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Social Exclusion and the Future of Cities

Social Exclusion and the Future of Cities

The vision of metropolitanism recognises that the dichotomy between cities and suburbs is frequently drawn too sharply, often leading one to overlook the new reality: namely, that suburbs today are not an undifferentiated band of safe and prosperous white, communities. Indeed, there are two major kinds of suburbs. On the one hand, there are the older inner-suburbs frequently adjacent to the city. They feature crumbling tax bases, growing concentrations of poor children in the public schools, eroding job markets, population decline, crime, disinvestment and increasingly deserted commercial districts. On the other hand, there are the newer or outer suburbs. They are gaining economically, but they are “straining under sprawling growth, that creates traffic congestion, overcrowded schools, loss of open spaces, and other sprawl-related problems and a lack of affordable housing” (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1999: 31). As Katz and Bradley put it they are
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Smart Highways Systems for Future Cities

Smart Highways Systems for Future Cities

This paper proposes a system for smart highways of future cities. Common city roads have to face many problems such as traffic jams which cause loss of valuable time. And also there is no display indication on our roads for showing traffic conditions in the city. This paper proposed a wireless sensor based system which will be situated in the city roads and read the traffic data and send it to the displays or road signs which are digital led boards providing information about all data. The second part of system consist accident detection system based on the sound sensor it records the sound of accident and with the help of that it decides whether accident has happen or not depending on intensity of sound and if accident get detected it will send MSG through GSM modem to nearest police station and hospital. The next provision in this system will be of bridge overflow detection. In many areas water flows over the bridges in monsoon and that causes heavy traffic jams and kilometre long lines of vehicles. To avoid this water overflow sensor will read the water data of the river bridge and send to control station which will send this to active LED road signs where that will be displayed. The fourth provision is for the landslides happening in the hilly areas which are the cause of traffic jams and heavy loss. The areas where landslide happens are located in remote parts so very few communication devices are available there. In this using ultrasonic sensor based landslide detector sensor will be placed at such places which will detect landslide and send information to the disaster management system using GSM or XBee.
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European Cities and Regions of the Future

European Cities and Regions of the Future

On the whole, UK cities and regions performed well in fDi’s European Cities and Regions of the Future 2014/15, claiming top city and second place regionally. Yet, 2014 brings with it a contentious referen- dum that could see Scotland split from the UK as early as 2016. Details on Scottish currency and its EU mem- bership remain unclear, begging the question, how will this affect Scotland’s strategy for attracting new, and even retaining current, for- eign direct investment?

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Tackling Social Exclusion: Taking stock and looking to the future

Tackling Social Exclusion: Taking stock and looking to the future

The emphasis on tackling child poverty and investing in high quality early years services, such as Sure Start and Children’s Centres, was the right one and the best way to improve the life chances of the next generation. This is important not just for the most disadvantaged groups but for a wider range of families where significant inequalities in life chances remain; inequalities in employment rates, health, low income and educational attainment persist between different social classes, different ethnic groups, and different areas of the country. People’s life chances are still strongly determined by their parents’ background. We have seen some major gains in tackling social exclusion but there is a long way to go. The scale of the problem remains large: for example, there are only 53 per cent of lone parents in work, and 17 per cent of pensioners and 16 per cent of children live in persistent low income. Looking forward, policy and delivery mechanisms will need to respond to changing economic, demographic, social and technological trends in the external environment. These will include the increasing premium on skills, the ageing population with associated care needs, greater ethnic diversity, and a growing proportion of single person households.
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Stormwater Governance and Future Cities

Stormwater Governance and Future Cities

Though cities are likely to pursue more hybridized approaches, hybridized governance structures will not necessarily follow. Cities face decisions to retain management centrally or disperse responsibilities by engaging residents. Cities with robust current systems generally have efficient and trusted institutions, which must reorganize funding and management duties based on decisions regarding resident engagement. Such agencies are likely to increase cross-disciplinary collaboration and resident outreach. At present, urban residents primarily provide monetary contributions through monthly payments, but leave operations and maintenance to central bureaucracies. As infiltration-based approaches increase, cities will likely transfer more responsibility to landowners, such as building and maintaining swales, green roofs, or other treatments on private property. Municipalities would still oversee public communication, incentive programs and monitoring capabilities. For cities without existing infrastructure, they must continue to develop robust governance structures that gain trust of residents. These residents will likely continue to bear significant responsibilities for managing stormwater through labor-intensive means in the absence of strong central oversight. As infrastructure and central governance increases, monetary contributions of residents, but this requires fundamental shifts in popular confidence in public institutions and capacity of residents to pay.
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Mental Health and Social Exclusion. Social Exclusion Unit Report Summary

Mental Health and Social Exclusion. Social Exclusion Unit Report Summary

“For some of us, an episode of mental distress will disrupt our lives so that we are pushed out of the society in which we were fully participating. For others, the early onset of distress will mean social exclusion throughout our adult lives, with no prospect of training for a job or hope of a future in meaningful employment. Loneliness and loss of self-worth lead us to believe we are useless, and so we live with this sense of hopelessness, or far too often choose to end our lives. Repeatedly when we become ill we lose our homes, we lose our jobs and we lose our sense of identity. Not only do we cost the government money directly in health, housing and welfare payments, we lose the ability to contribute our skills and economically through taxes.
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Mental Health and Social Exclusion

Mental Health and Social Exclusion

“For some of us, an episode of mental distress will disrupt our lives so that we are pushed out of the society in which we were fully participating. For others, the early onset of distress will mean social exclusion throughout our adult lives, with no prospect of training for a job or hope of a future in meaningful employment. Loneliness and loss of self-worth lead us to believe we are useless, and so we live with this sense of hopelessness, or far too often choose to end our lives. Repeatedly when we become ill we lose our homes, we lose our jobs and we lose our sense of identity. Not only do we cost the government money directly in health, housing and welfare payments, we lose the ability to contribute our skills and economically through taxes.
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Poverty, Social Exclusion and Disadvantage in Australia

Poverty, Social Exclusion and Disadvantage in Australia

Lone person households have experienced a decline in poverty rates, peaking at almost one-third of all lone person households in 2005. This rate has since declined to just under 26 per cent in 2011. These households consist of mostly older persons reliant upon the Age Pension. This group was allocated a rise in income with an increased single pension rate in the September quarter of 2009. A smaller group of lone persons are those on Newstart Allowance. This group receives only 62.5 per cent of that received by most single full-rate pensioners and due to the indexation method used for Newstart allowees this share will likely reduce in the future.
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Poverty and Social Exclusion

Poverty and Social Exclusion

Poverty and social exclusion are therefore inter- national – or rather global – problems. This was brought starkly into relief by the Make Poverty History campaign in 2005, which sought to put pressure on the developed nations to make com- mitments to relieve poverty in Africa and else- where. This did lead to some promises to increase international aid for developing countries and to ‘ write - off ’ debts and trade defi cits where these were preventing future economic development, though in practice not much changed following this. Earlier than this the 117 nations attending a United Nations (UN) summit on social development in Copenhagen in 1995, had committed the UN to a goal of eradicating global poverty through inter- national action; and international agencies such as the UN Development Programme, the World Health Organization, and the World Bank have been instrumental in implementing a range of international programmes to combat poverty and promote economic development across the world. There is an increasing recognition among leading politicians and policy - makers that poverty and social exclusion are global, and not just national, problems; and that concerted inter- national action will be needed to address these – although the extent of the commitment and resources required, and the time taken to achieve signifi cant results may not be fully appreciated by many. The scale of this international challenge has also now been explored by academic research- ers, notably by Townsend himself, who went on to write about the need to combat ‘ World Poverty ’ (Townsend and Gordon 2002 ). The future policy climate for poverty and social exclusion is there- fore likely increasingly to become an interna- tional one, within which national government can only play a limited role.
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Poverty and social exclusion in Britain

Poverty and social exclusion in Britain

Britain is at a crossroads of social development in terms of adopting effective measures to stop and then reverse the damaging structural trend which has increased poverty. During the 1980s incomes substantially diverged and in the late 1990s were continuing to diverge. The growth in poverty is the most critical social problem that Britain now faces. Problems of dislocation, insecurity, multiple deprivation, conflict, divided loyalties and divided activities all result. Major questions are being posed for the future of social cohesion. High rates of poverty and social exclusion have the effects of worsening health, education, skills in the changing labour market, relationships within the family, between ethnic groups and in society generally. The structural problem has to be addressed in a concerted national strategy. The construction of a scientific consensus - to improve measurement, explain severity and cause so that the right policies are selected, and show how the role of public and private services can be extended to underpin national life - is a key step in achieving the objectives set by the Government.
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The Subtleties of Social Exclusion: Race, Social Class, and the Exclusion of Blacks in a Racially Mixed Neighborhood

The Subtleties of Social Exclusion: Race, Social Class, and the Exclusion of Blacks in a Racially Mixed Neighborhood

If any neighborhood association were predicted to promote social inclusion among black and white residents, the Upshaw Neighborhood Association (UNA) in Portland, Oregon would be a strong candidate. First, the city of Portland has a strong system of neighborhood associations, as they are given re- sources by the city government and are formally organized under the city government’s Office of Neighborhood Involve- ment (Berry et al., 1993). Portland’s neighborhood associations are oftentimes effective in creating changes within their neigh- borhoods. In terms of fostering racial inclusion, Portland would seem to be a good candidate. In comparison to most US cities, it is less racially segregated and has a larger percentage of white residents and a smaller percentage of black residents (Renn, 2009). Scholars argue that this racial composition would lead to white residents feeling less “racial threat,” meaning that they would be less likely to be concerned about living in the same neighborhood as blacks than would white residents living in cities with more segregation and a higher percentage of black residents (Meyers, 1990).
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Social Exclusion and Jobs Reservation in India

Social Exclusion and Jobs Reservation in India

The same confidence that affects the world economy and causes it to boom or bust also affects the behaviour and actions of people. Two persons may value an investment opportunity (say, higher education) differently: the confident person takes an optimistic view of his future income stream and invests; the less confident person takes a pessimistic view and does not invest. The Solow (1956) growth model viewed output growth as dependent on: labour growth; investment; and innovation. His central message was that long-term output growth depended upon innovation. In the absence of innovation, diminishing returns would ultimately reduce growth to zero.
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Inclusion, exclusion and social media: IT- based initiatives and future opportunities

Inclusion, exclusion and social media: IT- based initiatives and future opportunities

In  the  first  months  of  2011,  journalists  made  numerous  commentaries  on  the  uprisings  in  the  Middle   East   and   covered   the   topic   of   the   Facebook   or   Twitter   revolution   extensively.   Some   believe   that   media   like   Facebook   and   YouTube   are   better   than   ever   capable   of   channelling   the   issues   people   worry   about   and  mobilising   them   to   take   action.   Furthermore,   these   technologies   would   be   a   real   threat   to   even   the   most   rigid   political   regimes   (Hensen,   2011).   Nevertheless,   not   everyone   agrees   with   this   positive   view   on   social   media   as   tools   for   empowering   people   in   revolutions.     The   consensus   amongst   journalists   and   professionals   seems   to   be   that   social   media   like   Facebook   and  Twitter  play  an  important  role  in  reaching  large  groups  of  people  at  once,  but  that  they  are  not   strong  enough  to  push  over  a  regime.  The  idea  is  that  the  real  revolutions  or  uprisings  take  place  at   for   example   the   Tahrir   Square,   where   citizens   come   together   to   express   their   dissatisfaction   (De   ŽĐŬ͕ϮϬϭϭ͖DĞũŝĂƐ͕ϮϬϭϭ͖͞DĞƚĚĂŶŬĂĂŶdǁŝƚƚĞƌĞŶ&ĂĐĞŬ͕͟ϮϬϭϭͿ.  
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The multi dimensional analysis of social exclusion

The multi dimensional analysis of social exclusion

This definition does not address the structural issues of inequality, polarisation, social mobility and social closure noted above. A definition is a purposive construction, and this is designed to facilitate the exploration of the experience or effects of exclusion at the individual and/or household level. In the context of the present study, structural characteristics are best seen as drivers of social exclusion, rather than constitutive of it. A review of the literature on the drivers of social exclusion conducted for the SEU in 2004 identified three areas of macro- drivers. “Poverty, inequality and social exclusion”, it argues, “are driven upwards and downwards by three major contextual factors: demographic, labour market and social policy” (Bradshaw et al, 2004, p 9). The demographic factors operating in the past to increase levels of social exclusion have been “large youth cohorts, ageing and increased dependency ratios, and family change, particularly the increase in lone parent families”. The impact of these is currently less, but there are additional trends of inward migration, single living and cohabitation that may possibly lead to increased levels of social exclusion. Labour market factors have included unemployment, ‘flexibility’ and greater insecurity in the labour market, the dispersion of earnings and the concentration of work. Social policy changes in the 1980s and 1990s also, they argue, led to increased levels of social exclusion: uprating benefits in line with prices rather than earnings; abolition and cuts to some benefits; a shift from direct to indirect taxation and a consequently more regressive system; cuts in service expenditure, especially on housing, or increases that were insufficient to meet increased need. However, they point out that if social policy can be a macro-driver of social exclusion, it is also capable of reducing it (Bradshaw et al, 2004, pp 13, 100).
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Football's Ability to Combat Social Exclusion

Football's Ability to Combat Social Exclusion

Projects may (often rightly) claim success in attracting new participants and therefore be fairly satisfied with the running of their schemes. However, there will undoubtedly be other ‘harder to reach’ groups who are not currently getting involved for a variety of reasons. In this sense, if programmes remain unchanged they may actually serve to heighten the exclusion of others, rather than increasing opportunities by seeking out new ways of targeting a wider audience not accessed through traditional channels. The IFC (2004) notes the need for more effort by football in integrating both disabled supporters and minority ethnic groups. They reach a particularly depressing conclusion regarding the latter:
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Observatory on national policies to combat social exclusion. Social exclusion in Belgium 1990-1991 Consolidated report

Observatory on national policies to combat social exclusion. Social exclusion in Belgium 1990-1991 Consolidated report

The King Baudouin Foundation has always played an important role in directing atten­ tion towards poverty and social exclusion and continues to do so. In the early eighties, "135 proposals for combatting poverty and insecurity" were published (Lampaert & Vranken, 1983) and later, between 1987 and 1989, a series of short monographs have been published on poverty in general and on its different aspects: financial deprivation, housing, education, legal dimensions (Lampaert e.a., 1987). A new and huge "social programme" was started in 1990. Its annual budget is about 130 million BEF and its goal is to stimulate innovatory projects that aim to combat social exclusion in basic education, schooling and unemployment. It also wants to support projects that are active on the secondary housing market, i.e. the housing market for people who are excluded from the social housing market. At the end of 1991 they had a new series of 5 publications on local policies to combat poverty (Lampaert, 1991).
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BRIEFING ON SOCIAL EXCLUSION AND THE IGC 40

BRIEFING ON SOCIAL EXCLUSION AND THE IGC 40

The Court of Justice The Commission The Court of Auditors, ESC and COR Differentiated integration The commc,n foreign and security policy The role of the national parliaments The hierarc[r]

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SOCIAL EXCLUSION: IMPACT ON DALITS IN INDIA

SOCIAL EXCLUSION: IMPACT ON DALITS IN INDIA

The concept of social exclusion has been defined differently among social scientists, by western in Indian. According to Silver (2004), social exclusion is multidimensional process of progressive social capture, detaching groups and individuals from social relation and institutions and preventing them from full participation in the formal normatively prescribed activities of the society in which they live. Amartya Sen (1997) Observes that social exclusion emphasizes the role of relational feature in deprivation. Bauvinic (2005) summarizes the meaning of social exclusion as the inability of individual to participate in the basic political, economic and social functioning of society and goes on to add that it involves “the denial of equal access of opportunities imposed by certain groups in society upon others.” The concept of social exclusion can be applied within the Indian context were caste and untouchability is been practiced from centuries ago and its changes from time to time. Characteristics of Social Exclusion
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Social mix and the cities

Social mix and the cities

In recent times there has been only limited in-depth qualitative exploration of the effects of policies such as social mix from the viewpoint of those most affected by the policies, the residents of social housing estates. Atkinson and Kintrea (2004: 20), for instance, in the UK context, argue that there are few explanations of how individual actors understand social mix or even if they think it may or may not “affect their decisions and therefore life chances”. Likewise, Rose (2004: 12) a Canadian based researcher contends that, debates about social mix are occurring “in the absence of a knowledge base as to how social mix is experienced on a day-to-day basis”. As well within the literature, there is only limited scrutiny of social mix as a conceptual category. A review of the literature from 1990 until 2004, which included fifty two journal articles, seven conference papers, thirteen reports and three book chapters is informative. Much of the research is concerned with the question of ‘whether social mix works’. The empirical studies often attempt to compare and measure the effects for residents of living in neighbourhoods with different levels of social mix. This is a difficult task given that the effects of mix are often conflated with other aspects of particular neighbourhoods, along with efforts at regeneration. There is a significant literature committed to evaluating the outcomes of the US ‘Gautreaux’ and ‘Moving to Opportunity Programs’ that seeks to assess whether the programs assist families to become more self sufficient, through leading to improvements in residents’ health, education or employment prospects. Numerous articles are dedicated to exploring the best methodologies to adopt in order to measure the effects: the types of indicators to use; whether to use case studies or statistical models; and the relative strengths and weaknesses of quantitative and qualitative approaches.
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Sexual orientation and social exclusion in Italy

Sexual orientation and social exclusion in Italy

$" In the management and the sociological literatures, one of the most commonly identified forms is the compression of the right to privacy or, better, of the right to a full and free expression of personal identity. Evidence on Italy shows a higher risk of negative reaction from outing in the working environment according to interviews to a non-representative sample (Barbagli and Colombo, 2001), and the potential repercussion on the hiring process and the career advancement, as well as the possible consequences in terms of harassment, mobbing or dismissal (Curtarelli et al., 2004). Several studies show that invisibility in the working place (as more generally in the public life), especially if forced by a hostile environment, reduce health conditions and more generally individual well-being (Smith e Ingram, 2004; Griffith e Hebl, 2002; Mays e Cochran, 2001; Croteau, 1996). Furthermore, it involves negative effects on workers’ social interactions, participation and sharing of company’s mission. Given the relevance of network effects, invisibility in the workplace thus constrains homosexuals’ advancement in remuneration and career regardless of employers’ willingness to discriminate (Barr, 2009). Such a forced invisibility reduces workers productivity and companies’ capacity to innovate, and thus affect the society as a whole (King and Cortina, 2010; Ragins and Cornwell, 2001; Day, 2000).
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