Top PDF Social inequality and mental health

Social inequality and mental health

Social inequality and mental health

Den andre er «The social causation hypothesis» som kan oversettes til sosial kausalitet som vil si årsakssammenheng. Denne hypotesen eller mekanismen går ut på at psykiske problemer er et resultat av nedgang i sosioøkonomisk posisjon (Reiss, 2013), altså sosioøkonomisk status kan påvirke psykisk helse. Sareen et al. (2011) viser at inntekt er relatert til økt risiko for utvikling av psykiske helseproblemer, som kan komme av at en person opplever motgang, stress og har liten kapasitet til å oppfylle sine daglige gjøremål. Flere studier fra litteraturstudien til Reiss (2013) fant støtte til sosial kausalitet hypotesen ved at ulike faktorer som var assosiert med lav SØS bidro til varierte nivåer av psykisk helseproblemer i barndom og ungdomsårene. Sareen et al. (2011) fant at lavere inntekt var forbundet med økt sannsynlighet for psykiske lidelser hos deltakere som var 20 til 54 år. På en annen side fant man ikke denne sammenhengen blant eldre, med unntak av stoffmisbruk. Dette kan sees i sammenheng med det som ble nevnt tidligere om yngre voksne og eldre voksne. Sareen et al. (2011) skriver at selv om de fant en sterk sammenheng mellom husholdningsinntekt og psykiske lidelser kan en likevel ikke komme til en årsaksbestemt konklusjon. Dette viser at det kan være mange ulike årsaksforhold. Dermed ser man at reduksjon i inntekt har en påvirkning, og dette understøtter teorien og flere av artiklene. I tillegg viser artikkelen til Reiss (2013) at sosioøkonomisk nedgang kan gi økt respons på stress, som igjen kan øke risikoen for depresjon og angst.
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Exploring the impact of social inequality and poverty on the mental health and wellbeing and attainment of children and young people in Scotland

Exploring the impact of social inequality and poverty on the mental health and wellbeing and attainment of children and young people in Scotland

The poverty-related attainment gap is an internationally recognised problem. There is growing recognition that it cannot either be understood or addressed without taking cognisance of children’s mental health and wellbeing. The focus of this conceptual paper is to examine the impact of social inequality and poverty on the mental health and wellbeing and attainment of children and young people in Scotland through the lens of resilience. Whilst not a ‘state of the art’ literature review, a systematic approach was adopted in the selection of the literature and in the identification of themes to emerge from it. A range of risk and protective factors at the individual, social, societal and political levels emerged as impacting on the mental health and wellbeing and attainment of children living in poverty and three important mediating variables are the negative impact of social stratification and adverse childhood experiences and the positive impact of a supportive adult. Schools alone cannot solve the problem. The findings revealed that there is a need to build a strong infra-structure around families and schools and to examine how economic, social, health and educational policy interact with each other as a starting point in addressing the problem, supported by inter-disciplinary research.
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Exploring the impact of social inequality and poverty on the mental health and wellbeing and attainment of children and young people in Scotland

Exploring the impact of social inequality and poverty on the mental health and wellbeing and attainment of children and young people in Scotland

The poverty-related attainment gap is an internationally recognised problem. There is growing recognition that it cannot either be understood or addressed without taking cognisance of children’s mental health and wellbeing. The focus of this conceptual paper is to examine the impact of social inequality and poverty on the mental health and wellbeing and attainment of children and young people in Scotland through the lens of resilience. Whilst not a ‘state of the art’ literature review, a systematic approach was adopted in the selection of the literature and in the identification of themes to emerge from it. A range of risk and protective factors at the individual, social, societal and political levels emerged as impacting on the mental health and wellbeing and attainment of children living in poverty and three important mediating variables are the negative impact of social stratification and adverse childhood experiences and the positive impact of a supportive adult. Schools alone cannot solve the problem. The findings revealed that there is a need to build a strong infra-structure around families and schools and to examine how economic, social, health and educational policy interact with each other as a starting point in addressing the problem, supported by inter-disciplinary research.
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Social inequality, scientific inequality, and the future of mental illness

Social inequality, scientific inequality, and the future of mental illness

First, we should observe that in 1993, states began to cut funding for clinical care, despite a higher total outlay for mental health [115], but the increase was largely directed toward the criminal justice system and disability pay- ments. By 1993, the number of psychiatric beds had fallen from 34/100,000 population to 22/100,000 popula- tion, a 34% reduction. This gave the United States the dubious distinction of having fewer psychiatric beds than found in all but 4 countries in the Organisation for Eco- nomic Cooperation and Development [116]. In some states, the numbers were even worse. In North Carolina, for example, the number of beds fell to 8/100,000 [117], while funding for community care fell by 20%. The same pattern was found in the state of Washington, where beds fell by 36% while funding was dropped by $90 mil- lion, undercutting the notion that patients would be cared for in the community. Making matters even worse, the number of beds continued to fall during and after the 2008 financial crisis [117].
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Social Determinants of Health and Their Impact on Mental Health and Substance Misuse

Social Determinants of Health and Their Impact on Mental Health and Substance Misuse

A variety of conditions and circumstances beyond choice or willpower affect our physical and mental health and wellbeing. This includes the physical environment in which we live; the healthcare and treatment services to which we have access; the social and community context in which we are embedded; the education to which we have been exposed; and the economic stability in our family and community. These social determinants of health can shape a person’s likelihood of experiencing behavioral health issues, but also their ability to obtain treatment and maintain recovery.
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Social inequality and children’s health in Africa: a cross sectional study

Social inequality and children’s health in Africa: a cross sectional study

Although this study does not include an exhaustive list of social determinants, mechanisms and broader social trends, results suggest there is no silver bullet that will eliminate the socioeconomic disadvantages that heavily influence child health in the developing world. Efforts to reduce health disparities may not be effective because of lack of coverage, lack of quality, and the lack of sustain- ability of health services [44]. Measures for birth spacing and immunization have values near the maximum, but this does not imply that they should not be targets for further health policy. Spacing beyond the arbitrary cutoff of 24 months used here does benefit children, and we have included reports on only three vaccinations. The greatest challenge to reducing health disparities may occur because the most economically advantaged are more likely to benefit from economic development and improvements in health care services. Given the sub- stantial health disparities observed in Africa, one logical approach to improve overall health would be to focus on the most disadvantaged groups who are at highest risk of undernutrition and death. Although our findings sug- gest health promotion can provide great benefit to the most disadvantaged groups as is the case with birth spa- cing, it is also likely that current implementation of these programs may benefit the rich even more than the poor as was shown by results examining the provision of a skilled birth attendant. Our results imply that signifi- cant reductions in health disparities will not necessarily occur unless this becomes an explicit goal of health policy.
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Social representations of mental illness: A study of British and French mental health professionals

Social representations of mental illness: A study of British and French mental health professionals

The 1950s and 1960s saw a huge proliferation of sociological work which developed labelling and deviance theories and radical anti-establishment positions to challenge the medical model of mental illness and promote an alternative social model of the mental illness category. The anti-psychiatric view of mental health practitioners has generally been that they are agents of the oppressive and coercive regime of the psychiatric system, and as such, subscribe to simplistic, medicalized and negative understandings of mental distress in which difference and abnormality are paramount and there is little or no attempt to understand the person’s experiences (see Perrow 1965 or Weinstein 1982 for reviews of work by sociologists conducted in psychiatric hospitals). For example Goffman’s (1961) ethnographic study of St Elizabeth’s Psychiatric Hospital in Washington DC documents the details of how staff enact daily routines which contribute to the hospital as a ’total institution’ in which inmates are stripped of all capacity to act in an autonomous, self determining way. Although Goffman is primarily interested in taking the patients* perspective, he conceptualises the psychiatric hospital as a place where both patients and staff loose their ability to act in autonomous ways. Hospital staff are characterised as locked into routine practices and ways of thinking which serve the needs of the institution and their own collective need to maintain the legitimacy of their social position. As a consequence, they are unable to interact with patients on their own terms, and are restricted in the flexibility of their reactions. Im a similar vein, Rosenhan’s (1973) study of ’being sane in insane places’ describes how staff persistently interpreted the ’normal’ behaviour of investigators posing as mentally ill patients as evidence of psychiatric illness. Rosenhan discusses the ’stickiness of psycho-diagnostic labels’ which
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Mental Health and Social Exclusion. Social Exclusion Unit Report Summary

Mental Health and Social Exclusion. Social Exclusion Unit Report Summary

“For some of us, an episode of mental distress will disrupt our lives so that we are pushed out of the society in which we were fully participating. For others, the early onset of distress will mean social exclusion throughout our adult lives, with no prospect of training for a job or hope of a future in meaningful employment. Loneliness and loss of self-worth lead us to believe we are useless, and so we live with this sense of hopelessness, or far too often choose to end our lives. Repeatedly when we become ill we lose our homes, we lose our jobs and we lose our sense of identity. Not only do we cost the government money directly in health, housing and welfare payments, we lose the ability to contribute our skills and economically through taxes.
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Social geography and rural mental health research

Social geography and rural mental health research

assert that the answers to fundamental questions in rural mental health research lie in the branch of geography known as social geography, the subject matter of which many rural mental health researchers are currently unaware. The purpose of this editorial is to introduce readers of Rural and Remote Health to the pertinent theory and findings from three main areas of social geographic research: (i) rural geography; (ii) mental health geography; and (iii) the social geographies of caring - each with the potential to inform recent research efforts in rural mental health. We conclude that rural mental health researchers would benefit from embracing what social geography has to offer.
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Principal Lecturer in Mental Health Nursing. School of Health and Social Care, College of Social Science

Principal Lecturer in Mental Health Nursing. School of Health and Social Care, College of Social Science

The Principal Lecturer in Mental Health Nursing post is located within the School of Health and Social Care, one of six Schools and one Centre within the College of Social Science. The School is one of the largest in the University and offers a portfolio of qualifying and post-qualifying programmes in the fields of Nursing, Social Work, Health and Social Care, Acupuncture and Herbal Medicine. Current

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Mental Health Matters: Promoting Social and Emotional Learning

Mental Health Matters: Promoting Social and Emotional Learning

This concern was personally meaningful to me because my brother went through a traumatic event at school and this experience hindered his learning in the classroom. He had a hard time achieving positive goals for himself and maintaining positive relationships. I wanted to know how to improve this in schools and address children’s social and emotional well-being effectively. Since I minored in Human Development, I have knowledge of certain topics in child development in order for me to formulate action. I think for me what set me apart from the “informants” and “influentials” was my lack of knowledge of what is being done with social and emotional learning in the classroom. I conducted multiple interviews to get a broader depth of this opportunity. Since I interviewed teachers, I unfortunately did not get the perspective of the student. However, I figured that if I did conduct an interview with a student, the student would respond with closed ended responses and confusion. Since I only got the teachers perspective, I did not get the full scope of the problem that I would have liked to. At Roadrunner Elementery, one teacher volunteered to be interviewed because she had a student in the past who had a lot of behavioral problems due to family issues. From her interview I got a lot of sufficient data in itself without upholding the identity of the student. In the interviews, I probed for more information on how the teachers address their students’ social and emotional well-being and from there we worked together to find long term solutions.
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The social determinants of mental health: implications for research and health promotion

The social determinants of mental health: implications for research and health promotion

something’ are appraised as potentially worse than the consequences of doing nothing. Such an explanatory framework may offer some useful perspectives on evidence showing that common mental health problems and disorders are more prevalent among populations subject to forms of socioeconomic disadvantage according to income or education level [11, 13], or to conditions such as insecure employment [42], recent unemployment [16], insecure housing [15], or unsafe neighbourhoods [19]. Firstly, it is likely that people in these situations will (like most) be subject to a level of stress arousal arising from negotiating the everyday social environment. Along with that ‘background load’, one may reasonably suppose that living with a relatively low income, for example, might regularly give rise to states of anxiety (based on prior learning) about the possible consequences of, say, not keeping up with rent, or an inability to pay medical or utilities costs; coupled with a perceived lack of opportunity to exercise decisive control over these concerns (possibly influenced by a lack of exposure to ways of learning how to cope). Insecure forms of employment might give rise to repetitive worry about the financial consequences of loss of employment, or loss of social role [48]; coupled with a perceived lack of opportunity to exercise control over work conditions or to gain more secure employment.
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The social income inequality, social integration and health status of internal migrants in China

The social income inequality, social integration and health status of internal migrants in China

Four factors were extracted according to loadings of the 6 components. The consent of the views (X6), inte- gration will (X7), and discrimination perception (X8) constituted the first factor, called “acculturation and integration willingness.” The second factor was called “social insurance,” which was composed of old-age insurance (X9) and medical insurance (X10). The third factor was “subjective and objective economic status” as socioeconomic status (X4: Income or occupation pos- ition compared with the relatives, friends, and colleagues of the current resident; X5: Degree of respect compared with relatives, friends, and colleagues of the current resi- dent; X13: Monthly household income; and X3: Bring family members or not to the local area in the next 1– 3 years). The fourth factor, “social communication,” was constructed as a composition of neighbors (X1), famil- iarity with the local dialect (X2), number of organiza- tions participated in (X11), and number of activities attended (X12) (Appendix 2: Table 6).
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Social media and children's mental health: a review of the evidence

Social media and children's mental health: a review of the evidence

Education can have a transformational effect on the lives of young people. Through our research, we provide insights, commentary and critiques about education policy in England - shedding light on what is working and where further progress needs to be made. Our research and analysis spans a young person's journey from the early years through to higher education and entry to the labour market. Because good mental health is vital to learning, we also have a dedicated mental health team which will consider the challenges, interventions and opportunities for supporting young people's wellbeing.
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Social media and the mental health of teenagers and young adults

Social media and the mental health of teenagers and young adults

Social media is a phenomenon that has been steadily growing since its inception. Sites such as Facebook, Instagram and Snapchat are widely used, especially amongst younger people. Previous research has shown that there might be a connection between social media use and mental health issues such as eating disorders and depression. Thus the purpose of this study is to cast light on the relationship between social media use and mental illness amongst teenagers and young adults. To this end, a literature study using a systematic search across multiple academic databases was conducted. Data was gathered from scientific articles no more than five years old. The results of these articles were compiled and analyzed in an attempt to find common themes among them. The results revealed that there is a connection between social media use and depression or anxiety and social media use and eating disorders. The way one uses social media has a large impact on its effect on one's mental health. One study also concluded that there is no correlation between social media use and mental health. Our conclusions from this is that social media on its own has very little effect on mental health. However, social media as a medium through which you can experience feelings of envy, or where you can compare yourself negatively to others does have a negative effect on the mental health of young adults and adolescents. This can have clinical implications where nurses working with mental health can help patients identify which parts of their social media use is unhealthy.
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Mental health and corporate social responsibility for industrial psychology

Mental health and corporate social responsibility for industrial psychology

In South Africa, there is a unique approach to CSR where the principles are accepted positively and as responsible business undertakings. Seen from a South African perspective, responsible business is entrenched as a responsibility and an aspiration for organisations to show that they operate on triple bottom-line perspectives and have excellent corporate citizenship (Ackers, 2015). Furthermore, Ackers (2015) indicates that, in South Africa, a paradigm shift is occurring, businesses are moving towards a system where they want to cooperate and disclose on their social activities, as part of their business operations and not only for those for whom it is promulgated as law. Bringing together the global and the South African contexts is significant for understanding how CSR can be similar and be differentiated. Sivaraman (2013) provides an integrated view of CSR by stating that companies are paying more attention to their responsibilities with regard to society, environments, welfare of workers, resources and charitable contributions. All of these core elements, when they are properly accounted for, can be considered to be socially desirable. This social desirability is the coveted outcomes of CSR, regardless of the context of the CSR initiative (Carroll & Shabana, 2010; Sivaraman, 2013).
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A Survey on Mental Health Detection in Online Social Network

A Survey on Mental Health Detection in Online Social Network

Abstract – Mental health detection in Online Social Network (OSN) is widely studied in the recent years. OSN has encouraged new ways to communicate and share information, and it is used regularly by millions of people. It generates a mass amount of information that can be utilised to develop mental health detection. The rich content provided by OSN should not be overlooked as it could give more value to the data explored by the researcher. The main purpose of this study is to extract and scrutinise related works from related literature on detection of mental health using OSN. With the focus on the method used, machine learning algorithm, sources of OSN, and types of language used for the mental health detection were chosen for the study. The basic design of this study is in the form of a survey from the literature related to current research in mental health. Major findings revealed that the most frequently used method in mental health detection is machine learning techniques, with Support Vector Machine (SVM) as the most chosen algorithm. Meanwhile, Twitter is the major data source from OSN with English language used for mental health detection. The researcher found a few challenges from the previous studies and analyses, and these include limitations in language barrier, account privacy in OSN, single type of OSN, text analysis, and limited features selection. Based on the limitations, the researcher outlined a future direction of mental health detection using language based on user’s geo-location and mother tongue. The use of pictorial, audio and video formats in OSN could become one of the potential areas to be explored in future research. Extracting data from multiple sources of OSNs with new features selection will probably improve mental health detection in the future. In conclusion, this research has a big potential to be explored further in the future.
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Young women and social media – from a mental health

Young women and social media – from a mental health

Background: Mental illness is considered as one of the largest public health problems in Sweden. Statistics shows that 20-40 percent of the population have some kind of mental illness. Mental illness has increased annually among young people, and in particular in young women. Social media has become an integral part of the modern society, however, there is lack of knowledge about its role in relation to the prevailing mental illness. The nurse has a special, and could have an important role in health promotion in order to prevent illness. Aim: To describe how social media can impact on the mental health among young women in the ages 16-25. Method: A literature study based on ten scientific articles, whereof one qualitative article. The data was collected from the databases PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO. Results: Social media have a strong influence on young women's health. Appearance comparisons, but also comparisons of lifestyle proved to increased the power of social media´s influence. The time spent on social media and those that appeared on the pictures was particularly associated with increased negative body image and appearance comparisons. Facebook and Instagram contributed to young women having a negative body image, depression and anxiety, which often resulted in a risk of developing an eating disorder. High self-esteem had a protective effect of being negatively impacted by social media. Conclusions: Social media has a contributing role to the mental illness among young women. The increased morbidity of mental illness, as well as the association between the use of social media and mental illness, indicates that this is a social problem. Thus, care, in communion with the society, implement appropriate interventions to promote health.
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Social and Mental Health Needs Assessment of Katrina Evacuees

Social and Mental Health Needs Assessment of Katrina Evacuees

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is among the most common psychological disorder that occurs after traumatic events and disasters. 2 Correlates of PTSD in- clude age, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, fe- male gender, and co-morbid psychiatric conditions. 3 The majority of people who were evacuated to Hous- ton as a result of hurricane Katrina were low-income and minority populations who are known to be at increased risk of psychological consequences of disasters. 3-5 Evacuees experienced not only the hurri- cane and subsequent flooding but in some cases threat or actual physical harm from other evacuees or authorities. Social disintegration due to lack of local, state, and federal emergency planning and relief efforts left many evacuees stranded. Anthony Eng, chair of the American Psychiatric Association’s committee on Psy- chiatric Dimension of Disasters, noted that the public disorder after the slow emergency response could increase the mental health strain on some individuals. 6 The conditions resulting from Hurricane Katrina combined with limited resources among the low-in- come minority populations may cause some individuals to be at extremely high risk for PTSD, as well as other mental and physical health disorders. Furthermore, these individuals may have greater difficulty returning to their usual quality of life after this major natural disas- ter. The purpose of this report is to summarize a medical, social, and psychological needs assessment of Katrina evacuees staying in large shelters in Houston, Texas immediately after being evacuated and to qualitatively describe their experiences during and after the hurri- cane as they began to put their lives together again.
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Potential of social media in promoting mental health in adolescents

Potential of social media in promoting mental health in adolescents

The participants in our study offered ideas regarding the possible benefits of using social media for universal mental health promotion. Universal approaches are useful as they target large populations of adolescents in a general way (O ’Reilly et al., in press). Our adolescents recognised that the relative anonymity afforded by the internet, and by certain social media channels, allowed adolescents to search for information and participate in a community of supportive others, as well as learning from celebrities. They recognised some challenges, such as the credibility and trustworthiness of the sources of information. Adolescents wanted quick and accessible information and generally failed to scrutinise the quality of that
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