Top PDF Social Media And Political Participation In Pakistan

Social Media And Political Participation In Pakistan

Social Media And Political Participation In Pakistan

political participation (R² = 0.54) indicate significant roles of social media use, partisanship, social capital and political expression in predicting political participation in Pakistan. The large predictive relevance for both the dependent variables (Q 2 = 0.32) further confirm the goodness of fit of the integrated model suggested in this study. Overall, political expression proves to be the strongest predictor of political participation and positively mediates the relationship between social media news use and political participation. The results also reveal that general social media use leads to informational use of social media and social media news use greatly influences political expression and social capital. Likewise, online political participation spills to offline political participation. The result further depicts that the extent of political allegiances with a particular party encourages social media use for news and catalyzes the participation in offline political spheres. This result also supports the inclusion of partisanship as predisposition in OSOR model in this study. However, social capital negatively predicts online political participation and becomes insignificant predictor for offline political participation. The inversed outcome goes against the popular notion that social networks are politically productive and holds true for contradictory impact of social capital in a political scenario of Pakistan. The study highlights the need for rethinking the use of social capital theory according to contexts as contextual determinants play important role in understanding political participation in diverse settings .
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Social Media Use, Political Efficacy and Political Participation Among Youth During the 2016 Campaign

Social Media Use, Political Efficacy and Political Participation Among Youth During the 2016 Campaign

However, several studies have concluded that using news sites on the Internet and social media increases political efficacy. Citizens with a high level of political efficacy report higher levels of involvement with politics (Austin et al., 2008). Kenski and Stroud (2006) found that the Internet could increase political efficacy among voters because it allows users to engage with public officials on a more personal level and enables citizens to hold public officials accountable. Social media also allows citizens to easily access information about politics and politicians, which increases levels of internal political efficacy (Kenski and Stroud, 2006). Prior research has shown that using social networking sites for political information purposes was positively related to increased political efficacy and political participation, since frequent updates give users the feeling that they are more engaged with a candidate (Kushin and Yamamoto, 2010).
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Youth offline political participation: trends and role of social media

Youth offline political participation: trends and role of social media

Recently, the growing body of research has waded into the decline of formal political participation and engagement among youth especially voting and party allegiance due to the heightened youth activism such as protests and demonstrations. However, past research proposes that there is a significant relationship between the usage of social media and online political participation among youth. Many of those studies have inordinately relied on college students as samples rather than the entire population of youth with a vast amount of knowledge and experience in. Yet, only few researches have tried to uncover the tendencies of youth participation in formal political activities such as voting and party allegiance via the unprecedented social networking sites such as Facebook to address this issue, the study has employed multiple regression analysis to examine the correlation between use of Facebook, interactivity with politicians, Facebook information quality, political interest and offline political participation among Nigerian youth. This study has shown that Facebook use, interactivity with political figures, Facebook information quality and political interest significantly correlates with offline political participation. Social media allows marginalized youth to interact with friends and political figures, fostering their engagement in political issues, as well as enabling them to share and express their opinions thus draw youth participation in political activities such as voting. Incisively, Facebook serves as a gateway where youth can acquire political knowledge and information. It has become apparent that social media helps to lower the barriers and widen the scope of informal political activities.
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Social Media and Political Awareness in Pakistan: A Case Study of Youth

Social Media and Political Awareness in Pakistan: A Case Study of Youth

According to Strandberg (2011) the use of Facebook and Twitter causes a huge consequence to engross within politics. Users of social media, who concentrate and take attention towards the politics, are more likely to be feasible to access the relevant political stuff intentionally via social media. In the context of general elections, the usage of social media for the political actions and activities is one of the predictors and forecasters of political involvement, primarily for engagement of masses in the system as well as the turnout for voting. Vitak (2011) proposed that there is a positive and direct relationship among the “intensity in use of Facebook for political purposes” and “political participation among college students.” Facebook makes enable youth and college students to bring together and accumulate political information and to advance their political efficacy. He mentioned quite a few political activities that exist through typical features and functions of Facebook. These political actions are posting and placement of political status updates about politics, sharing the political messages with masses, scripting and distributing the political notes within their networks i.e. the party workers, getting comments from the public on their posts, sharing political opinions, joining political gathering via live streaming, following the contestants as well as downloading the political apps. These political posts subsequently get appear on users’ wall in news feed and also may be watched by their friends. Social media users can also witness that, what their followers are talking about and what their concerned people are posting. They can get updates from their fellow party members as well as about the relevant party events by going through the News Feed over their homepage. Similarly, all these activities also get occur in Pakistan. Since Facebook is being updated and modernized, political happenings like following the concerned people the candidate of their constituency changed into click like on the profile of the candidate.
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Integration of Political Participation and  Media of Youth—A Study of Khairpur City, Sindh, Pakistan

Integration of Political Participation and Media of Youth—A Study of Khairpur City, Sindh, Pakistan

This study is affiliated with the ideology of integration of political participa- tion and media, so in this connection it is seen there is popularity gained by social networks sites in modern age, and users of these sites are increasing day by day, they are engaged in Youtube, Twitter, Whatsapp, Facebook and other SNS. They always believe this is appropriate platform to proceed or lo- cal political activities of daily life. This research shows that youth are fre- quently sharing, posting, and interesting discussion on various political uses frequently. They preview it is a great platform to support and active their po- litical leaders as well as political parties. It is also said in this research SNS is cheapest and Low-Paid platform to proceed information and youth are taking responsibility to gain proper advantage of these networks. In this research quantitative approach has been adopted and results are measured through SPSS-23 version. 39 items are used in questionnaire to accumulate or assem- ble the meaningful information of integration of media and Political Partici- pation of youth in Khairpur district, Sindh Pakistan. It is shown different par- liamentarian, Government officials and youth are using such networks they consider that are sources of their power to be influential in their consistency. Furthermore, it is seen in Khairpur. Facebook, and Youtube has a strong ef- fect in political participation whereas, youth are not much awared how to use other social sites in this noble cause.
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Social Media, Political Expression, and Political Participation: Panel Analysis of Lagged and Concurrent Relationships

Social Media, Political Expression, and Political Participation: Panel Analysis of Lagged and Concurrent Relationships

In fact, Pingree posits that “Expression, not reception, may be the first step toward better citizenship,” considering that expression can “motivate exposure, attention and elaboration of media messages” (Pingree, 2007). Expression may have an effect through several pathways, and at least one overall model has been proposed (Pingree, 2007). Effects may even occur before any message is expressed so long as one expects some future expression. Also, composing a message in preparation for expression reorganizes items in the mind as they are transformed into language (Greene, 1984). Composition may even cause reflection about one’s own views, leading to new understanding (Bem, 1967). Expression may also cause effects once the message is released, strengthening a commitment to the views expressed (Tetlock, Skitka, & Boettger, 1989) or, perhaps importantly in a democracy, creating a feeling that the speaker’s voice has been heard (Pingree, 2007). All three mechanisms (expec- tation of expression, composition, and message release) are potentially influential in the realm of social media, where there is always an audience (and therefore an expectation of expression) for whom messages can be composed and to whom they may easily be released. Indeed, social media may facilitate the process of expression by providing a convenient platform for it. This political talk, then, may work to change the person expressing it from observer to participant, leading to political action. In fact, there are some indications that this happens when people use media technologies in an effort to mobilize others. Rojas and Puig-i-Abril (2009) found that using cell phones and social media to mobilize others in support of a position led people to offline political participation. Their findings advanced the communication mediation model by suggesting that there is a sequence of behaviors that may lead to participation, including expression and mobilization. Taken together, this empha- sis on expression as part of a political engagement model supports the alternate conception of citizenship advanced by Bennett et al. (2011) and Coleman (2008). They envision a spectrum of citizenship activities, with older generations more commonly adopting a managed, dutiful engagement with authorities and younger generations preferring autonomy and activism centered on expression. Both may be valid pathways to political participation, they argue. This study seeks to empirically shed light over this proposition. Political expression (Time 2) will be positively related to offline political participation (H3a) and online political participation (H3b; Time 2).
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Cognitive Engagement and Online Political Participation on Social Media among Youths in Malaysia: The Moderating role of Political Knowledge

Cognitive Engagement and Online Political Participation on Social Media among Youths in Malaysia: The Moderating role of Political Knowledge

Consequently, studies have shown that social media have provided youths with new ways of political participation and democratic citizenship [6]. Specifically, studies conducted in the US [7] and Sweden [8] have shown that social media has significantly influenced political participation among youths. However, some scholars have noted that there is decrease or non-participation of youths in politics whether online or offline [9]. Accordingly, researches in this area have presented mixed results. Yet theoretical attention in previous studies have been inadequate [10]. For instance, social capital [11], civic voluntarism model [12], and uses and gratification theory [13], have been used in previous studies. However, limited studies have examined whether youths may participate more in politics through learning about politics on social media. To address this gap, the present study aims to investigate youth online political participation from a cognitive engagement perspective as recommended by [14]. Thus, the Cognitive Engagement Theory (CET) [15] will be extended to social media with an aim to assess the role of political knowledge in moderating the relationship between access to political information on Facebook and Twitter, political interest, policy satisfaction and online political participation on Facebook and Twitter.
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Social Media and Youth Online Political Participation: Perspectives on Cognitive Engagement.

Social Media and Youth Online Political Participation: Perspectives on Cognitive Engagement.

The role of social media in political participation cannot be overstated as sites like Facebook and Twitter have provided new avenues for political engagement. Yet, concerns for declining participation among youths has led to increased research in this area. Unfortunately, conflicting results have emerged from such researches, perhaps due to lack of proper theorization of the concept of youth online political participation on social media. Hence, the Cognitive Engagement Theory (CET) will be used as underpinning in the paper. CET from the perspective of online political participation on social media embodies two separate trend. First, is the decrease in the cost of acquiring information; and second, the increase in youth’s ability to process political information which in turn enhances participation. This means that youths will have more political resources allowing them to deal with political issues and understand how democracy works in their society. Consequently, using CET has helped to clarify differing results as it contain variables such as access to political information on social media, political knowledge, political interest and policy satisfaction which better explains the concept of youth online political participation on social media, hence decreasing the inconsistencies experienced in previous researches.
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Social Media In E-Governance And Political Participation In Enugu State, Nigeria

Social Media In E-Governance And Political Participation In Enugu State, Nigeria

Studies (Flew, 2005:26; Boyd and Ellisson, 2007) have noted that the possibilities for promoting an expanded conception of democratic political participation through information and communications technologies (ICTs) have been widely observed. Scholars (Nnadozie, 2007:4; Chukwu, 2007:75; Jega and Ibeanu, 2007) have observed that, potential synergies between ICT developments and democratic renewal arise from the two-way, interactive nature of new digital media and their technical enhancement of citizen capacities to access, produce, distribute, share and debate political information made available through digital networks.. In his study From e‐Government to online deliberative democracy, Flew (2005:26), identified six requirements for using new ICTs to enhance the democratic process: (1) widespread and effective access to decision-makers; (2) provision of relevant and timely information; (3) interaction within and between institutionally, politically or geographically distinct networked communities; (4) access to various positions in relation to policy issues; (5) the capacity to register choices, and awareness of the implications of different choices; and (6) evidence that such deliberations have informed actions by governing institutions or elected representatives in relation to those issues. In this study therefore, we examine the social media as the most interactive digital
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Social Media Use, Social Capital, and Political Participation among Nigerian University Students

Social Media Use, Social Capital, and Political Participation among Nigerian University Students

Amidst evidence supporting the mobilization power of social media, there are arguments positing that social media weaken political participation, parti- cularly by limiting citizens to the realm of virtual engagement alone. In a study examining whether reliance on social networking sites predict civic engagement and political participation, Zhang et al. (2010: 75) found that “reliance on social networking sites is significantly related to increased civic participation [non-elec- toral volunteerism and participation in community project] but not to political participation [direct or indirect involvement in election of political official as well as development and implementation of policy].” Examining how younger Asians online use relates to civic activities in Hong Kong, Seoul, Singapore, Taipei and Tokyo, Lin et al. (2010) reported dominance of entertainment use, but added that the youth in these countries discuss public affairs and seek out civic and po- litical information online. They thus concluded on futuristic potential of social media in politically transformation and mobilization of these youths. Ward and De Vreese (2011) also reported that social media create new forms of participa- tion, specifically lifestyle politics and issue-based engagement among UK youths. Olayiwola (2014) offered that Nigeria employed the usage of the social me- dia for political participation and communication during the April 2011 general elections. He posited that key stakeholders in the electoral process, such as the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), politicians and political parties, the electorates, and civil society organizations made extensive use of the social media during the elections. Accordingly, it was observed that INEC used the social media to share information on 2011 elections and to receive feedbacks from the public. Politicians and Political Parties also used social media to con- nect with the voters and canvass for their supports. Similarly, civil societies and voters used social media, particularly Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and WhatsApp to report their experiences at the polls and circulate results from constituencies even before official declaration of the winners. All these evidenced the global acceptability of social media as potent democratic resources, particularly in fled- gling democracies like Nigeria, where the mainstream media are in the firm grip of government and political elites. Hence, we proposed that:
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How Privacy Concerns and Social Media Platform Use Affect Online Political Participation in Germany

How Privacy Concerns and Social Media Platform Use Affect Online Political Participation in Germany

Finally, the strong effect of the frequency of us- ing different social media platforms shows how online political participation is strongly con- nected to social media. It is plausible that many of the activities captured by the dependent vari- able in the regression model take place on social media. However, somewhat surprisingly, some platforms not primarily conceived as contexts for political action, such as YouTube and Snap- chat, had a positive effect on online political par- ticipation, too. For more entertainment-oriented platforms such as YouTube and Snapchat, users might be exposed to political content, even though they are not directly searching for it. Such accidental or incidental exposure effects have been increasingly discussed in literature on political communication (Kim et al., 2013; Tang and Lee, 2013; Valeriani and Vaccari, 2016). Future research might study specific platforms, such as YouTube or Snapchat, in terms of how
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Social Media and Political Participation: A Case Study of Sunyani Municipal

Social Media and Political Participation: A Case Study of Sunyani Municipal

Deliberative democracy is significant in a sense that it offers citizens the opportunity to talk about their preferences. Discourse according to Hill and Hughes (as cited in Wright and Street 2007, p.851) is the backbone for participation as far as democracy and politics are concerned. Deliberative democracy is all about ongoing talks or interactions which concentrates on people’s interest. Plainly, deliberative democracy advance means by which political participation takes place through open discussion about issues. Reasons must be openly given and discussed in suitable forums where participants can have easy access. As citizens, each and every one should have means to have their say about political decisions. There are numerous ways of doing this, for instance writing letters to parliamentarians or for publication in newspapers and protesting among others. Online discussion forums such as social media are tools that have the potential of making deliberations possible for, if not all, most of the people in our societies.
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The Influence of Social Media Towards Student Political Participation During the 2014 Indonesian Presidential Election

The Influence of Social Media Towards Student Political Participation During the 2014 Indonesian Presidential Election

The findings of this research indicate that the level of political participation of the social media users was categorized as good. The result is not surprising as the respondents were students of Social and Political Science Faculty of whom consid- ered to participate in politics is familiar activities. However, most respondents did not maximally use the facilities offered by social media such as easy access to information and communication to support their political participation activities. The findings also indicate that most respondents tend to participate as spectator which is defined as the lowest category in term of types of participation. Furthermore, there was an indication that the respondents were quite susceptible to get affected by smear campaign. Nevertheless, the level of success of political participation shown by the respondents was good. This level of success was identified from the voting usage during the Elec- tion Day and their initiatives to encourage other people around them to do the same.
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The Influence of Social Media Towards Student Political Participation During the 2014 Indonesian Presidential Election

The Influence of Social Media Towards Student Political Participation During the 2014 Indonesian Presidential Election

The findings of this research indicate that the level of political participation of the social media users was categorized as good. The result is not surprising as the respondents were students of Social and Political Science Faculty of whom consid- ered to participate in politics is familiar activities. However, most respondents did not maximally use the facilities offered by social media such as easy access to information and communication to support their political participation activities. The findings also indicate that most respondents tend to participate as spectator which is defined as the lowest category in term of types of participation. Furthermore, there was an indication that the respondents were quite susceptible to get affected by smear campaign. Nevertheless, the level of success of political participation shown by the respondents was good. This level of success was identified from the voting usage during the Elec- tion Day and their initiatives to encourage other people around them to do the same.
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Social media, politics, and young adults : the impact of social media use on young adults’ political efficacy, political knowledge, and political participation towards 2014 Indonesia general election

Social media, politics, and young adults : the impact of social media use on young adults’ political efficacy, political knowledge, and political participation towards 2014 Indonesia general election

In order to measure the impact of social media use for political activities on political efficacy, political knowledge, and political participation, some scales were derived from previous studies. The scales for social media use for political activities on Facebook were based on a study by Vitak et al. (2011). They developed an Index Items for Political Activity on Facebook. This index consisted of 14 items of political activities that can occur through Facebook’s features. At this moment, some features on Facebook have been updated so that only eight items can be used to measure social media use for political activities on Facebook. Those items were posting a status update about politics, giving a comment on their friend’s post about politics, posting or sharing a photo/video/link about politics, writing or sharing a note about politics with their network, joining or leaving a group about politics, clicking “going” for a political event, discussing a political issue on message, and clicking “like” on a political party or politician’s fan page. In addition to Twitter, seven items that have been identified by Tumasjan et al. (2010) were modified for the purpose of this study. These items were posting a tweet about politics, retweeting or quoting a tweet about politics, following a politician or political parties, mentioning a politician or a political party, replying a tweet about politics, joining a political discussion, and joining a political debate. All of these social media use for political activities were measured by a 5-point scale ranging from 1 as never to 5 as very often. Social media use for political activities on Facebook and Twitter were served as an exogenous variable.
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Women Political Participation in Pakistan: Steps towards Reshaping the Political Environment

Women Political Participation in Pakistan: Steps towards Reshaping the Political Environment

The purpose of this research article is to comprehend the political participation of women in Pakistan and historical steps for reshaping the political environment. The functional, structural and institutional barriers have restricted women participation in politics. Women in Pakistan are discouraged to become the part of a male dominating political system. Legislation and constitutional agendas can assure the existing situation. The descriptive and explanatory approach with primary and secondary available data used to assess the women representation in Pakistani politics. The world democracies have ensured the equal political representation without discrimination of male and female. The electoral system should be redesign and restructure to guarantee the women involvement in a political structure according female population ratio. Equality based society would help Pakistan to strengthen and stable the political institutions.
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The Role of Social Media in Political Participation

The Role of Social Media in Political Participation

The rapidly advancing world of information technology affects all spheres of life but none more so than politics and the replacement of authoritarian governance with democratic governance. Easy access to information from around the world promotes liberty, competition and choice. It can also be used to advance respect for the rule of law and human rights and other indices of good governance such as equality and free and credible elections. Use of the new social media enables group thinking to promote concepts such as the independence of the judiciary, the development of civil society, multiparty systems and democratic institutions which are participatory, transparent and accountable. Mr Tambuwal added that the social media challenge the established media by enabling individuals to report their own views on governments. Their ease of access and wide coverage enable wide-spread political participation and such developments in one part of the world can affect other regions very rapidly.
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Social media and political participation among British youth

Social media and political participation among British youth

The rise of social media has been widely interpreted by scholars in an attempt to explain how new efforts to mobilise citizens in political causes have come about given the decline in traditional political participation. Bennett and Segerberg (2012) identified the rise of ‘Digitally Networked Action’ and its impact on the organisation and undertaking of collective action. Collective action is defined as an emphasis on formal organisations to get individuals to contribute to a collective cause when seeking a public good, for example democratic reforms, taking on similarities to that of ‘manifest’ and traditional participation forms. This alone does not explain how citizens that feel so far removed from politics have found ways to mobilise in the pursuit of political causes (Bennett and Segerberg 2012). With recent developments in political participation, that has seen an emphasis on individualisation and personal values to engage in political causes, ‘individualised collective action’ is often organised through digital media technologies (Bennett 2012). To understand this phenomenon, social media as an organising agent is recognised and defined as the ‘logic of connective action’ (Bennett and Segerberg 2012). Citizens can politically participate more easily within this logic due to the eroding of boundaries between public and private; boundaries that are blurred particularly within social media networks which facilitate the crossing of public and private boundaries (Bennett and Segerberg 2012). Participation is self-motivating, where personalised, expressive content is shared through social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter, thus, collective action has been superseded by individual expression and connective action when taking action for political causes (Bennett 2012; Bennett and Segerberg 2012). These networks can form communities which can quickly trigger forms of political action, such as demonstrations (Ahlqvist et al. 2010).
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Social Media Use and Political Participation in China: The Mediating Role of Political Efficacy

Social Media Use and Political Participation in China: The Mediating Role of Political Efficacy

With the development of social media in China, political participation has new implications. According to Gil de Zúñiga, Molyneux, and Zheng (2014), using social media news frequently has an obvious influence on political expression and offline political participation. Although in the Chinese context there is the same amount of free space with western countries, social media also brings more opportunities to Chinese citizens to express and participate in politics (Zhang & Lin, 2014). Zhang and Lin’s (2014) research shows that political activates on social networking sites are positively associated with political participation. Weibo is one of the important platforms that engage citizens common and discuss politics in China. The intensity of use of Weibo will increase users’ intentions to express opinions about politics and government (Chan, Wu, Hao, Xi, & Jin, 2012). Weibo provides a stage that can allow access to information about politics to users, which give them confidence in understanding current political affairs and participating in political discussions (Chan, Wu, Hao, Xi, & Jin, 2012). According to Chen (2017), the frequency of WeChat usage is the predictor of political
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Social Media and the Mobilization of Youths for Socio-Political Participation

Social Media and the Mobilization of Youths for Socio-Political Participation

This study was carried out to examine the effects that the social media is exerting on the participation of Nigerian youths in socio-political issues. This is against the backdrop of long standing exclusion of youths from issues affecting the polity and governance. The study was conducted using the survey method with questionnaires administered to selected respondents. The results showed that large numbers of youths are spending time online, and by participating in social media discussions on socio-political matters affecting the country. They are thus getting informed and raising awareness about different issues through e-publicity and demonstrations, thereby promoting good governance in different ways, like accountability. The study recommends that there should be improved media literacy on the part of avid social media users and activists, in order to make the best use of the innovation for socio-political participation and reduce incidences of false or, malicious information going viral and affecting the society negatively.
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