The term socialmedia is very common these days. Internet based websites and mobile based applications are used to create and share content or to participate in social networking or it can be defined as the collective online communications channels dedicated to community based input, interaction, content sharing and collaboration. Websites and applications dedicated to forums, micro blogging, social networking, social bookmarking and wikis are among different types of socialmedia. In simple words any website which allows users to share their contents, opinions, views and encourage communication is termed socialmedia. Some popular socialmedia sites are Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, Digg, MySpace, Pinterest, Reddit, LinkedIn, Google+, Stumble Upon, Delicious, Scribd, Flickr etc.
Socialmediamarketing is the use of socialmedia platform and websites to promote a product or service. Although the term e- marketing and digital marketing are still dominant in academia, socialmediamarketing is becoming more popular for both practitioners and researchers. Most socialmedia platforms have built-in data analytics tools, which enable companies to track the progress, success, and engagement of ad campaigns. Companies address a range of stakeholders through socialmediamarketing, including current and potential customers, current and potential employees, journalists, bloggers and the general public. On a strategic level, socialmediamarketing includes the management of a marketing compaign governance, setting the scope (e.g. more active or passive use) and the establishment of a firm’s desired socialmedia “culture” and “tone”. When using socialmediamarketing, firms can allow customers and internet users to post users- generated content (e.g. online comments, product reviews etc.) also known as “earned media”, rather than use marketer- prepared advertising copy.
A new generation of online tools, applications and approaches such as blogs, wikis, online communities and virtual worlds, commonly referred to as Web 2.0 or socialmedia, are increasingly attracting the attention of practitioners and, recently, of academics (Davila, et al., 2003). By introducing and using these new communication tools, businesses face different opportunities and challenges. Wright and Hinson (2008) mentioned that due to the use of socialmedia there has been a change in the way organizations communicate with their employees, customers, stockholders, communities, governments and other stakeholders and therefore socialmedia could have an impact on the business processes of organizations. Many business-to-consumer organizations are already actively making use of socialmedia for their marketing strategies; examples of these organizations are Ford, KLM, ING, NS and T-Mobile (Alarcón-del-Amo, et al., 2011). However, it is still not entirely clear in what way and how much socialmedia applications will change the marketing activities for business-to-business organizations. This research will contribute to the process of identification and understanding possibilities for B2B organizations to make use of socialmedia as marketing tool; in addition the use of socialmedia in other business processes, as they are described in the value chain model of Michael Porter (1985), will be explored. Previous academic research concerning socialmedia in B2B organizations has investigated reasons why socialmedia can be used for B2B marketing (Erdoğmuş & Çiçek, 2012), the usage and barriers of social networking sites for B2B organizations (Howe, 2006) and the role of socialmedia in the buyer-seller relationship (Meier & Stormer, 2009). Furthermore, the advantages of socialmediamarketing (Vance, et al., 2009), the role and possibilities of socialmedia in the sharing and creation of customer information and knowledge from the perspective of innovations of B2B organizations (Berthon, et al., 2003) and some web- based communication tools to reach buyers directly are examined (L.-T. Chen, 2013). However, there is only limited research done which focuses on the role of socialmedia in B2B marketing. It is obscure how socialmedia can be used in B2B marketing and in the other business processes, and for that reason of nescience, B2B organizations cannot benefit yet from socialmedia.
Marketing approaches using socialmedia such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram or Line in Japan are attracting attention. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to attempt to categorize privacy issues in such socialmediamarketing. Based on case studies of socialmedia utilization that can be published and interview survey, we proposed a reference frame as a preliminary study. In this study, two types of dichotomy were used for classification. The first axis is that the relationship with customer’s need for social approval and self-esteem. The second axis is from the examination of sociomateliarity in the use of socialmedia.
The advent of the socialmedia has brought about tremendous changes and advancement in the marketing process and has made it much better on the one hand and much worse on the other. However, nowadays, it has been widely accepted that socialmedia is the next big trend in the marketing world and several studies have shown that these media or channels are often more effective than the traditional ones. Since the turn of the century, socialmedia has steadily emerged ahead of the mass media as the most used media. Both print circulation and TV viewership have been falling consistently over the years; for instance, TV viewership has gone down almost 50% since 2002. In contrast, socialmedia has reported massive gains since the early days of MySpace, with socialmedia usage among U.S. adults increasing by 800% over the past eight years (Edwards, 2013).
Socialmedia coupled with electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) communication is very e ﬀ ective and e ﬃ cient in changing consumers’ attitude and behavior towards a product and/or brand (Zhang, Craciun, & Shin, 2010). As compared to word-of-mouth communication(WOM) communication, electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) adver- tising is faster, swifter and has a global reach (Gil de Zúñiga, Jung, & Valenzuela, 2012). In view of its significance from marketing per- spective, it is important to investigate the determinants that a ﬀ ect electronic word- of-mouth (eWOM) communication (Aiello et al., 2012) (M. Y. Cheung, Luo, Sia, & Chen, 2009). Thus the aim of this study is to mea- sure the e ﬀ ect of amophily, social capital, in- terpersonal influence and trust on electron- ic word-of-mouth communication (eWOM) by extending the conceptual framework developed by Chu (2009) in a non-western environment like Pakistan.
As an integrated marketing medium, socialmediamarketing activities effectively enhance value equity by providing novel value to customers that traditional marketingmedia do not usually provide. The brand's socialmedia platforms offers venues for customers to engage insincere and friendly communications with the brand and other users, so the brand's intended actions on the social communication scene positively affect relationship equity and brand equity swell (Kim & Ko, 2012). Socialmediamarketing and brand equity are positively and significantly correlated, socialmediamarketing helps organizations in building positive customer relationships, improving brand image. The building blocks of Socialmedia have positive effect on brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty and perceived quality (Tresna & Wijaya, 2015).Consumers, identify socialmedia as a more trustworthy source of Information compared to the traditional marketing communication tools this allows organizations to integrate socialmediamarketing into their marketing mix not only to communicate with customer but to get the feedback also (Karamian, Nadoushan, & Nadoushan, 2015). There is a statistically significant impact of the dimensions of socialmediamarketing on the brand equity, therefore companies need to focus more on socialmediamarketing and increase its share in marketing mix activities that will in return help companies to generate huge revenues from enhanced brand equity (Abu-Rumman & Alhadid, 2014). (Bruhn, Schoenmueller, & Schafer, 2012) Presented that socialmedia communications strongly influence brand image, firm-created socialmedia communication has an important impact on functional brand image, while user-generated socialmedia communication exerts a major influence on hedonic brand image. (Erdogmus & Cicek, 2012) Presented that advantageous campaigns on socialmedia are the most significant drivers of brand loyalty followed by relevancy of
Abstract: Socialmedia industry is witnessing the exponential growth since last few years. Irrespective of size, nature and industry in which a business is operating, socialmedia has acquired an important place in many business operations. To remain upbeat in the highly competitive market environment, one has to integrate the traditional marketing practices with socialmediamarketing. Marketers are closely looking to tap different opportunities in socialmediamarketing and trying to reap the benefits over competitors. Today is the era of human centric marketing where marketing is not just fulfilling the needs & wants of customers. The modern days marketing is associated with customers not only by satisfying needs but by connecting them with heart & soul. So the sole goal of marketing is not to increase sales or revenue but to acquire more customers and make long lasting relationship. Marketing 3.0 is based on collaborative participation and value creation by customers. This paper is an attempt to throw light on effectiveness of socialmedia in modern day’s value driven marketing or so called marketing 3.0. In this paper analysis of secondary data is done for different socialmediamarketing campaigns. This paper also answers to the question that how socialmedia adds value to industries like Gov. Dept., banking, education and other.
There are many opportunities and challenges today for consumers’ behavior to impact corporate trustworthiness and commitment on social issues. It can range from a groundswell of local organizations and communities to the 'Yes Men's' parity of movies and socialmedia impact on corporate greed. The 'Yes Man' used socialmedia to release a fake press release for a Chevron ad campaign that included a commitment and reference to a years-long lawsuit in Ecuador, where Chevron is accused of being responsible for $27 billion of oil pollution clean-up costs (Zax, 2010). Major magazines and network outlets were duped by the hoax and had to retract statements made by the initial release. The URL was so close to the actual company web address that it was missed by many. This was a testament to the contagious speed of viral marketing and value of social network outlets to bring the latest news to millions of people in the shortest time possible with more impact and less cost than conventional forms of promotion.
Socialmedia is a media for social interaction as a superset beyond social communication. There are pros and cons to the use of socialmedia. One most important advantage is the online sharing of knowledge and information among the different groups of people. This online sharing of information also promotes the increase in the communication skills among the people especially among the learners/students of educational institutions. There is also a flip side to the use of socialmedia tools. Sometimes, such tools are misused by people which leads to interference into one‘s privacy. Such instances can lead to dangerous proportions keeping in view the ethical aspect of the use of such media. The socialmedia tools have virtually bought people close to one another specially those living in far off places. Socialmediamarketing consists of the attempt to use socialmedia to persuade consumers that one's company, products and/or services are worthwhile.
The major advantage of shopping online is being able to quickly seek out deals for items or services provided by many different vendors (though some local search engines do exist to help consumers locate products for sale in nearby stores). Search engines, online price comparison services and discovery shopping engines can be used to look up sellers of a particular product or service (Novak Thomas P, Donna L Hofmann and Yiu-Fai Yung, 2000) . According to the multiple regression analysis, it was found that Socialmedia ads were influenced respondents while making their shopping list and purchases. Also mobile marketing content, message credibility, authenticity, its relevancy to weekly shopping along with human supports through chats and customer service (Empathy) and consistent quality and performance (Reliability) can make the respondents more frequent shoppers and loyal to SMEs and neighborhood stores. These findings are consistent with literature review and it was established that through socialmedia and mobile marketing, SMEs and neighborhood stores can connect with their customers with latest updates on new product arrivals, price discount, and weekly bundles of product at discounted prices .
Viral marketing spreads thanks to people’s natural motive to communicate and inform other people in their networks about the things they find interesting or useful. Viral marketing is a tactic that aims to communicate the planned contents to a specific target audience in the most effective and sincere manner by using communication channels. Interactive applications and especially videos, advergames, pictures, audio files, presentations and even text contents are the most important tools of viral marketing. These products become marketing tools with the addition of commercial messages. A viral ad can be categorized into two: The first one is a video film, which is created by a user and creates a positive impact incidentally on a brand and shared by this user with other users on socialmedia. The second one is a company having a professional team to make and spread a viral advertisement. However, what is important here and what is different from traditional commercial films is that the viral ad is created in a way that seems to be created by an amateur user (Quoted from Eckler, Bolls, 2011 by: Uraltaú, BahadÕrlÕ, 2012). These video films interest and are shared by users. Thus, brand name starts to be known by other users.
UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE. Potential of the SocialMedia as instruments of higher education marketing 13 methods are available for use in segmentation studies, divided into two main groups: hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering methods. Both have their strengths and weaknesses and differ in the way the clusters are formed. Hierarchical clustering is an agglomerative method, starting with one case and combining the cases to form clusters until one large cluster is obtained. Non-hierarchical clustering partitions the sample, connects starting points to each partition and assigns cases to the partitions. These methods may produce different clusters, partly because during the process they require substantial input from the researcher (Hoek et al., 1996). The two-stage clustering approach proposed by Punj and Stewart (1983) formed the basis for the cluster analysis performed in this study. This approach was chosen because it uses both a hierarchical and a non-hierarchical clustering and therefore minimizes some of the disadvantages of each method. The first stage used hierarchical clustering to find the number of clusters and the starting points for the clusters (i.e. centroids). The second stage used the first stage outcomes as basis for the non-hierarchical clustering. The reason for adding this first stage to a non-hierarchical clustering method was because the latter is sensitive to the starting centroids, and because the number of clusters has to be determined prior to its use. The first stage provides the needed information. Ward’s method was used as the hierarchical clustering technique for stage (1), and the non-hierarchical K-means clustering method was used for stage (2) because it is frequently used for market segmentation purposes (Krieger & Green, 1996). An overview of the method followed is given in figure (4). The method can be divided into the following steps:
Sport marketing is the specific application of marketing principles and processes to sports products and services. In 2014 the biggest sports event in the world, the FIFA World Cup, took place in Brazil. Billions of spectators around the world saw Germany win the trophy in Rio de Janeiro for the fourth time in history. Yet unlike in previous World Cups, conversation was not only taking place at the numerous public viewings which were held in open spaces like bars and restaurants. For the entire tournament socialmedia like Facebook or Twitter were playing a dominant role in all aspects. With 672 million tweets on Twitter and three billion conversations on Facebook, this was the most social World Cup as well as the most social mega sports event so far. It did not matter whether it were users, athletes or companies, everyone was trying to catch up on the conversation to be informed or inform others about their opinion or latest news. This paper analyzes the implementation of socialmediamarketing during mega sports events with a focus on adidas’ and Nike’s socialmedia campaigns in the frame of the FIFA World Cup 2014 in Brazil. The analysis shows that socialmediamarketing in the frame of mega sports events gains importance. Those companies finding topics that affect people personally with a relationship to their products achieve success through socialmediamarketing.
With regards to the traditional approaches of marketing, SocialMedia platforms allows communication and interaction among varieties of people which in turn helps in building brand loyalty concluding to better brand awareness, brand recognition and brand recall of the products and services and a thread of online followers of the same. Researchers have claimed that marketing strategies including promotions, marketing intelligence, public relations, consumer and product management and marketing interactions must explore and leverage socialmedia platforms because of its increasing inclining curve of users, also it is observed that customers have a tendency to consider opinions and information communicated by other similar customers rather than the information released directly by the producers, this takes place because customers know that the producers have the hidden interest of increasing their sales but if a trusted third party provides a feedback of a product used, there is no hidden interest these similar customers have which therefore makes them trustworthy.
long range interpersonal communication have turned out to be progressively obscured. Numerous internet business sites bolster the component of social login where clients can sign on the sites utilizing their interpersonal organization personalities, for example, their Facebook or Twitter accounts. Clients can likewise post their recently bought items on microblogs with connections to the web based business item website pages. This venture goes for a novel answer for cross- webpage icy begin item proposal, which intends to prescribe items from internet business sites to clients at interpersonal interaction destinations in coldstart circumstances, an issue which has once in a while been investigated some time recently. A noteworthy test is the manner by which to use learning separated from interpersonal interaction locales for cross-site chilly begin item suggestion. This venture propose to utilize the connected clients crosswise over person to person communication destinations and web based business sites (clients who have long range informal communication accounts and have made buys on online business sites) as an extension to guide client's interpersonal interaction components to another element portrayal for item suggestion. In particular, this venture learning both clients and items include portrayals (called client embeddings and item embeddings, individually) from information gathered from online business sites utilizing repetitive neural systems and after that apply an altered angle boosting trees strategy to change client's person to person communication highlights into client embeddings. We then build up a component based framework factorization approach which can use the learnt client embeddings for frosty begin item proposal.
Get the message across. In my opinion, library use of web 2.0 platforms should be aiming to accomplish the following: add value in order to increase engagement so that you can deliver key messages to a wider audience. In other words, make your Twitter feed (or whatever) more interesting so more people follow you, so that more people then get the really important messages you want to market about your library. The added value parts (the replies, the links to external content and so on) are what give your socialmedia presences personality, and the personality is what draws in more followers. Then when you have the really important messages to impart (new opening hours, new collections, new services or whatever you really need to convey) there are more members of your captive audience. If on the other hand you only communicate those really important messages, people will think
The nature of overlap in the network connections between two users can reveal the motivation to share content. For example, followees of a user can have a high persuasive influence on the user (Haenlein 2013; Hall and Valente 2007) and can represent user’s interests and expertise. Furthermore, people tend to share content that signals their expertise (Packard & Wooten, 2013). Thus, more common followees between a sender-receiver pair may suggest similar expertise and higher propensity for a receiver to share the content obtained from the sender. Likewise, more common followers between the sender and the receiver may suggest that their followers share a similar taste. In this case, a receiver may consider content to be more suitable for her audience and may have a higher propensity to share content. Additionally, a higher number of common mutual followers may represent higher trust (Burt 2001; Granovetter 1973) and social bonding (Alexandrov et al. 2013; Ho and Dempsey 2010; Travis 2002; Wiatrowski et al. 1981) and may also increase the propensity of a receiver to share information. Finally, as the activities of users on socialmedia platform are visible to others, factors such as uniqueness of content can play a role. It is well documented that users (consumers) have a strong desire for uniqueness and sharing novel content can satisfy such a need (Alexandrov et al. 2013; Cheema and Kaikati 2010; Ho and Dempsey 2010; Lovett et al. 2013). Thus, if the information to be communicated is not novel, a receiver will be less likely to do so.
Socialmedia is a group of internet applications which build on the ideological and technological foundations of web and which also allow the creation and exchange of user generated contents. With the rise of socialmedia, power seems to have shifted from marketing managers to individuals and communities. By relying on the value creation perspective from a knowledge economy viewpoint, the main aim of my paper is to verify if the introduction of socialmedia may be considered as an evaluations or a revaluation of relationship marketing, given that socialmedia have empowered users to connect, share and collaborate by creating spheres of influence that have fundamentally altered the way in which marketers engage in influencing activities. Users are, indeed, no longer passive participants but they play an active role in the media process since they have become an important and productive source of content on the web. By focusing on the customers, socialmedia provide them with more effective and affordable communication tools that enable them to participate in value adding and marking mix decisions by connecting and interacting not only with seller but also with others stakeholders. The interactive nature of socialmedia is likely to lead to the blurring of the role integrity of sellers and customers by expanding the role of customers and including them in the creation of value, thus leading them to become co-creators and co-producers. Identification and description, according to an economic managerial perspective, of the constitutive elements of a theoretical framework which allows us to analyze the relationship between relationship marketing and socialmediamarketing.