way of communication among applications, which run on different operating systems. These systems may contain different technologies and programming languages . This protocol uses a way of communication among applications in Internet with the help of HTTP, this one is implemented in all browses and web servers [3, 10]. In practice there are different types of the message models in SOAP, from these RPC is the most common. For RPC the client sends a request towards a server and the server sends an answer to the client. SOAP is the successor XML-RPC as it has borrowed the way of data transporting, interaction neutrality and envelope/header/body. Because of the length of XML format, SOAP may be rather slow compared to middleware technologies (CORBA). Google uses SOAP type services while Yahoo services use REST. Any architecture may be chosen by the user, it has to be properly selected as to be easily used by the client, and the practice as well as the example tested in this paper has proved that every architecture has both advantages and disadvantages.
Implementations of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) standards provide Data Grid services that can be used to provide programming interfaces (as distinguished from human user interfaces) to data. Our efforts in building GIS Grid services are described in related publications, and we summarize briefly here. We base our service implementations on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)’s specifications. These are described in [Aydin2005] and more publications and reports are available from [CrisisGrid]. Web Feature Services [Vretanos2002] are used to store archived data that may be used to describe abstract map features. The WFS is a useful general purpose GIS archived data service: in SERVOGrid we typically use it to store archived records for GPS stations, seismic activity, and faults. We have implemented Web Service versions of WFS that use both SOAP over HTTP and higher performance streaming data that are described in Section 6. Web Map Services [Beaujardierre2004] generate human readable maps from Web Feature Servers and other Web Map Servers. Our approach to GIS Information Service deviates from the OGC specifications, since, by using a Web Service approach to information management, we may adopt more general Web Service information systems. Finally, Sensor Web Enablement [SensorML] is a family of related specifications for describing sensors. Our efforts here have focused on integrating NaradaBrokering messaging described in Sec. 6 with streaming GPS data.
WebServices have been used since many years as an interface between applications. WebServices such as Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) and Representational State Transfer (REST) are extremely useful in data transfer and comparatively faster. Creating a Web Service saves the hassle for all developers as the tedious work such as building the database, automating the system and even performing SQL or other database queries is taken away. With such hassles out of the way they can just jump into building what they intended to and leverage this data using our proposed web service.
Abstract—The growing popularity and application of Webservices have led to an increase in attention to the vulnerability of software based on these services. Vulnerability testing examines the trustworthiness, and reduces the security risks of software systems, however such testing of Webservices has become increasing challenging due to the cross-platform and heterogeneous characteristics of their deployment. This paper proposes a worst-input mutation approach for testingWeb service vulnerability based on SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) messages. Based on characteristics of the SOAP messages, the proposed approach uses the farthest neighbor concept to guide generation of the test suite. The test case generation algorithm is presented, and a prototype Web service vulnerability testing tool described. The tool was applied to the testing of Webservices on the Internet, with experimental results indicating that the proposed approach, which found more vulnerability faults than other related approaches, is both practical and effective.
Abstract: WebServices are combination of open protocols and standards to allow communication between client and server. It provides an interoperability between contrasting applications. Representational state Transfer (REST) and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) are the two main popular usedwebservices now-a-days. REST is an architectural style based, whereas SOAP is a underlying protocol. Both services are used to handle the communication on the world wide web (www). Both services have some advantages and drawbacks and it is the decision of web developer to decide which service is best to use according to its requirements. The aim of this research work is to design a REST API and SOAP API by JAX-RS and JAX-WS, respectively and gives a comparative analysis of Application Programming Interface (API) features (in terms of response time, memory usage, execution speed and so on) of these services by using API testing tool like Postman. This gives insight view of which service is better to use as per requirements. The result of experiments shows that the response time of SOAP is approximate takes 4ms to 7ms more than REST. It has been observed that as number of API increases, SOAP takes approximate 1MB to 2MB more memory usage than REST.
In our experimental setup, both Moodle based webservices were tested using the same set of payload sizes, client and server machine configurations, number of clients, and number of service requests. All servicesused HTTP as the main protocol for exchanging messages and files. To ensure that services have same processing capabilities, both SOAP-based and REST-based services were hosted in the same cloud based server. the main difference between REST and SOAP integrations protocols is that, for SOAP messages, the actual payload is included inside the envelope element, whereas, for REST entire message is the payload. So, SOAP service would have to perform additional processing to get the payload information. Similarly, when sending a response message, SOAP service would have to perform additional processing to construct a SOAP formatted message. The SOAP client machines also would have to perform extra processing to create and to read the message. This extra processing time incurred towards retrieving information from the message and embedding response into the message, may explain higher response times for SOAP service. REST on average performed better than SOAP for throughput experiments. Throughput experiments were conducted using getQuiz function. Taking results of the experiments and practical indications into consideration, we recommend selecting REST based interaction styles. The RESTful approach would be suitable when the bandwidth needs to be limited and
of inter-machine communication via Webservices, XML is used to tag the data involved. WebServices Description Language (WSDL), on the other hand, is being used for describing the services available. Then Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI) lists the services available from that particular machine. Lastly, Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) is used to transfer data for each exchange of information between machines and servers, which typically involve “HTTP with an XML serialization in conjunction with other Web-related standards.” Cons equently, WebServices “are not tied to any one ope rating system or programming language.” As a result, via W eb Services, Java based programs will be able to talk to servers running C++ based programs and a Windows machine will be able to communicate with a LINUX machine.
Figure 4 shows the WSDL document structure. It contains two sections: - an abstract interface, describing the Web Service's operation signatures. It includes the operation-organized in port Types-defining the input, output, and fault messages composed of parts, which refer to a datatype, defined in the types section. A concrete implementation. It includes a binding section-assigning the operations to a wire format and a transport protocol-and the ports-defining the service's network endpoint address. The WSDL specification  either allows a variety of concrete implementations or does not make any regulations at all. This applies for example to the grammar language used for data types (XML Schema, DTD, etc.), the encoding rules (literal, SOAP encoded.) or the transport binding (SOAP, HTTP POST, HTTP GET). This creates a problem in implementing compatible systems
and analysis facility for both code and PSP process measures. This data not only contains PSP data but also procedural metrics, object oriented metrics, and custom metrics. PROM provides data collection and analysis facilities for personal, workgroup and at enterprise levels. The architecture of PROM is based on plug-in technology and use (SOAP) to communicate with various component and subsystems of the architecture. This architecture based on Package-Oriented Programming that makes the development and integration of its components easier and extensible. PROM is consists of four component Database, PROM Server, Plug-in Server and Plug-in. Database of PROM is used to store data regarding PSP data, software metrics and project activities. PROM Server use SOAPwebservices to communicate with other components. Plug-in Server collect data from plug-ins provide caching facility and communicate with PROM Server for data storage. The fourth component is Plugs-in for IDE, these Plug-ins communicate with PROM Server using SOAPprotocol. PROM not only provides metrics and process support to developer but also to the manager. Developers can simultaneously login for pair programming and can access PSP data, and software metrics for analysis and improvement. PROM is fully automated to support the context switching problem in process recording and product development. It also helps in collection of data regarding Activity-Based Costing (ABC) to manage cost of project for project manager. PROM resolves the privacy issues of PSP data analysis i.e. manager cannot access private data of individual software engineer. However, manager can only access data that is relevant to project monitoring and control. PROM is developed using Java technology and its components communicates using XML and SOAP. However, PROM also supports manual data insertion facilities.
SOAP is a protocol for remote procedure calling and messaging with XML-encoded application data. But SOAP does not require the use of XML per se. In fact, SOAP supports binary data attachments and remotely referenced data such as objects provided by third parties that are produced or consumed at separate hosts, for example. To create data portals on the Web, these features can be used . SOAP also specifies various usage scenarios, such as one-way message passing, single and multiple request-response invocations, and routing. Consider for example the data transfer illustrated in Figure 1. Data is efficiently transferred from a client to a server with gSOAP’s streaming SOAP/XML and DIME. This form of routing streams the (binary) data encapsulated in DIME from a data source at the client side into a data repository at the server side. This data can be retrieved and stored on disk or processed dynamically by tasks running on separate machines, for example. Note that SOAP/XML with stream-ing DIME file transfers are more flexible than current file transfer protocols such as FTP and GridFTP, because the SOAP/XML messages can be utilized to carry meta-data with the file transfer requests and responses. In addition, WebServices extensions, such as routing and security for example, are orthogonal which means that file transfers can be routed and protected.
In today’s growing and competitive scenario Service–oriented architectures are having a crucial role in the way in which systems are developed and designed. Basically, they represent an architecture in which small, loosely coupled pieces of functionality are published, used and combined over a network. The W3C consortium  describes webservices as “a software application identiﬁed by a URI, whose interfaces and bindings are capable of being deﬁned, described, and discovered as XML artifacts. A web service supports direct interactions with other software agents using XML based message exchange via Internet protocols”. Webservices have become popular and the need of today business because they offer several advantages: 
Security in webservices means adding basic security capabilities to the technologies that make webservices happen. This means having the ability to encrypt SOAP messages, digitally sign WSDL service descriptions, add reliability to the protocol transports we use to carry this information around, assert a user's identity, define policies that govern how information is to be used, by whom it can be used, and for what purposes it can be used, and any number of a laundry list of other items. It could take almost an entire book by itself to describe how to implement all of these requirements. Unfortunately, while efforts are currently being made in each of these areas, we are still a long way from having defined standards (de facto or otherwise) on how all of this will happen in the webservices environment. For the CodeShare example, we focus on only one: user authentication.
description style. The XML and related technologies and standards constitute a complete XML framework and solve the problem of heterogeneous platforms. HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is the web transfer standard protocol and all web pages are delivered by HTTP in the internet. In Web service, the data transmission also is implemented by HTTP in order to follow the general agreement and get the open system architecture. The SOAP in the Web service is running on HTTP although it is dependent of specific transfer protocol. SOAP is fundamentally a stateless, one-way message exchange paradigm, but applications can create more complex interaction patterns by combining such one-way exchanges with features provided by an underlying protocol and/or application-specific information. SOAP is silent on the semantics of any application-specific data it conveys, as it is on issues such as the routing of SOAP messages, reliable data transfer, firewall traversal, etc. However, SOAP provides the framework by which application-specific information may be conveyed in an extensible manner. Also, SOAP provides a full description of the required actions taken by a SOAP node on receiving a SOAP message.” The SOAP is one of the cores of Webservices technology and it is used for calling the XML message. The SOAP is used firstly by Microsoft for resolving the HTTP message across the firewall to call the remote COM component and it is made as standard by W3C and used in the distribution environment with XML message. The SOAP provides the message transfer format and code standard of data types between Web service entities. The SOAP is based on XML and message and it make communication between service providers and service requesters. It provides the data exchange using the object format in the application layer procedures and it can be running on HTTP, FTP and SMTP. The Webservices use the SOAP to carry transmission information with lower protocol such as HTTP and finish the request and response of Webservices for data exchange. The SOAP makes the Webservices become be independent on the platform and language and have diversity property.
Abstract The use of Webservices in enterprise applica- tions is quickly increasing. In a Webservices environment, providers supply a set of services for consumers. However, although Webservices are being used in business-critical environments, there are no practical means to test or com- pare their robustness to invalid and malicious inputs. In fact, client applications are typically developed with the assump- tion that the services being used are robust, which is not always the case. Robustness failures in such environments are particularly dangerous, as they may originate vulnerabil- ities that can be maliciously exploited, with severe conse- quences for the systems under attack. This paper addresses the problem of robustness testing in Webservices environ- ments. The proposed approach is based on a set of robustness tests (including both malicious and non-malicious invalid call parameters) that is used to discover programming and design errors. This approach, useful for both service providers and consumers, is demonstrated by two sets of experiments, showing, respectively, the use of Webservices Robustness testing from the consumer and the provider points of view. The experiments comprise the robustness testing of 1,204 Web service operations publicly available in the Internet and of 29 home-implemented services, including two different implementations of the Webservices specified by the stan- dard TPC-App performance benchmark. Results show that many Webservices are deployed with critical robustness
Researchers usually focus on HTML/WML conversion because the WAP is an alternative protocol for HTML in wireless Internet services using Wireless Markup Language (WML), a small subset of Extensible Markup Language (XML), to create and deliver content. Kaasinen et al.  and Dugas  suggested an HTML/WML conversion proxy server, which converts HTML-based Web content automatically, and on-line, to WML. Saha et al.  suggested a middleware that is seamless and transparently translates a Web site’s existing contents to mobile devices. Kurbel and Dabkowski  proposed a dynamic user tailed WML content generation by using JSP (Java Server Pages) and JDBC-ODBC driver. Magnusson and Stenmark  suggested a CMS-based approach to visualise Web information in a PDA. Pashtan et al.  stressed context-aware wireless Webservices, which can adapt their content to the user’s dynamic content. Again, we wish to stress these researchers focus only on HTML/WML conversion, not WebServices compliable conversion. Therefore, in spite of their importance, application integration aspects inside and outside enterprises have not been seriously considered by the researchers. As the impotence of application integration over the Internet becomes more important, nowadays WebServices are critical to any Internet services. For this reason, we propose a method that converts HTML to WSDL. The WSDL files are used to provide WebServices with SOAP messaging protocols. More detailed explanation about the WebServices and its implementation issues are discussed in the following Section.
All the messages shown in the above figure are sent using SOAP. (SOAP at one time stood for Simple Object Access Protocol. Now, the letters in the acronym have no particular meaning .) SOAP essentially provides the envelope for sending the WebServices messages. SOAP generally uses HTTP , but other means of connection may be used. HTTP is the familiar connection we all use for the Internet. In fact, it is the pervasiveness of HTTP connections that will help drive the adoption of WebServices. More on SOAP and Messaging.
• SOAP is the standard messaging protocolused by Webservices, an XML-based communication protocol for exchanging messages between computers regardless of their operating systems, programming environment or object model framework.
With the advent of the Internet, Web and e-commerce technology began to become as a commodity .WS technologies are becoming increasingly important for integrating systems and services . They provide a universal and standard platform which can works with different services. The most common way to implement WS are SOAP and REST . Based on table (1) each one them have advantage and disadvantage, but JSON files have less size compared by XML files. Consequently, XML files exhausted more memory space, CPU utilization and RT.
environment than crude oil retrieval, crude oil processing and insulation manufacture. Soap will never replace petroleum derived foamed insulants because soap cannot compete with the high level of thermal resistance that the petroleum based insulations can achieve. However, it is within the realms of possibility for a small niche market to be established amongst the other eco-friendly insulations to accommodate sustainable soap. As revealed in the literature review, the abundance of waste fats and oils would ensure that there is a consistent flow of raw materials to fuel the manufacture, whilst the low capital outlays and associated manufacturing costs can be passed on to the retailer. The use of biodegradable and sustainable components for the finished article make soap an attractive alternative to insulations derived from fossil fuels. The lower environmental costs achieved by the hemp and soap combination is a desirable alternative also. On an environmental level the difference is clear. The literature review section of this thesis reveals that soap insulation can certainly compete favourably with petrochemical based insulations on this level. Weight wise, soap insulation satisfies the Health and Safety manual handling requirements. The process of soap manufacture and waste disposal is unlikely to create long, mid or short- term damage to the environment. Whilst investigating soaps sustainability credentials, it is worth remembering that soap based insulation can create a use for waste animal by-products that would otherwise be destined for incineration or landfill.